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Full text of "The Connecticut magazine"

GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



m^EN.SQUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01738 9443 

GENEALOGY 
974.6 
C7698A 
1907, pt. 



/ 



/ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/connecticutmagazv11p2hart 




Autumn in the Connecticut Hills— Sunset 

at Castle Craig on the Peaks of 

Meriden— Photographed by John 

Gudebrod— Art Cover from 

Mills of C. H. Dexter & 

Sons, at Windsor 

Locks 



Cbe 

Connecticut 
magazine 




E. L. PEABODY, Proprietor. LAKEVILLE, CONN. 



The Eden of Connecticut 

Lakeville, in the Litchfield County Hills 
The gateway to the Berkshire Hills 

The Wononsco House 

LAKEVILLE, CONN. 

Affords every comfort for Its guests, han accomodations 
for about eighty people. Large, airy parlors, well lighted 
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Lake Wononscopomoc is within a Stone's Throw of the Hotel. 

Boating, Bathing, Fishing, Golf, Tennis, Croquet, Pool, etc. 

FURN'SHED COTTAGES TO RENT FOR SEASON 



Who is (£oing to Print youR ^en5?ilogy? 

WRITE FOR ESTIMATES TO-DAY 

The finest editions at the lowest prices consistent 

with quality and accuracy are done from the press of 

THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE AT NEW HAVEN AND HARTFORD 



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DUPLEX PHONOGRAPH Co., 316 ft— h. Kalamazoo, Mich. 



Have you Norton's "GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT" in Your library? 

Any Public or Private Library in 

Connecticut is neglected if it does not contain this volume. 
There are only a few copies left — Write for special price to-day 
THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE COMPANY, New Haven and Hartford 



68655. 



Tiffany & Co. 

Fifth Avenue and 37th Street, New York 



The following Advertisement 
from Appleton's Guide of 1 863 

so fully states the policy of Tiffany #; Co. to-day that 
they reproduce it below as indicating the business 
methods which have characterized the house since it 
was founded seventy years ago 

"Tiffany & Co. in calling attention to their stock, beg to 
present to the notice of their friends and the public the 
following facts : that their importations and manufactures 
in Gold and Silver comprise a more extensive variety 
than any other house in the same line ; that their foreign 
connections, of which their Paris house is the focal cen- 
tre, give them extraordinary facilities for the selection 
of their general stock, and the execution of special 
orders; that it is their determination as it is their 
interest, to make reasonable charges as prominent a 
feature of their establishment as the beauty and variety 
of their stock " 

Fifth Avenue Newark 

Tiffany & Co. 1907 Blue Book— a compact catalogue without illustrations; 621 pages of concise 
descriptions with range of prices of jewelry, silverware, clocks, bronzes, potter \, glassware and 
other objects, suitable for wedding presents or other gifts.— Blue Book sent upon request 



Please mention "The Connecticut Magazine" when patronising our adv< 



The Kind of Rugs to Buy and Where to Buy Them 




Sectional view of showroom where the finest assortment of Oriental rugs in the country can be found. 

In the purchase of your Oriental Rugs, it is a wise precaution to select a firm of the best repi 
tation and of the widest experience, and make your selection from a large and varied assortment. 

By experience, acquaintance and study, people have come to value Oriental rugs for their wort 
and usefulness; they must be perfect, straight, and flat, the colors in harmony, th^ designs in taste 
and the fabric clean and wholesome. 

Moreover, rug connoisseurs are proud of their possessions and want them protected against th 
ravages of moths. To such people it must be assuring and comforting to know that about fifteen year 
ago I discovered a process by which to clean my own rugs, without the slightest harm to the rug, m 
moving all the greasy smell which attracts the moths. By taking out this greasy odor 1 guarante 
them absolutely moth proof. 

All the rugs in my stock, no matter how old or antique, are put in perfect condition before goin 
on sale. The general color scheme of the rugs I keep are in soft tones, and mostly small and harmc 
nious designs so much sought after. 

I have been in the Oriental Rug business in Hartford upward of twenty-two years, and carry onl! 
the finest and most perfect Oriental Rugs. Although located in Hartford, comparatively a sma 
city, I have furnished beautiful Oriental Rugs for homes in many of the larger cities in this countr) 
beside hotels, one of which is the "Waldorf-Astoria" in New York, which is furnished throughou 
by me with Oriental Rugs. 

I have no branch stores or connection with Oriental Rug dealers in any city. If you are ij 
terested in this class of rugs and cannot call personally to make your selections, write to me sendin 
your house plans or giving nearest sizes, general color scheme, and approximate prices of rugs yo 
wish to purchase, and I will try to suit your taste and wants, sending rugs on approval when satis 
factory references are given, or I will call and see you personally. 

SAMUEL B. DOrMGI-IIAIV, 75 Rearl Street, Hartford, Conn. 

SULTAN RUG FASTENERS SAVE YOU 

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Address SAMUEL B. DONCHIAN, Fastener Dept. 75 Pearl St., Hartford, Conn 




Please mention "The flnnnAntinnt Macro. 



ljere BeglnnetD tfte third Part of the ggeggj Book 

Showing the manner of Eife and the 

Attainment thereof in the 

Commonwealth of a 

Diligent People 

/ 



EDITED BY 



Wl4UtJU4> /^ttrzJLas^TTl&lt^ 



The Connecticut Magazine 



NUMBER 3 THIRD QUARTER NINETEEN HUNDRED AND SEVEN VOLUME XI 

An Illustrated Quarterly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various 
phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. 
Published in four beautiful books to the annual volume. Following is con- 
tents of this edition, generously illustrated and ably written. Editorial de- 
partment in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford — Business department 
at 671-679 Chapel Street, New Haven. 



ART COVER— Autumn in the Connecticut Hills— Sunset at Castle Craig on the Peaks of Meriden— 
Photographed by John Gudebrod 

THE BUILDERS— An American Poem by Judge Daniel Donahoe, of Middletown, Connecticut, Author of 

"The Message 1 ' 345 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN FINANCE— The Ten Commandments in Business— Written by the 

Editor of the "Wall Street Journal" an authority on American Finance— Sereno D. Pratt 351 

ANNIVERSARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE— Ter-Centenary of the Building of the "Virginia," the First 
Ship Constructed on the Western Continent— Centennial of the "Clermont"— Rise of the American Mer- 
chant-Marine and the Development of Navigation since John Fitch of Connecticut and Robert Fulton 
— ByC. Seymour Bullock 361 

THE FRIENDSHIP OF A THEOLOGIAN— Recollections of Dr. Leonard Bacon, one of the most Eminent 
Clergymen in America half a century ago— His influence over Lincoln— A Founder of the "New York 
Independent"— Established "The New Englander"— Fifty-seven years a Pastor in New Haven, Con- 
necticut—Contributed by Franklin S. Bradley 399 

A CONNECTICUT SOLDIER IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR-Life of Gideon Hotchkiss, born in 1716 
at Cheshire, Connecticut— His good works in War and Peace— By Reverend Sherrod Soule of Nauga- 
tuck, Connecticut 409 

THE CHARTER OAK— Poem by Lydia Boiles Newcomb of New Haven, Connecticut— Illustrated with 

drawing by Charles L. N. Camp.-. 417 

STABILITY— Poem by Frank Lorenzo Hamilton, Meriden, Connecticut.. 420 

TRAVEL IN AMERICA-Series of Western Landscape Views 421 

AN ANECDOTE OF COUNT ROCHAMBEAU IN CONNECTICUT— A true story of the gallant Frenchman 
who was fighting for American Independence— By Susan E. M. Jocelyn, of New Haven, Connecticut, a 
daughter of Nathaniel Jocelyn and lineal descendent of the heroine 425 

"I KNEW THERE WAS A SPOT LIKE THIS"-Poem by Anna J. Granniss of Plainville, Connecticut 428 

FIRST DENTAL COLLEGE IN THE WORLD-Its development from the Ancients and its foundation 
as a part of the Great American Educational System— The works of Dr. Horace Hayden of Windsor— 
By Dr. James McManus of Hartford, Connecticut, an authority on the surgical science of dentistry 429 

HOME— Poem by William Tyler Olcott, Norwich, Connecticut 438 

THE LETTERS OF EARLY AMERICAN WARRIORS-Personalities of great Americans of a century ago as 
shown by their correspondence— General Jackson and his intimate friends in the days of the American 
Republic— By Mabel Cassine Holman of Saybrook, Connecticut 439 



Entered at the Post-Offloe at New Haven, Connecticut, as Mail Matter of the Second Class.— This Edition for THIRD 
QUARTER of 1907— July, August, September. 



The Connecticut Magazine 



MUMBER 3 THIRD QUARTER NINETEEN HUNDRED AND SEVEN VOLUME XI 

Connecticut is the only Commonwealth in the Union that for ten years 
tias contributed to American history and literature through a state publica- 
;oin of the highest quality. In collaboration with the recently inaugurated 
'Journal of American History " extensive researches will be made and the 
•esults published simultaneously in both publications./ It is essential that all 
>ons and daughters of Connecticut should secure these invaluable researches 
;hrough The Connecticut Magazine. 



k-NCIENT MINATURES OF CHARLOTTE PENWICK AND EBENEZER JACKSON OF THE REVOLU- 
TIONARY PERIOD IN AMERICA— Originals in possession of Mr. Charles Eben Jackson of Middle- 
town, Connecticut 

ro OUR ANCESTRESS, HUMILITY— Poem by Sarah E. L. Case of Hartford, Connecticut 448 

MEMOIRS OF A CONNECTICUT PATRIOT-Life story of James Morris as told in his own manuscript- 
Experiences of a Litchfield County man in American Revolution— His Eminence as a Lecturer and a 
Pioneer in the Education of Women— Original Manuscript now in Possession of His Great-Grand- 
Daughter, Mrs. Washington Choate of Greenwich, Connecticut 449 

k WE ALL AS LEAVES DO FADE"— Poem by Lewis Sprague Mills of New Haven, Connecticut 45<; 

>ILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO CROSS THE AMERICAN CONTINENT— Identification of the Indian 
Girl who led the Lewis and Clark Expedition Over the Rocky Mountains in their Unparalleled Journey 
into the Mysteries of the Western World— Recognition of Sacajawea as the Woman who Guided the 
Explorers to the New Golden Empire— With nine reproductions from sculpture and rare prints— By 
Grace Raymond Hebard, Ph.D., of the University of Wyoming 459 

rHE DARK RIVER— A Poem by Elizabeth H. Jocelyn Cleaveland— Mrs. Cleaveland is Eighty-Three Years 
of Age and the Daughter of the Distinguished Portrait-Painter, Nathaniel Jocelyn 470 

tp AMERICAN'S EXPERIENCE IN THE BRITISH ARMY-Ancient Jarvis Manuscript of the American 
Revolution— Most Important Documentary Evidence of its kind in Existence— Accurate Transcript 
from Recently Discovered Journal of Colonel Stephen Jarvis of Danbury, Connecticut— Original Manu- 
script Now in Possession of Honorable Charles M. Jarvis of New Britain, Connecticut 47? 

I VIOLIN'S SONG— Poem by Katherine Gilman Grou of Hartford, Connecticut M 

rHE NETTLETONS IN AMERICA— Early Immigration to the New World— Founding an Influential Family 
on the Western Continent— Settlements in Connecticut Relating Especially to Samuel Nettleton of 
Branford and his Descendants— Compiled by Donald Lines Jaoobus of New Haven, Connecticut 491 

5RIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN HISTORICAL DATA AND STORIES IN ANCESTRY, GENEALOG- 
ICAL DEPARTMENT-Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 499 

JONSOLATION— Poem by Henry Sherman Smart 504 



SUBSCRIPTION $2.00 A VOLUME SINGLE NUMBERS 50 CENTS 

ifddress manuscript to The Connecticut Magazine Company, Hartford, Connecticut— Address all business communications 
to publication office at New Haven, Connecticut— Cepyright 1907— By The Connecticut Magazine Company 




Ancient Miniature of 

Ebenezer Jackson, Senior, 

a Gentleman of the 

First Days of the American Republic 



Original in Possession of 

Mr. Charles Eben Jackson 

of Middletown, Connecticut 

(see page 439) 



THE 

Connecticut Magazine 

VOLUME XI AUTUMN OF 1907 NUMBER 3 



ClK Builders— Tin American Poem 

BY 
JUDGE DANIEL J. DONAHOE 



Middletown, Connecticut 



THE bloom of summer shines upon the world 
In changing glory ; over field and grove 
Floats a soft breathing, and a voice of joy 
Rises from hill and valley. Every stream 
Mirrors the beauty both of earth and sky, 
And, murmurous of music, runneth on 
Above the shallows ; while against the sun. 
Silent and broad, the curving river gleams 
Like a great saber, from some giant hand 
Cast, 'mid the cloven hills, and flashing lies, 
A symbol of eternal power and peace. 

But not alone the granite hills that stand 
Against the ocean, and the river's flood 
Moving in majesty, make manifest 
The power that guards the nation. On each hand 
Our eyes are blessed with marvels that bespeak 
Man's greatness, and the sovereignty he bears 
O'er nature's forces. Like a willing slave, 
The fettered lightning bows unto his needs, 
And trained to harmless toil, obeys his will. 
The streams that leap in laughter down the hills 
Are caught and harnessed to the restless wheels 
That sing in ceaseless industry; while clouds, 
Rising above the myriad-windowed mills 
In folds of light, show where the strength of steam 
Makes great the cities with the night of toil. 

Thus is the power of labor multiplied, 

And thus unto the toiler's hand brings home, 

As guerdon of his skill, unbounded wealth, 

And opportunity wide as the stars ; 

While peace, with shining footsteps, through the land 



.545 



Gbe Scorning the broader Brotherhood of Christ, 

ttiiil&ers And swollen with Privilege, in robes of gold, 

The priest of Mammon lifts his impious face, 
And sends his proud voice echoing through the skies. 

God of the golden horn, 

Bright in thy golden rays; 
God from whose hand is bom 
All that our lives adorn, — 
God of the golden horn, 

Thee we adore and praise. 
Thou that art proud and great, 

Honor the great and proud; 
Lift up our souls elate; 
Keep us to rule the state! 
Thou that art proud and great, 

Hear us; our heads are bowed. 

Ruler of wealth and ease, 
Keep us in ease and wealth; 

Poverty, toil, disease; — 

Save us from ills like these; 

Ruler of wealth and ease, 

Bless us with peace and health. 

God of the golden horn, 
Thee we adore and praise; 

Safe on thy strength upborne, 

Lead us from need and scorn; 

God of the golden horn, 

Guide us through golden days. 

Nor comes less danger from the wretch, whose fare 

Is with the beast. The innocent toiler, stung 

By hunger's fangs, may grow more ravenous 

Than tiger in the jungle. In his soul 

The wrong may rankle, and break forth in fire 

Whose flame shall scorch the heavens. When the cry 

Rose from the rabid masses in the streets 

Of Paris, reason slept ; and nought could save 

The crown of privilege from the guillotine. 

How shall injustice thrive more safely here, 

And walk with steps impune upon the neck 

Of prostrate industry? Beware! the hour 

Of reckoning comes and danger's signal flies ! 

Have ye not heard the shout of wild despair 

That rises from the slums ? Your hand can save 

Only by lifting up with tenderness 

And weighing in the balances of Right 

The portion due to labor. 

All too long 
Justice has been delayed. The dens of crime, 
Where day is turned to night, and sin becomes 
The stay of hunger, threaten to destroy 



The glory of your building. If unmoved Hbc 

By reason and pure justice, let your fear fiufltera 

Arouse your souls to honor. Moloch's sons, 
A hideous host, are in your temple now, 
And loud in adoration. Hear their hymn ! 

Hear us, O God of Shame, 

Moloch! zve call thy name, 
And seek thy evil service, power divine! 

To thee we bend the knee; 

We look for help to thee; 
Crushed in the mire of sin, our souls are thine. 

Thou baneful deity, . 

We sacrifice to thee I 

Our children; soul and body they are thine! 

Through long and weary years, 

Through misery and tears, 
They bow beneath thy influence unbenign. 

What boots it, loathsome god, 
To feel the cruel rod, 
Unless we gain the pleasures that zve seek? 
'Mid drudgery and grime 

We find our good in crime, 
With flinty hearts and bloody hands that reek. 

Not out of gilded palaces shall come 

Abiding righteousness ; nor shall we seek 

An uplift from the rotting tenements. 

These are alike sure tokens of disease 

That warn the nation of impending death. 

Not out of these our dreams of grandeur come ; 

But from the farmsteads and the toilers' homes, 

Scattered like new-blown roses o'er the hills, 

And through the sounding valleys, where the streams 

Roar through their channels, loud with cheerful toil. 

Out of such homes may wisdom hear the voice 

Of freedom chanting hymns of sacred peace ; 

Out of such homes alone the call shall lead 

To honor's court, where even-handed right 

Demands that crime, in hovel or in hall, 

Shall suffer equal shame. The hour requires 

Strong men, brave men of wisdom and of will 

To break the sleep of justice. Let her rise 

And render unto every man his due, 

Both interest and wages, while the land, 

With all the unbought gifts of bounteous heaven, 

Shall bear the nation's burden. 

This must come ; 
For only by its coming may we hope 
To build aright our temple's holy walls 
x-\nd rear its hallowed altars ; only thus 



£be The law of love shall fill its ample space 

3BttiR>er0 With such effulgence as can never pale. 

Then labor shall uplift a thousand homes, 
True shrines of godliness and liberty, 
Where now the castle of the millionaire 
Usurps with gorgeous insolence the land, 
And holds wide acres in dead idleness. 
Out of the slums pale children shall be brought 
To rise and run in new-found life and joy, 
To play like the young lambs among the fields, 
And sing like birds under the blue heaven. 
The haunts of pestilence and poverty, 
Where beggared merit oft in hunger weeps, 
With dens of degradation, sin and death, 
Like the rich robber's hold shall be brought low 
And the pure winds of heaven shall breathe thereon. 
The city streets and the wide country-side 
Shall sweeten like flower-gardens in God's air ; 
And men shall lift their faces to the stars, 
Unscathed by wrong, guiltless of infamy. 

Then shall our hearts be lifted up to heaven 

When we behold the bloom upon the hills ; 

And to the voice of gladness from the vales 

Our souls shall swell in answer. Evermore 

The river in its silent course shall gleam, 

Forever swell along the echoing skies 

A symbol of eternal power and peace. 

Then from the earth shall rise, in thunder-tones, 

The blessings of the ransomed multitudes ; 

Forever swell along the echoing skies, 

The song of neither arrogance nor shame, 

But a true hymn of glory unto God, 

From souls strong with the brotherhood of love. 

O God of life and love and light, 
We send our voice in song to thee; 

Thy hand hath led us through the night, 
Thy power hath raised and made us free. 

Be still our guide, our strength, our stay; 

Blest by Thy name from shore to shore, 
To Thee we turn both night and day, 

From humbled hearts thy grace implore. 

Let justice, truth and love abound; 

Keep us as brothers, hand in hand; 
Be neither fear nor falsehood found, 

Nor greed nor hunger mar the land. 

A ransomed nation, strong and free, 
Let grateful love our aims upraise; 

God of our fathers, unto Thee 
We send our songs in holy praise. 



DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN FINANCE 

ITS MORAL EFFECT ON AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP— THE DEMOC- 
RACY OF NEGOTIABLE SECURITIES— LIBERTY AND THE 
MIGHTY ECONOMIC PROBLEM— THE TEN COMMANDMENTS IN 
BUSINESS-THIS IS THE CENTENNIAL OF SAVINGS BANKS 



BY 



SERENO D. PRATT 



Mr. Pratt is the Editor of the "Wall Street Journal," the American authority on finance. His observations are 
here officially recorded from the original manuscript which he contributes to "The Connecticut Magazine." The 
paper was first read before the American Institute of Bank Clerks at Hartford./ Mr. Pratt then entitled it "The Ten 
Commandments and the Stock Exchange." He confesses that it is a sermc/n on modern economic problems rather 
then historical research. Mr. Pratt writes with a lifelong intimacy with his subject and his applications of the moral 
principles involved in American business development. The introductory remarks on The Centenary of Savings 
Banks are by Representative White of Massachusetts. — Editor 



THIS is the centennial year of 
the savings banks. In one 
hundred years a system has 
been built up that throughout 
the world is notable for stability and 
conservatism. 

The Duke of Wellington once said 
when somebody proposed a savings 
bank plan for the British Army that 
if Tommy Atkins had money to spare 
it was time to reduce his pay. But 
that was not the sentiment of ad- 
vanced people of his day. The be- 
ginnings of the savings banks is a 
story of humanitarian efforts. Rev- 
erend Joseph Smith, in 1798, with the 
support of two wealthy parishioners 
at Wendover, started a system of re- 
ceiving from members of his congre- 
gation any sum from twopence up, to 
be returned at Christmas with one- 
third of the whole added as interest. 
Mrs. Priscilla Wakefield, starting, in 

I 1 799, her famous scheme for the ben- 
efit of women and children in the vil- 
lage of Tottenham, which was after- 
ward regularly organized under the 
name of the Charitable Bank. 

Just 100 years ago this winter, the 
whole plan of the modern savings 
bank was outlined in a speech in the 
House of Commons by a Mr. Whit- 
bread. His clear-sighted formulation 
began the system of which we know. 
America was not far behind Eng- 



land in the development of the benefi- 
cent scheme. If 1907 marks the one 
hundredth anniversary of modern 
savings, it is also the ninetieth anni- 
versary of the opening for business of 
the earliest American savings bank. 
The Provident Institution for Sav- 
ings, Boston, was incorporated De- 
cember 13, 1816, and began to receive 
accounts a few weeks later. 

From then on one finds an interest- 
ing story of the devotion and self-sac- 
rifice by busy Americans, who have 
voluntarily taken charge of funds 
which they have, save in the most ex- 
ceptional instances, regarded as a 
trust rather than as an investment. 
In one of the first advertisements of 
the Provident Institution for Savings 
it is stated : "The trustees will take no 
emolument or pay for their services, 
having undertaken solely to premote 
the interest of the city and of the per- 
sons above described who may put 
their money therein." That has I 
the prevailing spirit in savings bank 
management down to this day. 

After the immediate success of the 
Provident was assured numer 
other institutions of the same kind 
were started in New England. A 
of these have continued in their hon- 
orable career down to this t 
Among those that soonest op< 
their doors to depositors were: [fi 



35 2 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN FINANCE 



tution for Savings in the town of 
Portland and vicinity, 1819, not or- 
ganized; Savings Bank of Newport, 
Rhode Island, 1819; Providence, 
Rhode Island, Institution for Savings, 
1819; Society for Savings, Hartford, 
Connecticut, 1819; Institution for 
Savings in Newburyport, 1820; 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Sav- 
ings Bank, 1823; Institution for Sav- 
ings in Roxbury, 1825 ; New Bed- 
ford Institution for Savings, 1825 ; 
Lynn Institution for Savings, 1826; 
Provident Institution for Savings in 
Taunton, 1827; Springfield Institu- 
tion for Savings, 1827 ; Institution for 
Savings in Haverhill, 1828; Worces- 
ter County Institution for Savings, 
1828; Provident Institution for Sav- 
ings, Salisbury and Amesbury, 1828; 
Fall River Institution for Savings, 
1828; Plymouth Institution for Sav- 
ings, 1829; Provident Institution for 
Savings, Gloucester, 183 1 ; Institu- 
tion for Savings, Fairhaven, 1832 ; 
Windham, Vermont, Provident Insti- 
tution for Savings, 1846. 



An ingenious example of the adver- 
tising of the early nineteenth century 
is to be found in a little drama, a copy 
of which is bne of the treasures of the 
Boston Public Library, called "The 
Brothers, or Consequences; A Story 
of What Happens Every Day." It 
was designed, as the name indicates, 
to be acted in the village Lyceum or 
Town Hall. By showing what hap- 
pened to the family of the unthrifty 
brother it was supposed to induce peo- 
ple to make regular deposits with 
the Provident Institution for Savings. 

With the safeguarding exercised by 
the law, and the personal devotion dis- 
played by trustees who receive no 
compensation for their services, no 
department of modern finance has 
been freer from suspicion or reproach. 
Even in the early decades of the nine- 
teenth century the savings banks were 
noted for their safe and conservative 
management. Savings banks^ while 
needing supervision, as every human 
institution must, have never had to be 
drastically reformed. 



BANKS and stock exchanges 
were born at the very time 
when the world, shaking off 
the shackles of the old feudal 
system, leaped into the modern con- 
ception of liberty. With national 
wealth represented by ownership of 
land there was aristocracy. With 
national wealth represented by own- 
ership of negotiable securities there 
is democracy. Dean Swift, writing 
at the time of the South Sea bubble, 
lamented the fact that owners of the 
land no longer had their old authority 
over the government. The commer- 
cial class, the bankers, the merchants, 
the speculators and promoters began 
to take the lead in the affairs of state. 
The aristocracy of birth and land be- 



gan to give way to the democracy of 
trade and the money market. 

Thus the history of banks, corpo- 
rations and stock exchanges which 
are the mightiest financial products of 
modern civilization, is closely allied to 
the growth of republican political in- 
stitutions; and it is noteworthy that 
the two nations — England and the 
United States — where popular repre- 
sentative government is most ad- 
vanced, have developed to the highest 
degree of efficiency the systems of 
credit and investment. 

Is there anything more democratic 
in form at least than the stock corpo- 
ration? Its ownership is represented 
by shares of stock that may be held by 
hundreds and in some cases are held 



ITS MORAL EFFECT ON AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP 353 



by thousands of persons. These 
stockholders are like the citizens of a 
little republic. They vote — or have 
the right to vote — for a Board of Di- 
rectors which is the congress of the 
republic. These directors elect a 
president who is the chief executive 
of the republic. The parallelism be- 
tween the corporation and the form 
of our government is absolute. Those 
who attack our corporations are apt 
to overlook this fact. In attacking 
the corporation they are, in a meas- 
ure, indicting the nature of the very 
government under which they live. 

Banks and stock markets are im- 
portant branches of the immense sys- 
tem of transportation by which the 
world is being unified, by which 
boundary lines and race distinctions 
are made to appear less vital and by 
which peace is promoted, trade inter- 
nationalized, tyranny overthrown and 
liberty crowned. The stock market 
is the freest thing in the world to en- 
ter, though it may be costly to get 
out. It is a great leveller. It widens 
opportunity and gives the common 
man the same chance for development 
that formerly was monopolized by the 
landed aristocrat. 

But as it has been an unending 
struggle to preserve our republican 
institutions, as our political history 
has been a record of contest with cor- 
ruption, of battles against bosses who 
have attempted to seize the machinery 
of liberty to use it for tyranny and 
graft, so the history of corporations — 
these myriad republics of trade has 
become a record of struggle against 
financial bosses and financial graft. 
What the people of the United States 
are now trying to do is not to destroy 
the corporations. As well admit that 
republican government is a failure and 
go back to absolutism. What they 
are trying to do is to rescue the cor- 
porations for liberty and fair dealing. 

It is important at this time to make 
this distinction. The great mass of 
the business men of the country are 
honest. The great majority of the 



men in control of the corporations are 
honest. What has taken place has 
been an unconscious drift toward ab- 
solutism in the control of corpora- 
tions. Stockholders who were indif- 
ferent to their rights, and directors 
who did not direct, have developed a 
class of financial bosses in this coun- 
try. These bosses have been some of 
them constructive and some of them 
destructive, some builders of the na- 
tion, some violators of law, bribers 
of legislators, manipulators of the 
markets and monopolizers of the 
sources of supplies. 

The mighty economic movement of 
to-day is a call to liberty. Its aim 
is to make the corporations demo- 
cratic in fact as in form. Could anv 
instrument be invented that is better 
adapted to secure a wide distribution 
of wealth than the stock company? 
Could anything better promote in- 
vestment in securities by which that 
distribution is brought about than a 
free stock market? During the past 
eighteen years the New York Stock 
Exchange alone has listed over 
$20,000,000,000 of stocks and bonds, 
and through the agency of its market 
these securities have been distributed 
among millions of investors. Could 
anything be more wholesome ? Could 
anything contribute more to national 
strength and patriotism than the fact 
that the ownership of our banks, our 
railroads and our industries are 
widely distributed among the actual 
producers and wage earners of the 
country? This is the best kind of 
socialism, the only kind that will be 
permitted in this count: 3 , a socialism 
without confiscation, a socialism that 
does not overthrow the principles of 
individualism and the rights of prop- 
erty. 

We are rapidly reaching toward a 
wider distribution of wealth. The 
next problem is to promote a greater 
democracy in the control of wealth. 
We want to dethrone financial boss- 
ism and establish financial leadership. 
We want to inspire greater vigilance 



354 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN FINANCE 



among stockholders. We want, 
above all, a higher sense of responsi- 
bility among trustees, for it is prob- 
ably fair to estimate that at least one- 
half of the enormous wealth of the 
United States which has in this year 
reached the amazing total of $115,- 
000,000,000 is in the hands of trustees. 

Probably few appreciate the ser- 
vice speculation has performed in this 
process of distributing the wealth of 
the country. But at the same time it 
has made possible the financial olig- 
archy reaching for the government of 
this wealth. 

Speculation has its good and its bad 
side. It has a philosophic as well as 
a financial meaning. In philosophy it 
implies mental contemplation of data, 
examination of reasons and argu- 
ments. In finance it means the tak- 
ing of greater or less risks. Both 
meanings may be and should be 
united in order to form any proper 
conception of the nature of stock spec- 
ulation. To speculate is to take risks 
after an examination of all known 
fact. Such speculation is entirely 
legitimate and beneficent. Undoubt- 
edly stock speculation enormously 
promotes the enterprise of the coun- 
try. Those who decry Wall street as 
the American "Monte Carlo" and the 
stock exchange as a den of thieves, 
and regard the broker, to use a defini- 
tion attributed to Dr. Samuel John- 
son, as "a negotiator between two 
parties who contrives to cheat both," 
should pause for a moment and con- 
sider what this country would be 
without the stock exchange. 

The facilities of credit and specula- 
tion have enabled the world, in two 
centuries, to accomplish the work of 
ten centuries. The stock market 
serves to mobilize capital, enabling it 
to be quickly massed for great enter- 
prises, too large to be undertaken ex- 
cept by collective effort. It serves 
also to equalize prices, to prevent an 
over-supply at one time and a short- 
age at another. Conant says that the 
stock market is the great governor of 



values, the determinant of the rela- 
tionship between production and con- 
sumption, the guide which points the 
finger as to where capital is needed 
and where it has ceased to exist. 

Even the room traders, apparently 
the most useless body of men in the 
world and who in a sense "toil not, 
neither do they spin," who produce no 
wealth, aid largely in the service 
which speculation performs for the 
country. These men, whose opera- 
tions represent about one-third of the 
stock exchange transactions, simply 
trade on their own account and are in 
and out the market, it may be, a dozen 
times' a day. They are at one mo- 
ment bulls and the next bears. They 
are ever after the one-eighth or one- 
fourth profit to be made in the buying 
and selling of stocks on the floor. 
And yet these men who make specula- 
tion their constant business serve to 
maintain a constant market. It is the 
existence of these room traders that 
makes it possible at all times to estab- 
lish quotations to affect sales and to 
have a place where you can always 
dispose of your securities at the price. 
Thus it is that even this class of spec- 
ulators hold no inconsiderable a place 
in economics. 

Moreover the same may be said of 
the whole body of margin operations, 
although a very small proportion of 
them can be considered as speculative 
in the highest sense. They enable the 
real financial builders oftentimes to 
perform their constructive work the 
easier in that the speculation facili- 
tates the distribution of stocks. 

Unquestionably a large proportion 
of the stock market transactions are 
gambling. At the bottom there is in- 
vestment. Resting on this is a broader 
body of speculation, and above this, 
making a sort of inverted pyramid, is 
a great mass of gambling, that is to 
say, transactions which do not repre- 
sent either investment for income or 
intelligent purchases for sale at profit, 
but more or less blind dependence 
upon chance. 



ITS MORAL EFFECT ON AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP 355 



President Hadley of Yale Univer- 
sity recently made an excellent dis- 
tinction between the different kinds of 
speculation. "Much of the present- 
day speculation," he said, "is bad but 
side by side with the bad there is 
much that is good and indeed neces- 
sary. The first essential in right 
speculation is that a man must be 
really able to make good his guaran- 
tee as to the future. In other words, 
he must be risking his own money. 
If he is making contracts for future 
delivery on the basis of other people's 
money, whether through actual bor- 
rowings or through inflated credit, 
this is not trade but gambling with 
loaded dice." 

W. R. Lawson, the English econo- 
mist, in his latest work says that 
wherever there is business there must 
be speculation for the one grows out 
of the other, but legitimate trading 
rests upon a substantial basis of bona 
■fide business while a stock gamble 
may be a mere fooling with market 
prices. He adds that the United 
States has had much experience of 
both these kinds of speculation. It 
has had its substantial El Dorados in 
the West and its fictitious El Dorados 
in New York, and he thinks that a 
safe guide of an American boom is 
the proportion of Western solidity 
there may be in it as compared with 
the Wall street gas. • 

The country is apt to think of Wall 
street as the richest place in the world. 
So it is from one point of view. But 
did you ever think of Wall street as 
the biggest borrower in the country? 
That is what it is, and the great mass 
of the transactions of the stock mar- 
ket are conducted on borrowed 
money. It is of interest to consider 
this point in connection with Presi- 
dent Hadley's statement, that the first 
essential in right speculation is that a 
man must be risking his own, and not 
borrowed, money. The speculator 
puts up ten per cent of cash and bor- 
rows ninety per cent from his broker. 
The broker puts up ten per cent more 



and borrows eighty per cent more 
from the banks. And the banks? 
Well, a great part of the money which 
they loan out on call to support the 
stock market is borrowed from the 
country banks for their deposits paid 
for by two per cent interest must be 
regarded substantially as borrowed 
money. In addition to the hundreds 
of millions of out-of-town deposits in 
the New York banks there is at this 
time between, $300,000,000 and $400,- 
000,000 of loans on call in the stock 
market made directly by banks and 
trust companies in the interior, and 
this makes a body of credit which is 
used almost exclusively for specula- 
tive purposes. The interest paid on 
the deposits of out-of-town banks and 
the direct loans made by out-of-town 
banks in Wall street constitute a real 
menace to the financial situation. If, 
then, speculation has become a na- 
tional evil, it is largely due to the fact 
that the country itself is lending the 
money to the speculators to carry it 
on. 

For reasons which I have already 
tried to indicate, it would be the 
height of folly to attempt to suppress 
speculation and close the stock ex- 
change, but something might be done 
to keep speculation from overstep- 
ping the boundaries of moderation. 
If the line between gambling and 
legitimate speculation is the ability of 
the speculator to make good his guar- 
antee as to the future, might it not be 
wise to apply this principle so as to 
reduce the volume of stock gambling 
and at the same time give ample op- 
portunity for legitimate speculation? 
As a mere suggestion along this line 
would it not be well to increase the 
margin required in stock operate >n ? 
If the broker would demand more 
margin from his customer and the 
bank more margin from the broker, 
the number of people who enter the 
stock market with insufficient ca] 
would be immensely reduced and the 
security of stock operations im- 
mensely increased. 



356 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN FINANCE 



I have gone into this matter some- 
what at length because it serves to 
emphasize the main point which I de- 
sire to make, namely, that all these 
great tools of modern business are 
capable of being used for mighty con- 
structive enterprises and at the same 
time of being misused for immoral 
and destructive ends. In so far as 
they have failed of the highest 
achievements it is because, to use the 
recent language of President Schur- 
man of Cornell University, "the moral 
nature of man has not developed as 
rapidly as his economic and financial 
capacities." In other words, we have 
failed in part at least to make a moral 
use of these mighty instruments of 
credit, of investment and of specula- 
tion. The most optimistic feature of 
the present day is the fact that we 
have awakened to this situation and 
are endeavoring to find out the ethical 
basis of business. 

Let us test this whole matter by 
applying that simple but sublime code 
of morals — the ten commandments — 
to the business conditions of to-day. 

You may remember Speaker Reed's 
cynical description of Theodore 
Roosevelt as a man who had "discov- 
ered the ten commandments." I do 
not pretend to have discovered the ten 
commandments, but perhaps I am en- 
titled to the distinction of first putting 
them in double harness with the stock 
market. Take up the commandments 
one by one and see their economic 
significance : 

"Thou shalt have none other gods 
but me." 

It is time that we found out ex- 
actly where we stand on the question 
of religious faith. Accompanying the 
radical attack on wealth is a radical 
attack on the belief in God and the 
eternal life. All socialists are not 
atheists nor are all atheists socialists, 
but it is true that the radical type of 
socialist believes that it is essential 
to the establishment of his economic 
philosophy that God and marriage, re- 



ligion and the home, should be legis- 
lated out of existence. Apart from 
this, moreover, there are many evi- 
dences, although I admit that they 
may be superficial, of a decline in the 
faith that lays hold on eternal life. 
This is a matter of most serious im- 
portance. I am speaking now not 
from the standpoint of religion but 
from that of business. If it be true 
that faith is declining then that means 
enormous economic readjustments. 
I can imagine nothing more deplor- 
able, more destructive of values and 
of national lasting prosperity than 
that. If it be true, then the seeds of 
national deterioration are being sown. 
Nothing would be more wholesome, 
more inspiring, more helpful to na- 
tional prosperity than a revival of re- 
ligious faith and observance, and bus- 
iness men could make no better in- 
vestment of their money and time 
than to push such a movement along. 

"Thou shalt not make to thyselves 
any graven images." 

How about the worship of the gold- 
en calf of wealth and luxury? Per- 
haps there is no more of this than for- 
merly. One of the most respected 
business men of Hartford wrote to 
me the other day that luxury was a 
good thing for the country, that the 
expenditure of money upon other 
things kept money in circulation, men 
employed and trade active. In like 
manner it might be said that wars, 
earthquakes and fires were good be- 
cause they created new demands. Su- 
perficially, this is true. Actually lux- 
ury, that is to say, excessive expen- 
ditures of money on things that are 
not necessary, is, like war, destructive. 
More than that, it is demoralizing. 
Russell Sage, with all his penurious- 
ness, was a better example to our 
young men than some of our new rich 
men with their lavish display of lux- 
ury. I may add that at this time one 
of the features of the business situa- 
tion to be deplored and feared is the 
fact that, owing to this growing love 



ITS MORAL EFFECT ON AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP 



357 



of luxury which is spreading through 
all grades of society, we are spending 
so much and saving so little. 

Why is it that France, with only 
207,000 square miles of territory and 
thirty-nine millions of population is 
such a stupendous financial power, 
and is able at all times to command 
such immense investing resources? 
It is because every man, woman and 
child in the country saves something 
out of his income. Saving is the key- 
note of French industry. In this 
country the waste of national re- 
sources has been shameful. 

"Thou shalt not take the name of 
the Lord thy God in vain." 

No one who goes to our great cities 
can have failed to notice a marked de- 
cline in profanity in the past few 
years. Whatever may be in our hearts 
our lips are at least cleaner. It is be - 
ginning to be recognized that profan- 
ity and obscenity are unmanly. 

"Remember that Thou keep holy 
the Sabbath day." 

There has been a marvetous change 
in the observance of Sunday in the 
United States during the past genera- 
tion. From the strictness of Puritan 
observance we are rapidly swinging 
to the opposite extreme. The only 
safe and reasonable position is be- 
tween these two extremes. France 
is as far removed from Puritanism as 
it is possible to be and yet it is one of 
the significant events of the present 
year that in France, and apparently 
strictly upon economic grounds, there 
has been enacted there a law making 
one day's rest out of seven compul- 
sory. It is a fair question to ask 
whether in this country we are not 
drifting too far away from that rule. 
It seems to me that some of our rich 
men are setting a bad example in this 
respect and need to be called into 
account for it. They are compelling 
a great many people to work on Sun- 
day for their pleasure and instead of 
making the day one of rest, they are 
occupying it to a very large extent, if 
not in business and conference, then 



in conspicuous pleasure. The intro- 
duction of the automobile, beneficent 
as it has been in many other respects, 
is responsible not a little for the mis- 
use of the Sabbath. 

"Honor thy father and thy mother." 
Perhaps it would be too sweeping 
a generalization to say that reverence 
has about died out in the United 
States, but it is a fact to be noted by 
everybody that it is certainly at low 
ebb. This fact is responsible in no 
small measurye for that indifference to 
law, that contempt of authority which 
is making for anarchy alike in high 
and low places. No share of stock, 
no bond, no business contract has any 
value except it be safeguarded by re- 
spect for law and authority. 
"Thou shalt do no murder." 
Human life has a value which it 
never possessed before and we are 
certainly doing much by police pro- 
tection, health laws, sanitation and 
otherwise to protect it. We owe a 
stupendous debt of gratitude to the 
medical profession for having low- 
ered the mortality rate in so many 
of our crowded cities. Nevertheless, 
I would call on you to witness the 
lynchings, the labor riots, and the 
railroad accidents; all of which tes- 
tify loudly to the fact that human life 
is still held in low esteem by many 
people. The fact that in 1895 tne 
number of passengers carried upon 
the railways of the country to every 
one passenger killed was 2,984,832, 
while in 1905 the number of passen- 
gers carried for every one killed was 
1,375,856 shows a condition of in- 
creasing carelessness to human life 
that is not altogether flattering to the 
United States. We are so eager for 
results that we are not always careful 
about means and we are in so much 
of a hurry that we pay too little atten- 
tion to safety. 

"Thou shalt not commit adultery." 
The home is or should be the cen- 
ter of civilization. Shall we permit it 
to be destroyed? What answer do 
you make to this question ? Certainly 



358 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN FINANCE 



the growth of divorces in this country 
is something which business men sim- 
ply from purely business motives 
should take measures to check. Dr. 
Dix in Trinity Church, which stands 
at the head of Wall street, only a few 
days ago said that in the past twenty 
years there have been 500,000 di- 
vorces in the United States against 
214,000 in Europe, although Europe 
has five times the population of the 
United States. Our material pros- 
perity can have no permanency if 
accompanied by moral deterioration. 

"Thou shalt not steal." 

This opens a wide subject. On the 
one hand there is to be witnessed a 
wonderful increase in honesty and on 
the other a most shameful lack of it. 
One of the most magnificent specta- 
cles which this country of enormous 
wealth presents is the scrupulous care 
which is exercised by the great body 
of our people in the actual handling 
of money. Our inland trade amount- 
ing to at least $22,000,000,000 a year 
is carried on with an infinitesimal loss 
caused by actual theft. The great 
body of our servants in the banks and 
public institutions through which mil- 
lions of money pass every week 
account for every penny of it. 

The enormous bulk of Wall street 
transactions require no written con- 
tract. In the stock exchange mil- 
lions upon millions of property are 
transferred every day simply by the 
nod of a head and the raising of a fin- 
ger. The oral promise has all the 
force of the written bond. This is 
certainly a splendid spectacle of hon- 
esty. I think few people appreciate 
the full significance of this fact and 
give Wall street the credit which it 
deserves in this respect. The world 
has gained much in having gained 
this. 

But there are other forms of steal- 
ing than actually putting one's hands 
into the till and filling one's pockets 
with the contents thereof. There a 
other kinds of stealing than going 
back upon one's contract and refusing 



to fulfill one's promises. In the pres- 
ent transition age of American busi- 
ness, at this time when we are apply- 
ing upon a colossal scale the mechan- 
ism of corporations and syndicates 
and promotion, new forms of stealing 
have developed, to a large extent, let 
it be admitted, unconsciously ; so that 
people are actually robbing their 
neighbors oftentimes under the very 
forms of law. There has, therefore, 
developed what President Roosevelt 
calls a "law honesty," which in effect 
is criminal dishonesty. 

Suppose we apply this command- 
ment, "Thou shalt not steal," to the 
stock market and to some of the ope- 
rations of modern business and see 
what becomes of it. 

A corporation by clever bookkeep- 
ing covers up essential facts as to its 
financial condition and thus leads in- 
vestors astray. 

Is that stealing? 

A director by reason of his confi- 
dential position gains advance knowl- 
edge of a coming dividend and uses 
this knowledge so as to speculate with 
absolute certainty in the stock market, 
thereby profiting at the expense of 
others and perhaps of some of the 
very stockholders of whom he is the 
trustee. 

Is that stealing? 

A financier by his control of banks 
and corporations and the mechanism 
of the markets so manipulates prices 
as to give a fictitious appearance of 
prosperity and then proceeds to un- 
load his securities on the public. 

Is that stealing? 

A trust resorts to oppressive meth- 
ods of destroying competition. 

Is that stealing? 

A railroad grants and a favored 
shipper accepts rebates or other forms 
of discrimination by which the latter 
gets control of the trade. 

Is that stealing? 

A public service corporation unable 
to get a franchise in any other way 
buys a board of aldermen. 

Is that stealing? 



ITS MORAL EFFECT ON AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP 



359 



A professional operator "washes 
sales" on the curb in order to sell a 
mining prospect of no or of doubtful 
value to the public at grossly inflated 
prices. 

Is that stealing? 

A promoter makes a present of a 
"call" on a newspaper reporter in 
order to get an alluring but deceitful 
paragraph before the public. 

Is that stealing? 

A corporation hires the smartest 
lawyer in the country to tell it how 
near it can get to the edge of illegality 
and of even criminal conduct and yet 
escape any penalty or violation. 

Is that stealing? 

A bank refuses information on the 
pretense that it is private business, 
although such refusal obscures the 
whole financial situation and puts 
thousands of investors in peril. 

Is that stealing? 

We need, do we not, to give a wider 
interpretation to this commandment 
so that it shall apply as well to the 
new conditions of modern trade as to 
the old forms and practices ? 

The London Times recently com- 
plained of "window dressing" by 
British banks. What is it? Simply 
making a special showing of strength, 
particularly in reserve, for the period- 
ical public reports and then, after 
their publication, going back to the 
old condition of low reserves and ex- 
panded credits. 

Is that strictly honest ? 

The world is to-day prosperous as 
never before. Russia is the only sore 
spot in the international situation. 
But this prosperity is accompanied by 
an overstraining of bank credits. 
Wastes by war, earthquake and fire, 
marvelous enterprise in every part 
of the globe, $15,000,000,000 of new 
securities issued in the principal coun- 
tries in the past four years, great in- 
dustrial and commercial activity ac- 
companied by extensive land and 
stock speculation in the United States, 
England and Germany, — these have 
piled up credit liabilities on a dimin- 



ishing percentage of reserves, and this 
fact more than any political disturb- 
ance menaces the business situation. 

Under such conditions as these sup- 
pose that someone undertakes to ma- 
nipulate the call money rate on the 
floor of the stock exchange in order 
to influence the course of the stock 
market, thereby striking directly at 
public confidence. 

Would that be honest? 

Let us n6t do the injustice to sup- 
pose that aul the stealing is in these 
regions of finance and speculation. 
The other day I stood at the Brook- 
lyn end of the Williamsburg Bridge 
and saw scores of men and women 
getting off Manhattan cars and push- 
ing into the crowds around the Brook- 
lyn cars, secure transfers to the latter 
for which they are not entitled; in 
other words, stealing five cent rides 
from an unpopular corporation. 

In plain truth, is there not to-day 
a good deal of downright dishonesty 
by the people in dealing with the cor- 
porations. A gentleman told me the 
other day that a man in his town 
burned his house in order to get the 
insurance. One jury sent the incen- 
diary to jail but another jury decided 
that the insurance company must pay 
the amount of the insurance to the 
wife of the incendiary; in other 
words, there was no particular con- 
science in stealing from a rich corpo- 
ration in order to enrich a neighbor. 

In contrast to this and in order to 
show that high finance with all its 
ethical shortcomings is capable of pre- 
senting a splendid example of hon- 
esty, witness James J. Hill's distribu- 
tion of the profits of the iron ore deal 
to the stockholders of the Great 
Northern Railroad. Can any doubt 
that Mr. Hill with the resources at 
his command might have been able to 
reserve this rich melon for himself 
and his few wealthy associates? In- 
stead of that he carved it up equitably. 
In this transaction at least he has 
coupled financial square dealing with 
magnificent material achievement. 



3 6 ° 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN FINANCE 



These are some of the questions 
which the people are considering at 
this time, and the fact that they are 
asking them is evidence of a moral 
awakening which to me is the best 
possible proof that the world is grow- 
ing better instead of worse. 

"Thou shalt not bear false witness 
against thy neighbor." 

No other branch of business has 
had a more wonderful growth during 
the past generation than the news- 
paper business, and it seems to me as 
if this commandment is at this time 
especially applicable to that particu- 
lar business. By and by the people 
will take up newspaper reform just 
as they have taken up insurance re- 
form and will insist upon the estab- 
lishment of higher moral standards in 
the conduct of the newspaper press. 
I am not going to say anything in de- 
preciation of the profession to which 
I belong, especially as I believe that 
on the whole it compares favorably 
with any other department of human 
endeavor, and I ask you in all fairness 
whether you would like to live in the 
city of Hartford, or in the city of New 
York, or in the United States if you 
were deprived of the protection 
afforded by our free press. Never- 
theless there are two classes of news- 
papers which are bearing false wit- 
ness. One class we call the yellow 
journalism. The other class may be 
called the court circular journalism. 
The former bears false witness by ex- 
aggeration, by sensation, by innuendo, 
by inspiring hopes of general equality 
of condition which can never be real- 
ized, by inspiring false doctrine and 
class hatreds. Court journalism, on 
the other hand, bears false witness by 
serving as servile organs of political 
or financial interests, by concealing 
the truth and by defending wrong. 

"Thou shalt not covet." 

A part at least of the social unrest 
of to-day is due to covetousness, to 
envy of the rich. And while we may 
properly legislate for fairer methods 



in the accumulation and distribution 
of wealth, we should take care to 
guard zealously the rights of property 
and permit no greed, no false philos- 
ophy to overthrow that great principle 
upon which our social order rests. 

The Greek philosophers were also 
the Greek economists. It is essential 
that ethics and economics should go 
together, for political economy which 
is not based upon morality means sim- 
ply brute force, while a morality 
which cannot be applied practically to 
everyday business is simply a useless 
idealism. It is for this reason that I 
have this evening endeavored in this 
superficial and crude way to link some 
of the business conditions of to-day 
to the sublime principles of the moral 
code. 

I would not leave the impression 
that I am a pessimist. I am emphat- 
ically an optimist. The very fact that 
people are so universally talking about 
these ethical phases of business is of 
itself a conclusive proof of progress. 
We cannot tell what the next day, or 
the next year may bring forth, but in 
a great measure we can tell what the 
next ten years will bring forth for this 
nation. There is not unlikely to be 
serious disturbance and a grave crisis 
or two in the meantime, for it always 
seems that as that richest soil is often 
on the side of a volcano so under our 
national prosperity are always burn- 
ing the fires of possible financial up- 
heaval. But there is an absolute cer- 
tainty of a great development of 
American citizenship and American 
wealth in the coming ten-year period. 

In spite of tyranny in high finance 
and anarchy in low places, in spite of 
criticism just and unjust, in spite of 
condemnation and denunciation and 
investigation, the people of this coun- 
try now, and in the years to come, 
will stand up and vote and fight for 
liberty and justice, and the rights of 
property, and for equal opportunity 
under the law to work out their high 
destiny. 



ANNIVERSARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 

TER-CENTENARY OF THE BUILDING OF THE "VIRGINIA," THE 
FIRST SHIP CONSTRUCTED ON THE WESTERN CONTINENT- 
CENTENNIAL OF THE " CLERMONT"— RISE OF THE AMERICAN 
MERCHANT MARINE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NAVIGATION 
SINCE JOHN FITCH OF CONNECTICUT AND ROBERT FULTON 



BY 



C. SEYMOUR BULLOCK 



Author of 



The Miracle of the First Steamboat," " First Steamships to Cross the Ocean," anj> 
Many Articles in The Connecticut Magazine 



siJips 



THIS is the three hundredth an- 
niversary of the building of 
the first ship on the American 
continent, and the one hun- 
dredth anniversary of the first prac- 
tical steamboat in the world. The 
former will be observed in Maine 
where the little two-masted bark, 
"Virginia," was built on the Ken- 
nebec river in 1607 — the birth of 
the American merchant marine. The 
latter will be celebrated throughout 
the civilized world, receiving special 
recognition in France and America. 

The Americans are preparing to 
pay the tribute of a loving people to 
one of their own fellowmen who gave 
to all races and all nations the secret 
of the world's material progress, 
commerce. When the "Clermont" 
steamed up the Hudson river on that 
day in August, 1807, the people 
laughed it to scorn as "Fulton's 
Folly." The legislature could not be 
impressed with the sincerity of its 
promoters and ridiculed the petitions 
for exclusive right of navigating 
steam vessels in the waters of New 
York. 

A few days ago, one hundred years 
having intervened, the legislators of 
this same commonwealth conferred a 
rich grant at the gate of the Western 
Continent, covering two blocks in the 
harbor of the American metropolis, 



extending from One Hundred and 
Fourteenth street to One Hundred 
and Eighteenth street, New York, 
and extending to a depth of forty feet 
in the Hudson river. Here will be 
constructed a water-gate, through 
which all the ships of the world may 
approach, a magnificent memorial to 
the memory of Robert Fulton — a 
treasure-house of all that pertains to 
steam navigation, containing a mu- 
seum and reception hall. The rela- 
tives of Robert Fulton have granted 
permission to remove his remains 
from the present resting-place in the 
Livingston vault in Trinity church- 
yard to this place of state overlooking 
the river which he loved and on which 
he endowed mankind with his genius. 
One hundred years ago this strug- 
gling inventor roamed two continents 
to find a few paltry dollars with which 
to improve the navigation of the seas 
and revolutionize the world's trade. 
To-day more than a half million dol- 
lars are willingly and lovingly offered 
as tribute to his memory by a grateful 
people. It is the wonderful story of 
his struggles that is here told, taking 
one back through the century to the 
man himself and that August day 
when the world was awakened from 
its slumbers by the dawn of a new 
epoch, of which John Fitch of Con- 
necticut was the forerunner. 

361 



362 1607—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



THE world absolutely refused to 
accept the theory that ships 
could be propelled against 
wind and tide by a subtle 
power known as steam. The men 
who tried to persuade the people 
of several nations to give them 
an opportunity to prove it are a list 
of fatalities — of tragedies. Jona- 
than Hulls, the Englishman, and 
John Fitch and James Rumsey, Amer- 
icans, offered the great secret to their 
fellowmen only to receive their re- 
buffs and ridicule. Other men with 
ideas founded upon the theories of 
these first martyrs to invention 
stepped into the same pit of public 
disapproval until at last there came 
one, Robert Fulton, a persistent, 
prodigious, indomitable man, who 
forced the world to listen. It is on 
this hundredth anniversary of his 
achievement that I ask the respectful 
hearing of all Americans. 

Wearied with his uneven fight 
against the prejudices and the indif- 
ference of a world to whose service he 
had thought to bridle the very waters 
of the sea, John Fitch had retired to 
his lands in Kentucky and there, after 
an illness of many weeks, died. A 
short time before his death he wrote 
to Dr. William Thornton, whose 
friendship for Fitch and confidence in 
the practicability of his ideas seems 
never to have wavered, the following 
pathetic letter: 

Bardstown, Nelson County, ist, Feby, 
1798. 
"My Worthy Friend 

I am going fast to my mother clay. Yes- 
terday I executed my last will which I ever 
mean to make. My property hear will be 
much more than I ever expected. . . . 
Address letter for me to Mr. John Rowan, 
Bardstown. If I am hear I can pay the 
postage, if not he will have enough in his 
hands. I shall transact no more business 
of myself but leave it altogether to him. 

my worthy friend I have many more 
tilings to inform you and Mr. Vail but be- 
ing fatigued shall only say 

that I am 

and shall die 
a friend to both of you 
John Fitch 



Dr. William Thornton, Esq. 

P S if possible let me receive one letter 

more from you J F" 

Fitch had but recently returned 
from his fruitless trip to England and 
France, where it was hoped to build 
a larger boat than any that had been 
attempted on the Delaware, but 
France had just put to her best life 
the knife of suicide and the people 
were too busy thinking out schemes 
for getting rid of one another to con- 
cern themselves in the plans of any 
stranger with a project for utilizing 
the untried force of steam. After a 
brief stay with the United States' Min- 
ister Vail at L'Orient, Fitch, in spite 
of his earlier leanings toward skepti- 
cism, turned his back upon the people 
who were wearing miniature guillo- 
tines about the neck just as beauty now 
adorns itself with chain and locket, 
and started for London where he 
sought out his friend Leslie, of Phila- 
delphia, through whom he was intro- 
duced to the Earl of Stanhope, one of 
the most eminent engineers of the day, 
and to William Symington, builder of 
the "Charlotte Dundas," England's 
first successful steamboat, which was 
launched in 1801 and used to tow 
boats upon the canal in 1802. It was 
laid aside after the death of the Duke 
of Bridgewater, which caused a lack 
of funds necessary to make changes 
so that the waves caused by the boat 
would not wash down the banks on 
either side. This was in 1793 and 
from this time dates the first corre- 
spondence between these early investi- 
gators and experimenters and Robert 
Fulton upon which it is thought to 
base a claim for priority of sugges- 
tion in the use of steam for naviga- 
tion. 

"Sir: I have received yours of the 30th 
of September, in which you propose to 
communicate to me the principles of an in- 
vention which you say you have discov- 
ered, respecting the moving of ships by 
means of steam. It is a subject on which 
I have made important discoveries. I shall 
be glad to receive the communication 
which you intend, as I have made the 
principles of mechanics my particular 
study." * * * 




ROBERT FULTON, THE FATHER OF STEAM NAVIGATION 
Painting by his intimate friend and fellow-artist, Benjamin West— Original 
now in the possession of Fulton's grandson, Robert Fulton Ludlow, of 
Claverack, New York — Centenary reproduction in the Journal of American 
History by permission of the Fulton family and by courtesy of the Nautical Gazette 



jSo?— CENTENNIAL OF STEAM NAVIGATION— 1907 365 



— SCA L.fc 

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'lib A CENTOS 




CLEPFIQNT, 18077133 TEET 

PROGRESS 
IN 

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STEAMBOAT 

con- 

ROCHESTER, 1856, SOFTEST 

STRDCriON 



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DESIGN BY "THE NAUTICAL GAZETTE," 
the Authoritative Journal of Navigation in America 

When Fitch left France for Eng- 
land all the drawings and specifica- 
tions that he had taken with him from 



this country were left in the hands of 
the United States Minister, who had 
been a member of the original com- 
pany for building steamboats on the 
Delaware with the hope that he would 
be able to interest the French engi- 
neers in the project after they had 
taken time to investigate it more fully. 
The flag, too, that Governor Mifflin 
of Pennsylvania had placed on the 
original boat was left with him. 
Later on these drawings were turned 
over to Chancellor Livingston, and 
became the basis for his more intelli- 
gent study of a theme to which <he had 
already given considerable attention 
and in which he had made a number 
of fruitless experiments. The Chan- 
cellor then urged Fulton to take up 
the project of steamboats, which he 
seems to have dropped after his cor- 
respondence in 1793. In this he was 
seconded by Joel Barlow, who, after 
the expiration of his term of service 
as consul, had taken up his home in 
Paris. The flag was afterward given 
into the keeping of General Pinkney, 
then minister of the Court of St. 
James, and through him it came into 
the hands of Rufus King, his succes-. 
sor at the court, by whom it was re- 
turned to this country. 

I have already written fully, in the 
pages of this most valued journal, of 
the pioneer John Fitch and would not 
abate one word of the praise given 
him, but I would not, even for his 
sake, take one leaf from the crown 
with which the years have honored 
Robert Fulton for his part in the de- 
velopment of that one force which, 
more than all others, has been potent 
in changing the trend of civilization. 
To Robert Fulton belongs the glory 
of having built and navigated the first 
steamboat on the Hudson, the boat 
from which has been developed those 
magnificent floating palaces, une- 
qualled in grace of line, point of com- 
fort, attainment of speed, or reliabil- 
ity of service by the water-craft of 
any other country in the world. 



3 66 1607—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



Who was this man who rose from 
the multitude and opened the door of 
a new epoch, greater than the world 
could conceive, and the prophecy of 
which it repudiated as the folly of a 
dreamer? In searching through the 
British Records I find a Reve- 
rend Dr. Robert Fulton of Scot- 
land, who was appointed by the Privy 
Council September 8, 1614, to serve 
as chaplain to the Lady Arabella 
Stuart, first cousin of King James the 
First of England. The Lady Ara- 
bella was at that time imprisoned in 
the Tower of London for having 
assisted her husband, William Sey- 
mour, afterward first Marquis of 
Hertford, in his escape to France. 

There is romance and chivalry in 
this story that I would like to narrate, 
but I must here confine myself to that 
which relates only to the progenitor 
of commerce. In conversing a few 
days ago with the descendants of this 
Dr. Fulton, they assured me that the 
American genius of steam navigation 
is in lineal descent from this friend 
and spiritual adviser of the unfortu- 
nate Lady Stuart. Dr. Fulton settled 
in Kilkenny, Ireland, in the time of 
Cromwell and several of his descend- 
ants came to America. One of them, 
bearing his name, Robert, settled in 
Philadelphia. It is in this city at this 
same time that a tailor of the same 
name resided and it is claimed that he 
was the American heir of Dr. Fulton 
of Kilkenny. 

This Philadelphia tailor, who had 
married Mary Smith, by some of Ful- 
ton's biographers said to have been 
the daughter of a respected Pennsyl- 
vania family, and by others conceded 
to be an open question with no way of 
deciding whether or not the marriage 
occurred in Scotland, moved into 
Lancaster township, where, in 1759, 
they bought a home which was sold 
six years later, and on the same day 
they purchased a farm in Little Britain 
township. It was on this farm that 
Robert Fulton, destined to revolution- 
ize the world's trade, was born in 
1765- 



Some of his biographers have said 
that the date of his birth was not re- 
corded, but as I find it mentioned 
in one of his letters that he wanted 
to be with certain friends on the 
fourteenth of November, his "birth- 
day," it is hard to see why there should 
be raised any question as to the date. 

Two girls had already come to 
the Fulton home, and after the 
coming of Robert, another girl and 
a boy arrived to complete the 
family circle. In 1766, this farm was 
sold to the Swifts and the family once 
more moved back to Lancaster where 
the father died and was buried with- 
in the wall-encircled burying-ground 
near the little, old, limestone church 
that he had helped to build, helping 
also to organize its society, of which 
he was one of the deacons. Among 
the slender marble slabs and the crum- 
bling red sandstone panels that marked 
the resting-places of the dead, all of 
which were removed a few years ago 
to make room for a new building, there 
probably stood one that told where 
the first of the Fulton family in Amer- 
ica found a sleeping-place till the 
"morn breaketh and the shadows flee 
away." 

The boy, Robert Fulton, mastered 
his "three R's" at home and then took 
up his other studies at a school kept by 
a Quaker in a building that stood on 
the northeast corner of East King 
street and the center "Square" in Lan- 
caster, A schoolmate of those early 
days wrote: 

"His mother was a widow in strait- 
ened circumstances. I had a brother who 
was fond of painting. The Revolutionary 
war made it difficult to obtain materials 
from abroad, and the arts were at a low 
ebb in the country. My brother conse- 
quently prepared and mixed colors for him- 
self, which he usually displayed on mussel 
shells. His cast-off brushes and shells fell 
to my lot, some of which I occasionally 
carried to school. Fulton craved a part 
and I divided my treasure. He soon from 
this beginning so shamed my performance 
by his superiority, that I voluntarily sur- 
rendered the heirship of all that came into . 
my possession. Henceforth his book was 
neglected and he was often severely chas- 
tised by the schoolmaster for his inatten- 




BIRTHPLACE OF ROBERT FULTON 

Fulton Farm in Little Britain township in the dense forests 

of Pennsylvania, where, in 1756, the lad was born who was destined to 

revolutionize the world's trade— From an old print designed by Reigart, one of Fulton's biographers 




s\ FULTON'S GIFT TO HIS MOTHER 

Homestead in Washington County, Pennsylvania, which Fulton 

purchased for his widowed mother and sisters on his twenty-first birthday with money he 

had accumulated in Philadelphia by painting portraits and landscapes, and making drawings of machinery 




PAINTING BY ROBERT FULTON 

The subject is Fulton's fellow aesthete and 

utilitarian, Joel Barlow the poet and diplomat who was 

Fulton's most intimate friend when the inventor proposed to 

Napoleon the power of steam as a destroyer of the navies of the world 

but met with rebuff— Original is now in possession of the Barlow family in New 

York and a replica is owned by Fulton's grandson, Robert Fulton Ludlow of Claverack, New York 



1807— CENTENNIAL OF STEAM NAVIGATION— 1907 369 



tion. His friends removed him to Phila- 
delphia where he was apprenticed to a sil- 
versmith; but his mind was not in his 
trade and in his eighteenth year he estab- 
lished himself as a painter in that city." 

Fulton was apprenticed to a silver- 
smith, and for some time followed 
that vocation. Later he turned to 
miniature painting and in 1785-6 
when John Fitch put his first success- 
ful steamboat on the Delaware, Fulton 
had a studio at the corner of Second 
and Walnut streets, Philadelphia. 

It was while returning to Philadel- 
phia from a visit to his mother that he 
met at the warm springs of Pennsyl- 
vania the friends who chanced to see 
some of his paintings and advised him 
to go to London and complete his art 
studies under Benjamin West, who 
had already gained some celebrity and 
was then on the way to fame. Both 
Fulton and West were born in the 
wilds of Pennsylvania, and their fath- 
ers were well acquainted. 

In speaking of this beginning of 
American art which seems to be con- 
temporary with American commerce, 
I must say that had not Fulton's abili- 
ties been turned to more material 
things American art would have been 
the richer to-day. To some extent 
this is also true of his friend, West, 
who was tainted by patronage. Unfor- 
tunately for him and for the world, 
West became a favorite of George III, 
to whom he had been presented by the 
Archbishop of York, and painted, to 
the infinite satisfaction of the king, an 
almost endless list of historical and 
classical pictures — stiff, forced and 
formal, each a little lower in merit 
than the one that had preceded it, and 
all marking a line of sharp retrogres- 
sion from the "Departure of Regulus" 
to the "Fall of Wolfe." Evidence of 
a new start when, after the illness of 
the king, he was thrown again upon 
his own resources and was once more 
free to follow his own inspirations, is 
shown in his "Christ Healing the 
Sick" and his "Death on the Pale 
fe Horse," which are still valued for 
more than respectable coloring and 
clever drawing. Through the ad- 



mirable foresight of Robert Fulton, 
who purchased several of his choicest 
pieces, we now have in the United 
States the most praiseworthy of his 
productions. 

Fulton was received with open arms 
by West and for several years was as 
one of the family in this delightful 
home. West painted a portrait of his 
friend, Fulton, which is possibly the 
height of his genius as a portrait 
painter. A few days ago, at the home 
of Fulton's Igrandson, Robert Fulton 
Ludlow, I looked upon the rich can- 
vas, and felt the full power of these 
two strong men. 

Fulton later spent two years in 
Devonshire, near Exeter, where he 
met the Duke of Bridgewater, famous 
for his interest in canals, and Lord 
Stanhope, celebrated for his love ~f 
science, especially along mechanical 
lines. It is claimed by some of his 
biographers that Fulton at this time 
met James Watt, the eminent engi- 
neer. But a letter from Joel Barlow 
to Dr. William Thornton, which is 
here printed for the first time, shows 
that this is not so. Dr. Thornton 
purposed visiting England. He had 
written Fitch (February 21, 1794) : 

"Let me advise you to get no steam en- 
gine made except by Watt and Boulton 
and with a copper boiler without any wood 
round it and very strong copper. It will 
never be a loss, for when worn out it will 
sell." 

He now proposed a personal visit 
and wrote for a letter of introduction 
to which he was given the following 
answer : 

Dear Str : 

Mr. Fulton informs me that he does not 
know either Mr. Watt or Mr. Boulton, 
that when he purchased the Steam engine 
he dealt with their agent in London, which 
I now recollect was the case. 

I should suppose that no letter of rec- 
ommendation to them can be necessary 
for you — your name and character are too 
well known as a mechanician and architect, 
as well as for general science, that it is 
impossible it should be unknown to them. 

Yr fd 
servt 
J. Barlow, 
to Doctor Thornton. 



37o 1607—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



However, Fulton had visited the 
works of Boulton and Watt, for in his 
diary, now in the possession of Mr. 
Robert Fulton Ludlow, his grandson, 
we find an entry as follows : 

Feby the 5, 1804 travelling from London 
to Birmingham and back again to 
order the Steam Engine £8.0.0 

Farther on we read : 

Jan. 21, 1805 To Messrs Boulton Watt & 
Co. for cylinder and parts of the 
engine £548.0.0 

March the 18th To Messes Cave and Son 
for copper boiler weighing 4399 lbs, at 
2S. 2d. the £476.11.2. 

There is another entry in the diary 
that we must include with these, all of 
which now appears in print for the 
first time, as it throws light on the de- 
bated question as to how Fulton got 
the engine out of England. Under 
the date of March 22d, 1805, he 
writes : 

Fee at the Treasury on receiving permis- 
sion to ship the Engine to Amer- 
ica £2, 14s, 6d 

I have found few instances in the 
world's work where an intense artistic 
temperament is almost instantane- 
ously transformed into practical me- 
chanics. Fulton, however, either by 
foresight or intuition looked into the 
centuries and discerned the power 
that was to revolutionize the earth. 
When twenty-nine years of age, in 
1794, he obtained a patent for a 
double inclined plane, to be used 
in connection with canals, and for sev- 
eral years thereafter he was actively 
engaged in projects for the improve- 
ment of inland navigation. In 1794, 
he submitted to the British Society for 
the Promotion of Arts and Commerce 
a new method for sawing marble, for 
which the society gave him a vote of 
thanks and an honorary medal, and 
some time later he patented devices 
for spinning flax and for making rope. 
Several contrivances for digging ca- 
nals and aqueducts were brought out 
by him at this time, besides an iron 
bridge built upon new lines, and there- 
after he proclaimed himself a civil en- 
gineer, under which title he produced 
his work on canals and published sev- 



eral articles in the London Morning 
Star. In 1796, he published his 
"Treatise on the Improvement of Ca- 
nal Navigation," copies of which were 
sent to the governor of Pennsylvania 
and to General George Washington, 
from whom he received a very flatter- 
ing acknowledgment. 

With a greater civilizer in his grasp 
than the planet had yet seen, the 
young inventor naturally turned 
toward the center of civilization. 
America was a struggling, bankrupt 
republic, experimenting with the the- 
ory of self-government. England 
was occupied with problems that in- 
volved her future as an empire.. 
France, the gathering-place of art 
and letters and science, dreamed of 
days when she would be the diadem 
in the crown of the world's powers — 
when England and America and half 
the civilized globe would bow to her 
mandates. Like many another youth 
before and since, Fulton went to 
France to introduce his improvements 
in canal transportation. The French 
people had not been long enough 
freed from the madness in which 
they had thought to dethrone God by 
vote, and rule Him out of His own uni- 
verse, to care much more for improve- 
ments in canals than they had previ- 
ously cared for steam navigation 
when suggested by John Fitch. But 
when Fulton proposed a panorama, 
the first that had ever been seen 
in Paris, he was hailed as a public 
benefactor, for here was something 
that might deepen the dimple of a 
smile in which could be caught the 
tear of a never absent though re- 
pressed sorrow. 

France will be France as long as 
the world lasts! The same versatile, 
blase, gala-day nation that Napoleon 
wooed — this is the France that Ful- 
ton found — a people trying to forget 
the cares of life, ever willing to be en- 
tertained and eager to applaud. It 
brought him back to his first love — 
Art. He knelt again at her feet and 
worshiped. Aesthete that he was, 
psychologist that he must have been, 




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1807— CENTENNIAL OF STEAM NAVIGATION— 1907 373 



he lifted the veil and beneath it he 
found the tear-stains and the laughing 
eyes still wet with weeping. 

Life among the French so im- 
pressed Fulton that he turned to the 
study of political economy and pub- 
lished a treatise addressed to "The 
Friends of Mankind" in which he 
pointed out the effect that education 
and internal improvements must have 
upon the happiness of a nation. He 
wished not only for a free and speedy 
communication between the different 
parts of a large country, but a univer- 
sal free trade between all nations. In 
one of his phrases he coined into beau- 
tiful English one of the most impor- 
tant truths ever expressed in litera- 
ture : "The liberty of the seas will be 
the happiness of the earth." It was 
about this time that he met Joel Bar- 
low, who had but recently returned 
from Algeria, to which country he 
had been appointed by Washington in 
1795 to redeem the captives taken by 
pirates and to negotiate a treaty of 
peace. Barlow was not only a diplo- 
mat but a poet. He, too, had become 
imbued with the French spirit and 
was a rollicking litterateur, especially 
skilful with the mighty sword of 
satire. Withal, Barlow was well-bal- 
anced and he was as adept with the 
bludgeon of Mammon as he was with 
the needle point of literary irony. 

He had succeeded. Reaching Paris, 
after some successful speculations that 
yielded large returns, he purchased 
the hotel of Count Clermont de Ton- 
nerre where he lived as was becoming 
to his wealth. Fulton was introduced 
to him and in a few weeks became a 
member of his household as he had 
formerly been a member of West's 
home-circle in London and for a short 
time returned to his art, painting easel 
pictures. Here were two men of con- 
genial minds and they at once began 
experimenting with a machine that 
Fulton devised for exploding a large 
quantity of gun-powder under water. 
It was the very thing that David 
Bushnell, of New London, Connecti- 
cut, had proposed when scarce 



tli rough his course at Yale College, 
twenty years before. With Bushnell 
it was a success — destroying one of the 
tenders of the British frigate "Cer- 
berus" as it lay in Long Island Sound, 
but with Fulton and Barlow it was a 
failure. However, when the device 
was more perfectly worked out, Ful- 
ton appealed to the French Directory 
for aid and was at first given to un- 
derstand that the aid sought would 
be forthcoming but later he was told 
that his plans had been totally reject- 
ed. Nothing daunted, Fulton pre- 
pared a model of his invention and 
when the kaleidoscope of the ever- 
changing French people again showed 
a new list of directors, he presented 
them with a memorial, seeking, a sec- 
ond time, their investigation. Another 
commission was appointed and after 
three months more of waiting Fulton 
was told that his plans had been again 
rejected. 

But the hour-glass turned again. 
Napoleon was made First Consul. It 
was on the eve of his great dream 
when his mighty hand should sway 
the peoples of the earth and he should 
sit enthroned over the Old World 
with a New World as plaything to be 
tossed about at will and ultimately 
proclaimed as his own. Sporting 
with thrones and powers as a child 
plays with the petals of a broken 
flower, all men were to him but pup- 
pets and if this young visionist from 
the coveted America could be but an 
atom in the Great Scheme, Napoleon 
would give him heed. Fulton at once 
waited upon him and so won his inter- 
est that a committee was appointed 
from the Academy of Sciences to ex- 
amine into the merits of the new in- 
vention. Upon their report a grant 
was made by which Fulton was ena- 
bled to put some of his ideas into 
actual practice. 

In the spring of 1801 Fulton re- 
paired to Brest where he experiment- 
ed with a diving boat constructed the 
preceding winter, a crude affair as all 
first attempts must necessarily be, but 
the demonstration was pronounced a 



374 i6o/—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



success and was so reported by the 
committee appointed to follow his ex- 
periments. Through July and Au- 
gust Fulton continued his work in a 
vain hope that some of the English 
ships just off the coast would come 
in near enough to allow him to show 
exactly what could be done in the way 
of destruction by a submarine mine. 
The sailing of the fleet carried with 
it Fulton's opportunity and the 
French officials refused to make any 
further advances for such a mode of 
warfare. 

The British government had some 
intimation as to what Fulton was do- 
ing, and at the suggestion of the Earl 
of Stanhope, it was decided to induce 
him to leave France, if possible, and 
continue his investigations and experi- 
ments in England. The correspond- 
ence that followed had its desired 
effect and in May, 1804, Fulton ar- 
rived in London and was at once 
given an audience with Mr. Pitt and 
Lord Melville. Both men saw the 
value of such an engine of destruction 
and when, on October 15, 1805, Ful- 
ton blew up the strongly-built Danish 
brig of two hundred tons that had 
been provided for the occasion, there 
was no longer any question as to its 
possibilities. But the British govern- 
ment had no real intention of adopting 
his plans, it was rather a ruse to keep 
him from the service of France and 
when the purpose had fulfilled itself, 
Fulton was quietly allowed to drop 
out of their consideration. Here was 
a youth with a knowledge of a power 
that could cause the rise and fall of 
nations — a knowledge shared by other 
young Americans — but neither the 
foresight of a Napoleon nor the 
shrewdness of a Nelson could com- 
prehend it. 

Some of the correspondence that 
had passed between Fulton and the 
representatives of the French govern- 
ment seems to show that it was Ful- 
tcn's plan to build a powerful steam- 
propelled boat that could tow barges 
upon which the French army could be 
loaded and ferried across the channel. 



A still, calm night was to be chosen, 
when the fleet of Nelson would be 
powerless to interfere, and the invin- 
cible French were to land on the 
shores of England. Had such a pro- 
ject met with approval all the history 
of the last hundred years might have 
been written differently. If it had 
been possible, as is often claimed by 
Fulton biographers, for Napoleon to 
have seen from the isle of his banish- 
ment a steamship sailing against both 
wind and wave he must have realized 
the folly that led him to listen to the 
opinions of others and thrust from 
him the service of that potent force by 
which he might have changed the face 
of the then known world. But why 
deal in conjectures? The "Savan- 
nah" did not cross the ocean till 1819 
and the "Royal William" did not sail 
upon her trans-Atlantic trip till more 
than twelve years had passed and it 
was seven years more before any 
other steamcraft ventured far from 
shore. It is not at all probable then, 
Fulton's biographers to the contrary, 
that Napoleon in his wisdom ever 
saw a steamship, for death came to 
bring him release in 1822, years be- 
fore a steamship went near to the isle 
of St. Helena. 

While Fulton was absorbed in the 
science of dynamics he turned always 
to Art for his recreation. 

Before Fulton left France it had 
been decided that Barlow would 
bring out a new edition of his "Vis- 
ion of Columbus" and that it should 
be illustrated with drawings suggested 
and superintended by Fulton. Bar- 
low did not remain long in Paris and 
soon after his return to this country, 
the poem, enlarged and re-christened 
"The Columbiad," was brought out in 
sumptious style in Philadelphia — a 
quarto with plates designed by the 
English artist, Smuke, and executed 
by the best English engravers. The 
subjects for the designs were all 
pointed out by Fulton, who had the 
costly engravings made at his own 
expense. A painting of Barlow by 
Fulton added to the value of the work. 



i8o/— CENTENNIAL OF STEAM NAVIGATION— 1907 375 



This painting is now in possession of 
the Barlow family in New York city 
and a replica is owned by Fulton's 
grandson at Claverack, New York. 
From Fulton's will it is seen that 
the engravings and the press-work 
cost $5,000, mention of which he nec- 
essarily makes in resigning all his 
property rights in the production to 
the widow of his friend who survived 
her husband some six years. The 
will also disposes of his valuable col- 
lection of paintings, including West's 
"Ophelia" and "King Lear," which 
are now in the Boston Athenaeum. 

The arrival of Chancellor Living- 
ston in Paris, 1802, as Minister of the 
United States, turned Fulton's inter- 
ests toward steamboat building, to 
which he had before given but little if 
any thought. Chancellor Livingston 
had sailed from New York to Green- 
wich upon Samuel Morey's steamboat 
on Long Island Sound and was on the 
boat that John Fitch sailed about the 
Collect Pond, where the Tombs Prison 
and adjacent buildings now stand 
using both paddle-wheels and screw- 
propeller, and besides this had spent 
no little money and given no small 
share of his time to experimenting 
with a horizontal wheel under the bot- 
tom of a boat, an Englishman named 
Nesbit co-operating, so that he was 
full of enthusiasm on the subject. The 
plans were all worked out together and 
in 1802 Fulton left Paris for the vil- 
lage of Plombieres, through which 
there runs a little stream, and contin- 
ued his experiments which resulted in 
the building during the next winter of 
a steamboat. Just as it was proposed to 
test the strange thing, one of the watch- 
men who had been left to guard it, 
came rushing in with the news that 
she had broken in two in the middle 
and sunk to the bottom of the stream. 
Nothing daunted Fulton began at 
once upon a new hull and within a few 
weeks he addressed a letter to the 
French National Institute, inviting 
them to witness a trial of his boat and 
this time the trial proved to be a suc- 
cess. It is hard to see why Fulton, 



after his trial of a boat at Plombieres 
built on the lines of other boats, 
should have adopted the crude wedge- 
shape hull that he ordered for the 
"Clermont." It is also hard to under- 
stand why John Fitch, after having 
used the paddle-wheels suspended 
over the sides of a boat, should have 
given away to the arguments of others 
and incorporated a series of swinging 
paddles along the sides as a method of 
propulsion. T 

It is because of this anticipatory 
steamboat that the French people are 
having now at Bordeaux a Fulton 
centennial to which the maritime in- 
terests of the world have contributed, 
our own government sending models 
of early boats. 

Barlow wrote to Fulton while he 
was at Plombieres : 

... "I had a great talk with Living- 
ston. He says he is perfectly satisfied with 
your experiments and calculations, but is 
always suspicious that the engine beating 
up and down will break the boat to pieces. 
He seems to be for trying the horizontal 
cylinder, or for returning to his mercurial 
engine. I see his mind is not settled, and 
he promises now to write you, which he 
says he should have done long ago, but he 
thought you were to be back every fort- 
night. He thinks the scale you talk of go- 
ing on is much too large, and especially 
that part which respects the money. You 
converted him as to the preference of the 
wheels above all other modes, but he says 
they cannot be patented in America because 
a man (I forget his name) has proposed 
the same thing there. You will soon get 
his tetter. Parker is highly gratified with 
your experiments; he wishes, however, 
something further to remove his doubts — 
about keeping the proportions and as to the 
loss of power in different velocities. He 
wishes to have another barretter made, four 
times as strong as this or thereabouts, to 
see whether the proportional velocity would 
be the same when moving by the paddles 
as when moving by the fixture on shore. 
I should like to see this too. If you de- 
sire it, I can take this barrclier to Cala and 
see whether he can make another of the 
same volume four times as strong, and 
know what it will cost. The relative veloc- 
ities can be tried in Perrier's pond on the 
hill." 

In another letter to Fulton, Barlow 
wrote that he had just visited the Na- 
tional Depot of Machines and had 



376 I607—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



seen there the model of a new steam- 
boat. Continuing, he says: 

"In all its parts and principals a very 
elegant model. It contains your wheel- 
oars precisely as you have placed them ex- 
cept that it has four wheels on each side 
to guide round the endless chain instead of 
two. The two upper wheels seem to be 
only to support the chain; perhaps it is an 
improvement. The model of the steam- 
engine is in its place, with a wooden boiler, 
cylinder placed horizontal, everything com- 
plete. I never saw a neater model. It be- 
longs to a company at Lyons, who got out 
a patent three months ago. / shall say 
nothing to Livingston about this model." 

It became apparent to Fulton that 
the center of civilization was chang- 
ing, that America was to be the pivot 
rather than the Old World nations. 
Invention was receiving the patronage 
in America while France and England 
were indifferent to mechanical pur- 
suits. America was in itself an in- 
novation. Americans were origina- 
tors and disdained imitation of the 
older civilization. It was a new land 
with new ideas and new impulses. 
Fulton realized that the great future 
of invention was in the hands of the 
western civilization; that it was a 
world of opportunity. 

Having demonstrated to his own 
satisfaction, and to the satisfaction of 
both Chancellor Livingston and Joel 
Barlow, that a steamboat could be so 
built as to be usable, Fulton was anx- 
ious to get back to his own land and 
claim the benefits given to Chancellor 
Livingston by the legislature of New 
York; he accordingly left France for 
England where he was to order the 
engine for a boat that should be built 
at once for the Hudson. Barlow 
wrote him while yet at Plombieres : 

"Your reasoning is perfectly right about 
inventions and the spirit of the patent laws, 
and I have no doubt it may be secured in 
America. . . . My project would be 
that you should pass directly ovfer to Eng- 
land, silent and steady, make Chapman con- 
struct an engine of twelve inches, while you 
are building a boat of a proportionate size. 
Make the experiments on that scale, all 
quiet and quick. If it answers, put the ma- 
chinery on board a vessel and go directly 
to New York (ordering another engine as 
large as you please to follow you), then 
secure your patent and begin your opera- 



tion, first small and then large. I think 
I will find you the funds without any noise 
for the first operation in England, and if 
it promises well you will get as many funds 
and friends in America as you want. I 
should suggest a small operation first, for 
several reasons : it can be made without 
noise. There must be imperfections in the 
first trial which you can remedy without 
disgrace if done without noise; you can 
easier find funds for a small experiment, 
etc. ... I have talked with P. on your 
observations about great boats with mer- 
chandise." 

In September, Fulton, then in Lon- 
don, wrote to Barlow who had sailed 
for America, November 2, 1804, and 
arrived in New York after a passage 
of* fifty-two days (Livingston follow- 
ing soon after), that he was about 
ready to start for America, stating 
that he had an income of £500 sterling 
a year, with a steam engine and pic- 
tures worth £2000; and in October, 
1806, he found shipping by the 
way of Halifax. While the ship 
on which he was a passenger lay 
at the dock there Fulton painted 
the portraits of some -natives who 
crowded about for barter. These pic- 
tures are also now in the possession of 
his grandson at Claverack, New York, 
whose home is a veritable Fulton mu- 
seum. 

Fulton went at once to Kalorama, 
the home of Joel Barlow, near Wash- 
ington, and began experimenting with 
a small engine which he had brought 
with him from England on the 
waters of Rock Creek, at a point 
designated now by a government me- 
morial, with different shapes and sizes 
of wooden blocks to determine just 
what shape and what proportions 
would offer the least resistance when 
drawn through the water. The data 
of Bouyfoy was used in these experi- 
ments and was included later by Ful- 
tcn in his application for a patent. 

It was from Kalorama that Fulton 
wrote to Dr. William Thornton the 
letter which is here produced for the 
first time in fac-simile questioning the 
possibility of ever building a steam- 
boat that could travel six miles an 
hour, although in one of his letters to 



i8oy— CENTENNIAL OF STEAM NAVIGATION— 1907 379 



Barlow while they were in France, he 
had predicted a speed of sixteen miles 
an hour, to which Barlow had an- 
swered: "I see without consulting 
Parker you are mad." 

All along historians have said that 
Chancellor Livingston was the pocket- 
book of the enterprise. What if it 
should turn out that the money that 
went into the "Clermont" came from 
Barlow instead? 

I merely give this as a hint. His- 
tory has done more strange things and 
not the strangest is its inclination to 
give credit where credit does not be- 
long and to obstinately refuse to give 
credit where credit does belong. I 
might mention a hundred instances, 
and it is a pleasure to find that many 
of the wrongs are being righted in the 
pages of this journal. 

The engine for the proposed boat 
lay six months in the Custom House 
till the necessary money could be got- 
ten together to pay what charges had 
been made against it, and during this 
time Fulton endeavored to lessen his 
share of the burden by offering one- 
third of the rights in the boat for a 
proportionate contribution to the ex- 
pense. It was generally known that 
this offer was made but no one was 
willing to put any money into such a 
"fool undertaking." 

The difficulties with which Fulton 
contended do not speak well for the 
far-sightedness of capital. As a pro- 
moter he had many of the dire experi- 
ences of his predecessor, John Fitch. 
Fulton, however, was a promoter, 
while Fitch was but an inventor with 
a characteristic incapacity for organi- 
zation. A few years ago I heard an 
anecdote regarding Fulton which 
later appeared in the New York 
Times. It was told by an old gentle- 
man who was born in the first decade 
of the first century of steam naviga- 
'** tion which is about to be celebrated. 
He said : 

"My father and Fulton were intimate. 

^ Fulton was in the habit of coming to see 

my father, and, having steamboat on the 

brain, he probably talked my father, John 

McKesson, to death. It was always end- 



less chains or something or other. My 
father was a patient listener, and that's a 
talent. One day during office hours Fulton 
came to see my father. 

"'John/ said he, 'I have got it sure. I 
can make her go.' 

"'I am too busy to listen to you now, 
Fulton. I tell you what you do, come 
round to my house to-night.' 

"'I can't/ said Fulton. 'What I want 
to see you about is this: I must have 
$1,000.' 

"'Well, I have n't got it to give you. 
But anyhow, come to the house all the 
same. You can take tea with us. Then 
you can talk with me up to ten o'clock at 
night; then if y\>\\ are not through I shall 
go to sleep. I always go to bed at ten.' 

"Fulton seemed to hesitate for a while, 
and at last said he would come. Fulton 
did come round, and took tea with father. 
Fulton told him about the paddle-wheel. 
Father thought that a paddle-wheel would 
never do. You see, in those times they 
were cocksure that the power used to lift 
up the < water by the wheel would about 
neutralize the propelling force. Ha! ha! 
those old fellows were smart. We always 
are in our generation. 

"'Well,' father said, 'Robert Fulton, your 
wheel is no good. It would never work. 
You talk about making the boat go four 
miles an hour! That's an unheard of 
speed. No, sir. With a wheel on your 
boat she'd stand stock still/ 

"Then Robert Fulton argued it out with 
father, and ten o'clock came, and father 
was getting sleepy. Just then maybe Ful- 
ton got more excited, or father more atten- 
tive, and it was eleven o'clock and they 
were talking over it still. 

"'It is time for you to go home, Robert/ 
said my father, 'unless you would like to 
have a bed here, and you might as well do 
that/ 

"Tf I do/ answered Fulton, 'I only ad- 
journ the talk until to-morrow, for you 
must get me the $1,000/ Maybe Fulton 
buttonholed father before breakfast. Any- 
how, Fulton's persuasive powers overcame 
father's doubts, and he agreed that he 
would do his best to raise the $1,000 for 
Fulton. Right after breakfast father went 
out, and the first man he met was Robert 
Lenox. 'See here, Mr. Lenox/ said father, 
'I want some money from you to help one 
of Fulton's schemes. You may not believe 
it ever will be done, but the man fancies 
that he can make a boat go four miles an 
hour. I think he intends using steam, and 
a wheel, or something. I am going to let 
him have $100. Would you mind putting 
down your name for the same sum?' 

"'It seems quite preposterous/ said Mr. 
Lenox to my father, 'and I have no reason 
to belive that Mr. Fulton's boat will ever 
accomplish what he thinks it will. Still, if 



3 8o 1607—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



your name is down, you may let him have 
$100 from me.' 

"'Then/ said my father, 'I will write 
down "Robert Lenox, $100.'" 

"'No, no,' answered Mr. Lenox, 'just 
put down the $100 with no name to it, be- 
cause I shouldn't like the people who come 
after me to learn that I was such a dunce 
as to think that Fulton or anybody else 
ever could make a boat go with steam or 
wheels four miles an hour.' 

"That's the story my father told me. 
You never can exactly tell what does come 
from an invention. I wonder what Fulton 
would have to say could he learn how those 
rocks at Hell Gate had to be blown up be- 
cause they bothered that fleet of steamers 
which had to pass there every day." 

The hull of the "Clermont," which 
was ordered soon afterward, differing 
from everything that was ever called 
a boat, was built by Charles Brownne 
whose ship-yard was at Corlears 
Hook on the East River. Two hun- 
dred years had gone by since the first 
boat of any size built in the New 
World was launched at Popham 
Beach, Maine, at the mouth of the 
Kennebec, of which event the people 
of that state are so proud, and justly, 
that they are now making prepara- 
tions to celebrate its three hundredth 
anniversary. This first boat was 
named the "Virginia" and the materi- 
als for its construction were shipped 
over from England with the colonists 
on "The Gift of God" and "The Mary 
and John," sailing from Plymouth, 
England, June 1, 1607, and arriv- 
ing August 19 of the same year. 
Work was begun on the boat the next 
day after the arrival of the settlers. 
The builder was a Mr. Digby, a mas- 
ter shipbuilder of London. The 
launching took place the following 
spring. The boat was a pinnace of 
thirty tons, navigated with oars and 
two small sails. Light of draft and 
easy to handle it was of great service 
to the colonists in exploring the neigh- 
boring waterways and trading with 
the Indians. Besides its many expedi- 
tions of this kind it made two trips 
across the ocean, going to England 
with the colonists when they aban- 
doned the settlement in the autumn of 
1608, and returning with Sir George 



Somers' expedition in 1609. This lit- 
tle craft which seems insignificant to 
us in this day of floating palaces and 
colossal freighters, compared favora- 
bly in size with the vessels built in 
that day. 

The launching of the "Clermont," 
just one hundred years ago this sum- 
mer, was the third important event in 
the annals of the American Republic. 
The Declaration of Independence pro- 
claimed the birth of a new people ; the 
Constitution established a new politi- 
cal power ; the inauguration of steam 
navigation threw wide open the gates 
of the world and linked the races and 
climates and products of the earth 
into a great and practical whole. And 
yet it hardly created honorable atten- 
tion. It aroused nothing more than 
curiosity. Men of acknowledged bus- 
iness-standing looked upon it as the 
awe-inspiring feat of some foolhardy 
adventurer who prized notoriety as 
dearer to him than the safety of life. 
The only ones who seemed to have 
noticed the boat at all were the up- 
river packet-men who, as if under 
some premonition as to what her 
building really meant to them, tried 
repeatedly to destroy her. Twice 
during the June following her launch- 
ing Fulton wrote of this in his diary : 

June 7: To the Men For Guarding the 
boat two nights and a day after the 
vessel ran against her .$4 

June 13 : Pay to the men who guard the 
boat $20.00 

I have looked through the files of 
the newspapers of one hundred years 
ago, preserved by the New York His- 
torical Society, and in the Lenox 
Library, to ascertain just what im- 
pression the beginning of the world's 
commerce made upon the press and 
the public. Although the population 
of New York numbered upwards of 
eighty-three thousand and there were 
more than twenty papers published,* 
half of them having daily editions, be- 
sides several weekly and monthly mag- 
azines, there is no mention of it and 
when the boat really began to run upon 
her route regularly the only account 




FIRST STEAM FERRIES IN WATERS OF NEW YORK 

The "Brooklyn" built after early suggestions of Robert Fulton and running across the East River 







HARBOR OF AMERICA'S METROPOLIS ABOUT 1807 

Old print— A remarkable contrast with the scenes about New York to-day 



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1807— CENTENNIAL OF STEAM NAVIGATION— 1907 



383 



given of her, or of her performances, 
is to be found in the paid advertise- 
ments of the company or in personal 
letters written either by Fulton him- 
self or by friends on board. 

The initial trip was made from 
Paulus Hook Ferry, now Barclay 
street (by some confounded with 
Paulus Hook itself, now known as 
Jersey City), on Monday, August 17, 
from a ferry-house that was but re- 
cently removed in numbered sections 
and set up on Starin's Glen Island in 
Long Island Sound. The first trip is 
described by Fulton in a letter to Joel 
Earlow and in another to the Citizen. 
In the former he said : 

"My steamboat voyage to Albany and 
back has turned out rather more favorable 
than I had calculated. The distance from 
New York to Albany is one hundred and 
fifty miles : I ran it up in thirty-two hours, 
and down in thirty. I had a light breeze 
against me the whole way, both going and 
coming, and the voyage has been per- 
formed wholly by the power of the steam- 
engine. I overtook many sloops and 
schooners beating to windward, and parted 
with them as if they had been at anchor. 

"The power of propelling boats by steam 
is now fully proved. The morning I left 
New York, there were not perhaps thirty 
persons in the city who believed that the 
boat would ever move one mile an hour, or 
be of the least utility; and while we were 
putting off from the wharf, which was 
crowded with spectators, I heard a number 
of sarcastic remarks. This is the way in 
which ignorant men compliment what they 
call philosophers and projectors. 

"Having employed much time, money, 
and zeal, in accomplishing this work, it 
gives me. as it will you, great pleasure to 
see it fully answer my # expectations. It 
will give a cheap and quick conveyance to 
the merchandise on the Mississippi, Mis- 
souri, and other great rivers, which are 
now laying open their treasures to the en- 
terprise of our countrymen; and although 
the prospect of personal emolument has 
been some inducement to me, yet I feel in- 
finitely more pleasure in reflecting on the 
immense advantage my country will derive 
from the invention," etc. 

The letter in the Citizen is very lit- 
tle different from what he had written 
to Barlow : 

"To the Editor of the American Cit- 
izen/ 

"Sir: — I arrived this afternoon, at four 
o'clock, in the steamboat from Albany. As 
the success of my experiment gives me 



great hopes that such boats may be ren- 
dered of great importance to my country, 
to prevent erroneous opinions and give 
some satisfaction to the friends of useful 
improvements, you will have the goodness 
to publish the following statement of facts : 

"I left New York on Monday at one 
o'clock, and arrived at Clermont, the seat 
of Chancellor Livingston, at one o'clock on 
Tuesday — time, twenty-four hours, dis- 
tance, one hundred and ten miles. On 
Wednesday, I departed from the Chancel- 
lor's at nine in the morning, and arrived at 
Albany at five in the afternoon — distance, 
forty miles, time, eight hours. The sum 
is one hundred, and fifty miles in thirty- 
two hours, equal! to near five miles an hour. 

"On Thursday, at nine o'clock in the 
morning, I left Albany, and arrived at the 
Chancellor's at six in the evening : I started 
from thence at seven, and arrived at New 
York at four in the afternoon — time, thirty 
hours, space run through, one hundred and 
fifty miles, equal to five miles an hour. 
Throughout my whole way, both going and 
returning, the wind was ahead; no advan- 
tage could be derived from my sails: the 
whole has, therefore, been performed by 
the power of the steam-engine. 

"I am, sir, your obedient servant, 
Robert Fulton/' 

In the correspondence of a gentle- 
man from South Carolina there is a 
letter published in the British Naval 
Chronicle dated September 8, 1807, 
descriptive of the trip and stating that 
"on the nineteenth of August" he 
"was invited to go from Clermont to 
Albany on the boat which had come 
up in twenty-four hours from New 
York." Prior to this trip of the 
steamboat the distance covered re- 
quired from four days to a full week 
on the sloops and packets that sailed 
between the two cities. 

This date would agree with Ful- 
ton's account and may be accepted as 
correct, although there are as many 
dates given for the first trip as there 
are differing pictures of the true and 
accurate lines of the boat itself. I 
have made a life-long study of the de- 
velopment of steam navigation, inves- 
tigating the mechanical evolution as 
thoroughly as the historical, and I re- 
gret the necessity of here stating that 
all the pictures of Fulton steamboats 
presented in two of his most widely 
accepted biographies are absolutely 
untrustworthy. They represent either 



384 1607—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



the imagination or the misunderstand- 
ing of the artist rather than anything 
that Fulton ever planned. I doubt if 
he would be able to recognize them as 
his own "children." It is unfortu- 
nate that these spurious pictures are 
used in nearly all the books that 
occupy positions of authority in our 
public libraries. 

Possibly the dropping of the fig- 
ure "one" before the "seven" in tran- 
scribing the account has led to the 
naming of "August 7" as the date of 
the first trip, and the careless omission 
of the hook from the top of the figure 
"seven" in transcribing some other 
account has led to setting the time on 
the "eleventh." Let us then, for the 
sake of posterity, settle down upon 
the fact that the boat left New York 
Monday afternoon, August 17, 1807, 
at one o'clock, having on board a party 
of invited guests, among whom was 
the Dean of Ripon, England, and ar- 
rived at Clermont, the home of Chan- 
cellor Livingston, Tuesday afternoon, 
where she remained until Wednesday 
morning at nine o'clock, when she left 
for Albany, arriving there at five 
o'clock, having made the longest con- 
tinuous trip of any steamboat in the 
world. Later Fulton wrote to Chan- 
cellor Livingston: 

"New York, 

"Saturday, the 29TH of August, 1807. 

"Dear Sir: — On Saturday I wrote you 
that I arrived here on Friday at four 
o'clock, which made my voyage from 
Albany exactly thirty hours. We had a 
little wind on Friday morning, but no 
waves which produced any effect. I have 
been making every exertion to get off on 
Monday morning, but there has been much 
work to do — boarding all the sides, deck- 
ing over the boiler and works, finishing 
each cabin with twelve berths to make them 
comfortable, and strengthening many parts 
of the iron work. So much to do, and the 
rain, which delays the caulkers, will, I 
fear, not let me off till Wednesday morn- 



ing. Then, however, the boat will be as 
complete as she can be made — all strong 
and in good order and the men well organ- 
ized, and I hope, nothing to do but to run 
her for six weeks or two months. The 
first week, that is if she starts on Wednes- 
day, she will make one trip to Albany and 
back. Every succeeding week she will run 
three trips — that is, two to Albany and one 
to New York, or two to New York and one 
to Albany always having Sunday and four 
nights for rest to the crew. By carrying 
for the usual price there can be no doubt 
but the steamboat will have the preference 
because of the certainty and agreeable 
movements. I have seen the captain of the 
fine sloop from Hudson. He says the aver- 
age of his passages have been forty-eight 
hours. For the steamboat it would have 
been thirty certain. The persons who came 
down with me were so much pleased that 
they said were she established to run peri- 
odically they never would go in any thing 
else. I will have her registered and every 
thing done which I can recollect. Every 
thing looks well and I have no doubt will 
be very producive. 

"Yours truly, 

"Robert Fulton/' 

It is due time that an accurate his- 
torical record be made of the "Cler- 
mont," the first steamboat in the world 
to enter into the trade of carrying pas- 
sengers as a practical and permanent 
business. It is of further importance 
that publishers of books of educa- 
tional and historical purport present 
accurate reproductions of the "Cler- 
mont" and this applies also to all other 
prints relating to the vital events of 
our national life. 

As shown first in the Connecticut 
Magazine, the "Clermont" was a 
wedge-shaped boat, with two masts 
and no bow-sprit or figure head. 
According to Fulton's own state- 
ment, and certainly he knew the 
dimensions of his first steamboat, she 
was one hundred and fifty feet long, 
thirteen feet wide and seven feet deep. 
Being flat-bottomed she carried two 
"lee-boards" to use as adjuncts for 




FIRST STEAMBOAT PAINTINGS IN THE WORLD 
Reproductions from rare canvases by James Bard, the marine painter 
whose brush perpetuated the architecture of the first boat to be propelled by 
steam — Bard's painting of the "North American," a marvel of the Hudson River 




"WHY SLEEP ON THE EDGE OF A VOLCANO" 
''■*' This was the advertisement introducing the "Commerce," which 

towed barges containing sleeping apartments for its passengers— This boat was 

designed for rich travelers on the Hudson who desired to avoid the danger of sleeping over steam 

boilers— Reproduction from canvas by James Bard and believed to the oldest steamboat painting in the world 




FIRST BOAT BUILT FOR HUDSON RIVER DAY LINE SERVICE 

The "City of Albany" reproduced from the original Bard canvas painted for Commodore Van 

Sanvoord, a leading personality in the first years of steam navigation following its inauguration by Fulton 




FIRST FOUR-PIPE STEAMBOAT IN THE WORLD 

The "Champlain" of 1828 from rare canvas owned by Captain Roe 

of Albany, New York, who for more than sixty years was a prominent figure 

on the Hudson river and whose family is one of the oldest in river navigation 



1807— CENTENNIAL OF STEAM NAVIGATION— 1907 387 



steering when the sails were set, to 
prevent making leeway; the bottom 
was a transverse platform and mould- 
ed out with batten and nails. The 
shape of the bottom being thus formed, 
the floors of oak and spruce were 
placed across the bottom; the spruce 
floors being four by eight inches and 
two feet apart; the oak floors being 
reserved for the ends; the oak floors 
both sided and moulded eight inches. 
Her top timbers (which were of 
spruce, and extended from a log that 
formed the bridge to the deck) were 
sided six inches and moulded at heel, 
and both sided and moulded four 
inches at the head. Her draught of 
water was twenty-eight inches. She 
had a copper boiler weighing 4,399 
pounds, entirely encased with brick, 
the whole being twenty feet long, 
seven feet deep, and eight feet wide, 
above which there towered a twenty- 
five foot chimney made of sheet iron 
bought of Mr. Jackson for $26.25; 
her cylinder was twenty-four inches 
in diameter, with four feet stroke ; her 
wheels, made of planks bought 
of John Cunningham for $23.43, 
were fifteen feet in diameter, with 
eight arms; the buckets or paddles 
having a thirty-inch face and two 
feet dip; her shaft was of cast iron, 
four and a half inches in diameter, un- 
der the deck, and had a fly-wheel of 
ten feet diameter outside of the boat; 
the arms of the wheel extended below 
the bottom, and were the source of 
great inconvenience in shoal water. 

In the Albany Gazette of September 
2, 1807, there is an "ad" reading as 
follows : 

"The North-River Steamboat will leave 
Pauler's Hook Ferry on Friday, the 4th of 
September, at 9 in the morning, and arrive 
at Albany on Saturday at 9 in the after- 
noon. Provisions, good berths, and ac- 
commodations are provided. 
**** "The charge to each passenger is as fol- 
lows: 

To Newburg dols. 3, time, 14 hours. 
To Poughkeepsie " 4, "17 
* To Esopus " 5. " 20 " 

To Hudson " S l A, " 30 " 

, To Albany " 7, " 36 " 



"For places apply to William Vander- 
voort, No. 48 Courtlandt Street, on the 
corner of Greenwich Street." 

The Connecticut Herald, of Octo- 
ber 9, 1807, has a letter from New- 
York, dated October 3, in which the 
writer says : 

"Mr. Fulton's steamboat is handsomely 
fitted for the conveyance of passengers be- 
tween this city and Albany. She left here 
yesterday with ninety passengers." 

On October 13, 1807, a second let- 
ter is printed in which the writer 
states : V 

"Mr. Fulton's new invented steam Boat, 
which is fitted up in a neat style for pas- 
sengers and is intended to run from New 
York to Albany as a packet, left here yes- 
terday with 90 passengers, against a strong 
wind and tide. Notwithstanding which it 
was judged she moved through the water 
at the rate of six miles an hour. Yester- 
day she came in from Albany in 28 hours 
with 60 passengers. Quere; Would it not 
be well if she contract with the Post-master 
General to carry the mail from this city to 
Albany?" 

A letter from John Lambert, an 
Englishman traveling in this country 
in 1807-8, has an excellent reference 
to the "Clermont," although the 
writer was slightly mixed as to the 
time of her building; the letter reads 
as follows: 

"We were very desirous of seeing the 
construction of the steamboat, which trav- 
els at the rate of five miles an hour against 
wind and tide. It was built about four years 
ago, under the direction of Mr. Fulton, an 
American gentleman of great mechanical 
abilities. . . . The machine which moves 
her wheels is called a twenty-horse ma- 
chine, or equal to the power of so many 
horses, and is kept in motion by steam 
from a copper boiler eight or ten feet in 
length. The wheels at either side are sim- 
ilar to those of water-mills, and are under 
cover, they are moved backward or for- 
ward, separately or together, at pleasure. (?) 
Her principal advantage is in calms or 
against head-winds. When the wind is 
fair, light square sails, etc., are employed 
to increase her speed. Her accommoda- 
tions include fifty-two berths besides sofas, 
and are said to be equal, if not superior, to 
any vessel that sails on the river. They 
are necessarily extensive, as all the space 
unoccupied by the machinery is fitted up in 
a convenient and elegant manner. Her 
route between Albany and New York is a 
distance of 160 miles, which she performs 
regularly twice a week, sometimes in the 



388 1607—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



short period of thirty-two hours, exclusive 
of the detention by taking in and landing 
passengers. She carries from 100 to 120 
people. The fare from New York to 
Albany is seven dollars." 

This harmonizes perfectly with the 
description of the boat as published in 
the Hudson Bee in 1808, after the 
boat had undergone extensive altera- 
tions in shape and proportions. Speak- 
ing of the wheels, which at first were 
not covered but were later enclosed in 
wheel-boxes, the Bee says: 

"They are moved backward or forward 
separately or together at pleasure. The 
machine which moves the wheels is called, 
we believe, a twenty horse-power machine, 
and is kept in motion by steam from a 
copper boiler 8 or 12 feet long. She sails 
at the rate of 4 miles an hour." 

We have Fulton's personal state- 
ment as to the size of the boat (given 
above) and also his notations on the 
back of a patent specification intended 
for John Stevens, of Hoboken, that 
the bow and the stern were sharpened 
to angles of sixty degrees. With this 
agrees the statement of Professor 
Renwick in his letter to Captain Ed- 
ward Sabine, R. A., Secretary of the 
Royal Society in England, which was 
written about 1829-30: 

"Mr. Fulton, in his earlier boats, had 
employed flat bottoms and prows nearly of 
the shape of a wedge, with plane surfaces. 
I recollect, even at that early date, haying 
combated the propriety of this plan in a 
conversation I had with him. The changes 
that he and his imitators subsequently made 
were, however, rather grounded upon the 
necessity of increasing the strength of the 
vessels by regular curves in their molds, 
than from a conviction of the error in the 
principle. The last boats built under his 
own directions resembled in form vessels 
intended to be propelled by sails, but of a 
small draught of water." 

During the winter of 1807-8 the 
"Clermont" was so thoroughly 
changed that one would have been 
safe in declaring that, except in en- 
gine and purpose, she was not the 
same boat at all. Professor Renwick 
says (though he is mistaken about the 
name being "Clermont") : 
. . . "The winter of 1807-8 was occupied 
in remodeling and rebuilding the vessel, 
to which the name of 'Clermont' was now 



given. The guards and housings for the 
wheels, which had been but temporary 
structures, applied as their value was point- 
ed out by experience, became solid and 
essential parts of the boat. For a rudder of 
the ordinary form, one of surface much 
more extended in its horizontal dimensions, 
was substituted. This, instead of being 
moved by a tiller, was acted upon by ropes 
applied to its extremity, and these ropes 
were adapted to a steering wheel, which 
was raised aloft towards the bow of the 
vessel. . . . The 'Clermont,' thus con- 
verted into a floating palace, gay with orna- 
mental painting, gilding and polished 
woods, commenced her. course of passages 
for the second year in the month of April." 

So extensive were the changes 
made that a new registration at the 
custom-house was necessary. This 
registration, which was transcribed by 
Mr. John Morrison for his "History 
of American Steam Navigation," is as 
follows : 

"No. 108. 

"Enrollment in conformity to an Act of 
the Congress of the United States of Amer- 
ica entitled 'An Act for enrolling and 
licensing ships or vessels to be employed 
in the coasting trade and fisheries, and for 
regulating the same.' 

"Robert R. Livingston, of Clermont, 

"Columbia County, State of New York, 
"having taken and subscribed to the oath 
required by the said Act and having sworn 
that he together with Robert Fulton of the 
City of New York, are citizens of the 
United States, and sole owners of the ship 
or vessel called the North River Steam- 
boat of Clermont, whereof Samuel Wiswall 
is at present master, and as he hath sworn 
he is a citizen of the United States, and 
that the said ship or vessel was built in the 
City of New York, in the year 1807, as per 
enrollment 173 issued at this port on the 
3d day of September, 1807, now given up, 
the vessel being enlarged. And Peter A. 
Schenck, Surveyor of the Port, having cer- 
tified that the said ship or vessel has one 
deck and two masts, and that her length 
is 149 ft; breadth, 17 ft 11 in.; depth, 7 
ft., and that she measures 182-48-95 tons. 
That she is a square-sterned boat, has 
square tuck; no quarter galleries and no 
figure-head. Hands and Seals, May 14, 
1808." 

On May 13, 1810, the Hudson Bee^ 
which, more than any of the other pa- 
pers of the time, seems to have fol- 
lowed the movements of the steam- 
boat, says: 

"The North River Steamboat (which is 
believed to have been the first one built on 




SPEEDIEST RIVER BOATS OF THE EARLY DAYS 

The "Oseola," a swift little craft that ran to Poughkeepsie in j 843— Reproduction 

from original painting by Bard for Captain Allen Degroot, an old-time captain of the Hudson River 




ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR STEAMBOATS OF HER TIME 

The "Alida," which for many years carried distinguished travelers along the "American 

Rhine" — Reproduction from old canvas painted by Bard for Commodore Van Sanvoord of New York 




IN MEMORY OF AMERICA'S GREATEST LEGEND 

The "Rip Van Winkle," a steamboat that carried the beloved name of the sage 

of the Catskills and sailed the historic river made famous in American literature by Washington Irvin| 




ONE OF THE FIRST STEAMBOATS TO UNDERTAKE A LONG RUN 

The " Fanny," a staunch little craft under command of Captain David Tremper of Roundout, 

New York, one of the most popular men that ever captained a ship— In 1840, after long service, the 

" Fanny" was offered for sale as "built of locust and live oak and Jersey plank, thoroughly coppered' 



!8o7— CENTENNIAL OF STEAM NAVIGATION— 1907 393 



the river and has lately been known by the 
name of 'Clermont/ that is in the bo'oks) 
Captain Wiswall, arrived at this port yes- 
terday afternoon at 5 o'clock, (Sunday, 
May 13, 1810) being the shortest trip she 
has ever made. But for the necessary de- 
tention in the way of landing passengers, it 
would have been performed in 19 hours." 

During the fall of that year some 
of the citizens of Albany appealed to 
the press to enter their protest against 
the cutting of wood on the city com- 
mons for use on the steamboat with- 
out paying anything for the privilege. 
It is figured out in the papers that the 
boat carried on an average, eighty 
passengers each way per trip. "At 
seven dollars each," says the writer, 
"the income of the company was up- 
wards of $80,000 and if we deduct 
one-quarter for expenses, there yet re- 
mains $60,000 profits. Isn't that 
enough to allow something for the 
wood used as fuel ?" 

The success of the great invention 
was speedily followed, January 7th, 
1808, by Robert Fulton's marriage to 
Miss Harriet Livingston, the daughter 
of Walter Livingston, Esquire, of 
Tiviotdale, Livingston Manor. It is 
related that the engagement was for- 
mally announced by Chancellor Liv- 
ingston, upon the deck of the "Cler- 
mont," during the interesting hours of 
her first successful voyage. In a 
graceful speech telling of the be- 
trothal, the Chancellor prophesied that 
"the name of the inventor will de- 
scend to posterity as that of a bene- 
factor to the world, and that it is not 
impossible that before the close of the 
present century, vessels might even be 
able to make the voyage to Europe 
without other motive power than 
steam." 

When the business world saw the 
Fulton theory of steam navigation de- 
velop into a great and strong business 
enterprise, there was an immediate 
,ash of capital into its promotion. 
The business world is imitative. It 
lacks courage for the initiative. It 
waits for someone else to take the risk 
and then jostles and grasps for a 
I handful of the emoluments. 



In 181 1 an opposition line, with the 
"Hope" and the "Perseverance," un- 
der Captains Sherman and Bunker, 
was announced as ready for patron- 
age. These boats were swifter and 
better in every way than the "Cler- 
mont," even after the extensive alter- 
ations that entitled her to the appella- 
tion: "floating palace, gay with orna- 
mental painting, gilding and polished 
woods." Captain Bunker had just 
given up his sailing packet, which, on 
April 14, 180& had been advertised as 
sailing between* New York and Hud- 
son. "This," says the New York 
Press, in a retrospective edition some 
years after, "was the first packet 
run on the river and as an in- 
ducement to travelers, it was an- 
nounced that bed and bedding would 
be provided for passengers going that 
way. Prior to this travelers had to 
furnish themselves with such com- 
forts." 

The "Hope" was launched Tuesday 
evening, March 19, 181 1, and on the 
trip down the river, July 2.7, was 
challenged by the "Clermont" for 
a race. This was the first steamboat 
race in history. Both boats left 
Albany at nine o'clock in the morning, 
with the "Hope" a little in the lead. 
This position was held until "the 
boats were about two miles above 
Hudson when the old boat, by reason 
of her lighter draught, took advan- 
tage of the shallow and tried to pass 
while the "Hope" kept to the channel. 
The result was a collision in which 
neither boat was at all injured. Cap- 
tain Bartholomew on the "North 
River" (or "Clermont"), at once chal- 
lenged the doughty Bunker to race for 
$2,000 for any number of miles but 
the latter refused in a proper spirit. 
Either boat ran to New York in 
twenty-nine or thirty hours. f 

Competition was keen and the mat- 
ter soon found its way into the courts 
where, after a long, legal wrangle, the 
two boats of the monopoly breakers 
were confiscated to the original com- 
pany and destroyed at Albany in the 
presence of their builders. 



394 1607—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



At this time Fulton had only the 
one boat running on the Hudson, but 
he soon added the "Car of Neptune" 
and the "Paragon/' both of which 
were in every way better than his ear- 
lier efforts — the "Raritan" was at this 
time on the Raritan river. These 
two boats had high poop decks, four 
feet above the main deck, and the en- 
trance to the cabin was by the old- 
fashioned companionway, not by a 
house on deck. They each carried 
two masts. On the foremast was a 
square sail, two topsails and a jib, and 
on the main mast each carried a 
spanker and a topsail. The foremast 
was hinged by a heel and trunnions 
so that it could be lowered when the 
wind was ahead. When the weather 
was favorable everybody, passengers 
and crew alike, were summoned to 
raise the mast and hoist sail. When 
making a landing the pilot blew a 
great tin horn, some five feet long, in- 
stead of ringing a bell, the bell being 
used only to announce meals, which 
were always included in the cost of the 
ticket. 

Writing to Captain Brink, who 
commanded the "North River" the 
second year, Fulton says : 

Captain Brink 

Sir: Inclosed is the number of voyages 
which it is intended the boat should run 
this season. You may have them pub- 
lished in the Albany papers. As she is 
strongly made, and every one, except Jack- 
son, under your command, you must insist 
on each one doing his duty, .or turn him 
on shore and put another in his places 
Everything must be kept in order — every- 
thing in its place, and all parts of the boat 
scoured and cleaned. It is not sufficient to 
tell men to do a thing, but stand over them 
and make them do it. One pair of good 
eyes is worth six pairs of hands in a com- 
mander. If the boat is dirty or out of 
order, the fault should be yours. Let no 
man be idle when there is the least thing 
to do ; and move quickly. 

Run no risque of any kind; when you 
meet or overtake vessels beating or cross- 
ing your way, always run under their stern, 
if there be the least doubt that you cannot 
clear their head by fifty yards or more. 

Give the amount of receipts and expenses 
every week to the Chancellor. 

Your Most Obedient 

Robert Fulton. 



A few items here from Fulton's 
diary may add to the interest of the 
story. Under the date of August 10, 
1807, he writes : 

To a North River man for the lease of an 

anchor $2 

For dishes and plates $4 

2 Water Casks $3 

and under the fifteenth, when the fin- 
ishing touches were given, he enters : 

Wine, sugar brandy $3 

Mr. Johnson, the mason $40 (for bricking 

in the boiler which had been put in 

place by Mr. Maxwell) 
To a harpoon gun $20. Lead for Bullets 

$12. 

In October, among other entries, 
we find the following : 

Richards, for table $12.00 

Jacob Winkle for mattresses $64.88 

As there are no original plans of 
the first boat, the illustration used here 
being a picture of the model in the 
National Museum in Washington, 
which, while agreeing as to general 
outline to the descriptions given to the 
writer by two persons who sailed 
upon her on the first trip up the river, 
gives an exaggerated idea as to the 
extreme length of the boat, it will 
be worth while to produce the plans of 
the "Raritan," designed by Robert 
Fulton in October, 1807. It will be 
seen that at this early date he had dis- 
covered the necessity of changing the 
lines of the hull, going back to those 
of the boat he had built in France, 
although he wrote to Stevens, of Ho- 
boken, in 1808, that "the bows and 
stern (of a boat) should be sharp to 
angles of at least sixty degrees. The 
bow should not be full like sloops, for 
two reasons : that being long they can- 
not rise on the waves like sloops but 
must cut through them and being 
sharp the resistance is less." This 
would lead us to conclude, as seems 
to be intimated by Professor Renwick, 
that the change in shape was nrtf 
wholly of his own deductions, b£r 
rather in deference to the opinion of 
others. 

But new claimants were coming 
up all the while, or new men with old 
claims, and Fulton was harassed on 



i8o?— CENTENNIAL OF STEAM NAVIGATION— 1907 395 



every hand. In a letter to Eli Whit- 
ney, relative to securing injunctions 
against those who were invading his 
rights, he writes of his steamboats 
that he has 

"proved their practicability and utility 
to the world and accommodating the pub- 
lic with a conveyance from New York to 
Albany, which for elegance, convenience 
and rapidity is superior to any conveyance 
in this globe" (April 4, 1811). 

The original Fitch patents had 
come into the hands of Governor Og- 
den, of New Jersey, and a line of 
boats was put into operation between 
New York and Elizabethport, New 
Jersey, in defiance of Fulton's exclu- 
sive charter for navigating boats pro- 
pelled by steam on any water within 
the limits of New York state. Ogden 
appealed to the legislature of the pro- 
hibiting state, but before a decision 
had been given by that body a com- 
promise was made between the con- 
tending parties and Ogden was given 
permission to run his boats for a pe- 
riod of ten years under the Fulton- 
Livingston franchise. There was a 
partner, however, Thomas Gibbons, of 
Georgia, who later built the "Olive 
Branch/' the "United States" and 
other boats, and he refused to be 
bound by the terms of the agreement. 
Counting on the testimony of Dr. Wil- 
liam Thornton, the first United States 
commissioner of patents, he pre- 
pared for a fight. Thornton seems 
always to have been a thorn in Ful- 
ton's flesh. Writing to Monroe, Sec- 
retary of State under Madison, in re- 
lation to his patents he says : 

"The case of Dr. Thornton is very sim- 
ple, if he is an inventor, a genius who can 
live by his talents, let him do so, but while 
he is a Clerk in the office of the Secretary 
of State and paid by the public for his ser- 
vices, he should be forbid to deal in patents, 
and thereby torment patentees, involving 
them in vexatious suits, he should have his 
eJfcce to quit the office or his pernicious 
practices. 

My good Sir, I expect this of you. 

I am, with sincere regards 
Robert Fulton. 
December 27, 1814." 

, It will be remembered that during 
^October, 1802, Dr. Thornton had pro- 



posed to Major Clayborn, of Wash- 
ington, that a joint concern be ar- 
ranged to build steamboats that would 
use Thornton's boilers, Clayborn's pad- 
dle-wheels and Isaac Brigg's engines. 
In the following December, Fulver 
Skipworth received a letter in answer 
to one sent to Fulton in Paris, con- 
taining the following suggestion: 

"My advice, therefore, is that Mr. Clai- 
born should make a small model, four feet 
long and one loot wide and about four 
inches deep, flat\n the ends or pointed to 
sixty degrees. In such he can place a 
strong clock spring which by multiplied 
wheels will turn a crank and give motion to 
the paddles." 

Robert Fulton. 
Paris, 12 December, 1802." 

A recollection of this letter, taken in 
connection with the activities of 
Thornton in the patents of Fitch, 
which seem to have come into his 
hands, may have led to the writing of 
the letter quoted above. 

While Ogden was yet running the 
"Sea Horse," a lever-beam-engine 
boat, seventy-five feet long and four- 
teen feet wide, between New York 
and Elizabethtown, Gibbons put on 
two boats, the "Bellona" and the 
"Stoudinger," to run from the adja- 
cent ferry-slip in opposition. This 
was the first entry of Commodore 
Vanderbilt into the steamboat enter- 
prise of which he afterward became 
the supreme dictator. In Longworth's 
New York Directory for 1819 one 
may see the advertisement of this new 
line of boats bidding for patronage : 

"The Old Union Line for Philadelphia 
via New Brunswick, Princeton, Trenton, 
and Bristol 35 miles land carriage. Fare 
through, 5 Dollars; the Vice President's 
[Daniel D. Tompkins] Steamboat Nauti- 
lus, Captain Deforest, will leave New York 
every day (Sundays excepted) from 
Whitehall Wharf, at 11 o'clock a.m. for 
Staten Island. From her the passengers 
will be received without delay into the su- 
perior and fast sailing steamboat Bellona, 
Captain Vanderbelt, for Brunswick; from 
thence — Post Chaises to Trenton, where 
we lodge, and arrive next morning at 9 
o'clock in Philadelphia with the commo- 
dious and fast sailing steamboat Philadel- 
phia, Captain Jenkins, in time to take the 
Old Union Line Baltimore Steamboat" 



39 6 1607—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



When Vanderbilt asked for the 
loan of ten dollars to purchase a boat 
for his proposed ferry-line, his mother 
made the loan conditional on his 
planting the hardest piece of the farm 
land with potatoes within a prescribed 
time. When the day arrived, the 
potatoes were all in the ground and 
the boy was demanding his money. 
Later he was asked by Gibbons to 
take command of the "Bellona" and 
after several years in this relation, 
when he had decided to withdraw and 
organize a line of his own, Gibbon in- 
sisted that he become a partner, or if 
not, that he should buy out his entire 
interest and run the line personally. 
The "Stoudinger"' above mentioned 
and the "Bellona" then became his 
property, the former being re-named 
"Mouse-in-the-Mountain." 

During the time of Vanderbilt 
the question of exclusive rights for 
the use of steam on the waters of 
New York was taken into court ' 
and upon an adverse decision was 
carried to the Supreme Court of 
the United States and the famous de- 
cision of Chief Justice Marshall was 
rendered by which the monopoly of 
seventeen years was destroyed. 

The full list of steamboats enrolled 
at the New York customhouse be- 
tween 1808, the second enrollment of 
the "Clermont," and 1820, covers but 
six vessels, viz: "North River of 
Clermont," May 14, 1808; "Car of 
Neptune," 1808, one hundred and sev- 
enty-five feet by twenty-four feet by 
eight feet; "Paragon," November 
9, 181 1, one hundred and sixty-seven 
feet by twenty-six feet and ten inches 
by seven feet and nine inches; "Fire 
Fly," September, 1812, eighty-one 
feet by fourteen feet by four feet and 
five inches; "Richmond," July 6, 1814, 
one hundred and fifty-four feet by 
twenty-eight feet and nine inches ; 
"Chancellor Livingston," March 29, 
181 7, one hundred and fifty-seven feet 
by thirty-three and a half feet by ten 
feet. With the exception of the 
"Chancellor Livingston" the hulls of 
these vessels, which all belonged to 



the North River Steamboat Company, 
were built by Charles Brownne. Evi- 
dently the "Fulton" and the "Rari- 
tan" must have been enrolled else- 
where. The "Fulton" was designed 
by Captain Bunker, who seems soon 
after the confiscation of the "Hope" 
and the "Perseverance" to have come 
into the employ of the North River 
Steamboat Company, and was looked 
upon by Fulton almost as incredu- 
lously as the people of 1807 had 
looked upon his strange craft. More 
than a hundred times he reiterated to 
Cadwaller Colden, whose entire for- 
tune was involved in her building, the 
lines being drawn by Elihu Bunker 
who had full authority as to the ar- 
rangement of every little detail, that 
the boat would be a total failure. 
(See Doc. 21, House of Represen- 
tatives, twenty-fifth session, page 
104.) When she finally proved to be 
a success the name of "Fulton" was 
painted across the stern and a bust in 
his honor was carried as a figure-head 
at the bow. 

For the "Raritan" there are signed 
plans by Fulton and a letter as fol- 
lows: 

"As you will have more and greater 
waves than the North River boat, the 
wheel guards must be so constructed that 
the head of the wave shall not strike under 
them as here delineated; they are 4 ft 
from the water; AA, keelsons for the 
boiler, 8 ft. 6 in. from outside to outside; 
BB, keelsons for the machinery, 7 ft. from 
outside to outside ; C, hatchway to let in the 
boilers, 8 ft. 4 in. wide, 21 ft. long. See 
Figure the 1st. 

"Robt. Fulton. 

"John R. Livingston, Esq., Oct. 22, 1807/* 

The "Chancellor Livingston" was 
built from designs by Stoudinger, 
who succeeded Fulton as engineer of 
the first steam frigate-of-war, after 
the death of the latter in 181 5. Ful- 
ton had been attending court at Tr<S&* 
ton in reference to his claims as the 
original inventor of steamboats and ip 
returning to his home at No. 1 State 
street, New York city, contracted a 
severe cold from which he died within 
a few days. 



1807— CENTENNIAL OF STEAM NAVIGATION— 1907 397 



We have, then, but the "Clermont," 
"Car of Neptune," "Paragon," "Rar- 
itan," "Fire Fly," "Lady Richmond," 
"Washington," and a small steam 
ferry-boat and the "Demologos," be- 
sides the "New Orleans" and the 
"Vesuvius" on the Ohio river as 
having come direct from Robert Ful- 
ton. The "Emperor of Russia," which 
subsequently became the "Connecti- 
cut," was not built until a year after 
his death, which occurred February 
24, 181 5. It is possible that Fulton 
may have worked on the plans for 
this boat which was one hundred and 
thirty-four feet long, thirty feet wide 
and nine and a half feet deep. She 
carried three boilers and had an en- 
gine with a thirty-six inch cylinder 
and a five foot stroke. Her wheels 
were sixteen feet in diameter with 
buckets four feet ten inches wide that 
had a dip of two and a half feet. 

The "North River," or "Clermont," 
ran until 18 14, when she was super- 
seded by the "Lady Richmond," but 
was not broken up till some time dur- 
ing 1825 ; the. "Car of Neptune" was 
broken up after years of faithful ser- 
vice; the "Paragon," which had been 
used to tow the "Demologos" from 
the dock where she was built to Jersey 
City, struck on a rock while going up 
the river in 1820 and was so badly 
damaged that she had to be aban- 
doned ; the "Raritan" wore herself out 
on the river whose name she bore ; the 
"Fire Fly" went onto Long Island 
Sound and was worn out in service 
around Providence; the "Lady Rich- 
mond" came into the possession of 
Captain Wiswall and ran for years ad- 
vertised as "Slow but Sure;" the 
"Washington" was broken up on the 
Potomac and the "Demologos" was 
destroyed by an explosion on board 
at the Brooklyn navy yard, June 4, 
■$29, causing the death of twenty-five 
persons. 

When the "Chancellor Livingston," 

* of which we gave a picture in the last 

number of the Journal of American 

History, copied from a rare litho- 

4 graph of 1824, now owned by Mr. E. 



E. Olcott, president of the Hudson 
River Day Line, came upon the 
Hudson it was expected that she 
would make marvelous time, but 
in this her builders were disap- 
pointed. On her trial trip, March 
29, 18 17, she ran to Newburgh in a 
"few minutes less than nine hours, of 
which time the tide was in her favor 
only three hours. In returning the 
same distance was run in eight hours 
and fifteen minutes — the greater part 
of the time against a flood-tide and a 
head-wind." it was calculated that 
she would go to Albany in twenty 
hours and she did actually succeed in 
making the trip, December 5, 1817, in 
eighteen hours. She ran upon the 
Hudson till 1824 when she was refit- 
ted for service on the Sound and later 
went to the coast of Maine. 

While the "Chancellor Livingston" 
and the "Lady Richmond" were run- 
ning as the only boats on the line of 
the North River Steamboat Company 
some question came up with the Post 
Office officials relative to the carrying 
of mail and a notice appeared in the 
papers stating that "The Post-Master- 
General, having declined sending mail 
by the North River Steamboats, ex- 
cepting to West Point, Newburgh 
and Hudson, letters and papers will 
be received on board the boats for 
Albany and the different places to 
which the mails were formerly car- 
ried. Boxes are provided on board 
of each boat for the reception of let- 
ter, etc., etc." 

This was practically the dawning of 
a new era. That matchless family of 
engineers at Hoboken had, for per- 
sonal reasons, refused to enter into 
competition with the North River 
Steamboat Company, Chancellor Liv- 
ingston and Colonel Stevens having 
been brought into relationship by mar- 
riage, but as soon as the old company 
had been dissolved, they brought onto 
the river one of their best boats from 
the Delaware river. It would not be 
possible to follow the story from this 
time on to the present in a single arti- 
cle and this must be reserved for 



398 1607—TER-CENTENARY OF AMERICAN COMMERCE 



another time, but the progress that 
has been made from the time that the 
"Clermont'' started out with a capac- 
ity of not more than a hundred pas- 
sengers and a speed of not more than 
four, or possibly, five miles an hour, 
and the days of the "Commerce" and 
the "Fanny," or the even later, larger 
and faster "Champlain" may be 
judged by glancing at the new magni- 
ficent "Hendrick Hudson" of the 
Albany day line or the stately "C W. 
Morse" of the People's Line of night 
boats to-day running between New 
York and Abany, shown here that it 
may be seen what progress marks the 
century of steam navigation. 

To show the evolution of the Hud- 
son river day boat a list giving the 
sizes of prominent steamers built for 
the business of carrying passengers 
between New York and Albany since 
the day of the "Clermont" is herewith 
appended : 

Year Length 

Built. Name of Vessel. Feet. 

1807 — Clermont 133 

1816 — Chancellor Livingston 154 

1832 — Erie 180 

1836 — Rochester 209 

i860 — Daniel Drew 251 

1864 — Chauncey Vibbard 281 

1881— Albany 325 

1887— New York 350 

1906 — Hendrick Hudson 400 

Early in the nineteenth century the 
Hudson river set the pace for speedy 
and magnificent steamboats. Follow- 
ing the advent of the crudely con- 
structed "Clermont," the first vessel to 
be elaborately fitted was the "Chan- 
cellor Livingston," which appeared on 
the river in 18 16, being the last steam- 
boat designed by Fulton. Since that 
day the owners of each successive 
steamer have seemed to vie with one 
another to produce something greater 
and grander than the predecessors. 
Some of these early vessels would be 
called freaks nowadays. For instance, 
the "Erie" and "Champlain," built in 
1832 for the day line between New 
York and Albany, were each propelled 
by two beam engines and carried four 
boilers and smoke pipes, two on each 
guard. Despite this apparent super- 



fluity of power they were not as 
speedy as some of the contemporary 
steamers built some years before their 
advent. 

To-day — at the close of the first 
century of steam navigation we find 
on the same "American Rhine" the 
most palatial river palaces that the 
world has ever known. Fulton, in 
his wildest dreams, never conceived 
such magnificent floating temples, one 
alone of which could carry away the 
entire population of any one of a 
greater proportion of the American 
communities. Along the deck of a 
modern steamer, plying the river 
where Fulton inaugurated steam navi- 
gation one hundred years ago, three 
"Clermonts" could be placed stem to 
stern, and five "Clermonts" easily 
carried side by side — fifteen "Cler- 
monts" on its spacious deck. 

There are yet so many things to be 
said of even the early boats and such 
an undeveloped field of history in the 
boats of more recent years that 
I shall not attempt to touch upon 
the story until some later oppor- 
tunity when I hope to trace more in 
detail the several steps by which the 
original little craft, scarce larger than 
the railroad coach of to-day, has be- 
come the acme of all that is luxurious, 
safe and convenient as a mode of 
travel. 

The story of ocean navigation, 
which I outlined in the preceding 
issue of this journal, is a later-day de- 
velopment from this same "Clermont" 
and is in itself a chapter of even 
greater marvels. 

At this time when the world is pay- 
ing homage to Robert Fulton, and 
through him to the several men who 
laid the foundation upon which he 
builded, I cannot refrain from tossing 
back at the populace the jibe which it 
threw at steam navigation an hundred 
years ago: 

Jonathan Hulls 

With his patent skulls 

Invented a machine 

To go against wind with steam 

But he being an ass 

Couldn't bring it to pass 

And so was afraid to be seen. 



THE FRIENDSHIP OF A THEOLOGIAN 



RECOLLECTIONS OF DR. LEONARD BACON, ONE OF THE MOST 
EMINENT CLERGYMEN IN AMERICA A HALF CENTURY AGO— HIS 
INFLUENCE OVER LINCOLN— A FOUNDER OF THE " NEW YORK 
INDEPENDENT " — ESTABLISHED " THE NEW ENGLANDER " — 
FIFTY-SEVEN YEARS A PASTOR IN NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT 



BY 



FRANKLIN S. BRADLEY 



The narrator of these memoirs of one of the greatest religious powers in the United States a generation ago was 
for forty-three years in the parish of the man about whom he writes, and is noV a deacon in the historic Center 
Church in New Haven where Dr. Bacon was pastor for fifty-seven years. The following reminiscences reveal the 
strong character and magnetic personality of the eminent theologian who, in the anti-slavery days, was a leader of 
abolition thought. President Lincoln, in conversation with Dr. Bacon, once told him that his (Bacon's) writings 
on the slavery question had much to do in formulating his (Lincoln's) emancipation policy. Deacon Bradley here 
throws new light on a great personality by relating the every-day life and personal side of Dr. Bacon as seen 
through a long and intimate acquaintance with him. This paper was originally prepared for the entertainment of a 
small company of scholarly gentlemen who meet weekly at the old Center Church in New Haven and discuss matters 
pertaining to church and biblical history, and its influence on the moral betterment of the nation. The anecdotes are 
related by the writer from memory, but the biographical data is largely from such distinguished authorities as former 
President Dwight and Professor Williston Walker of Yale University. Those who are interested in these theologi- 
cal studies should also read Dr. John Gaylord Davenport's able article on " Moses Stuart, the Emancipator of 
Religious Thought in America," in Number i of this volume, and Alfred T. Richards' interesting narrative of 
"Good Old Father Taylor, One of America's Most Vigorous Evangelists," in Number 2 — Editor 



THE writer's connection with the 
Center Church began with his 
birth, which was some four- 
teen years after Dr. Bacon 
entered upon his pastorate. As that 
connection has never been severed, it 
has therefore been his privilege, for a 
long period of years, to come into per- 
sonal relations with Dr. Bacon, to 
revere him as a beloved pastor, to re- 
member and honor him as his spirit- 
ual father. If his thought of a man 
so much venerated and loved should 
therefore find expression in a manner 
more personal than seems fitting he 
will feel entitled to the reader's indul- 
gence. That few are now living who 
have any prolonged recollection of 
Dr. Bacon's ministry affords reason 
for complying with an invitation to 
collate from memory and other 
sources a few facts and impressions 
which may possess a measure of local 
interest while recognizing the larger 
fitness of very many still living to re- 
view his life in those wider relations 
of usefulness to the church, the uni- 
versity and the nation which made 



him one of the foremost men of his 
generation. 

Few men in any age have attained 
eminence along so many and so varied 
channels. His personality was many- 
sided. His public work seems to have 
been without limit. He was a volu- 
minous writer, an exceptional orator, 
a rare historian, a fascinating conver- 
sationalist, a poet, leader of men, a 
veritable commander in every war- 
fare, political, ecclesiastical or civil, 
and the beloved pastor of an influen- 
tial church and loyal people. As Dr. 
Walker has said : "He was a complex 
and various-minded man, combining 
elements, any one of which were dis- 
tinction enough for most." 

While no formal biography has yet 
been written, so far as I know, I may 
be permitted to borrow from the sev- 
eral press notices of his life and char- 
acter, already referred to, and espe- 
cially from the memorial addresses of 
President Dwight and Dr. George 
Leon Walker, his successor in the pas- 
torate. While the memorial address 
of Dr. Walker was measurablv con- 



;oo 



40o 



RECOLLECTIONS OF DR. LEONARD BACON 



fined to the career of Dr. Bacon as 
pastor of the Center Church and ad- 
dressed primarily to his bereaved peo- 
ple, no more touching and compre- 
hensive tribute to the value of the 
man and his work has yet been paid 
him. He has told us there in very 
graphic terms what Dr. Bacon was 
and did. 

Leonard Bacon was born February 
19, 1802, in Detroit, Michigan, where 
his father, David Bacon, had gone as 
a missionary to the Indians. His 
father, however, soon removed to 
Tallmadge, Ohio, then a wilderness, 
where he died. When Leonard, the 
eldest son, was ten years old, he was 
placed under the care of an uncle in 
Hartford, Connecticut, to prepare for 
college. In five years, at the age of 
fifteen, he joined the Sophomore class 
in Yale College and graduated in 1820 
at the age of eighteen with a good 
reputation as a scholar, and distin- 
guished even then both for literary 
and forensic ability, an early indica- 
tion of the fame he was afterwards to 
acquire. He studied theology at An- 
dover, where his talents were con- 
spicuous, and was ordained as an 
evangelist September 28, 1824, by the 
Hartford North Association. It was 
his intention to labor in the West as 
his father had done, but rare talent 
like his could not escape notice in that 
day and he was invited, at the sugges- 
tion of Professor Stuart, to preach to 
the Center Church in New Haven, 
whose pulpit had been vacant since 
the dismission of Reverend Nathaniel 
W. Taylor in 1822. Mr. Bacon 
preached on several successive Sab- 
baths, fourteen sermons in all, and on 
December 19 received a call to the 
pastorate. Ordained September 28, 
1824, at the age of twenty- two, called 
December 19, 1824, after an interval 
of less than three months, accepting 
the call January 17, 1825, after an in- 
terval of less than one month, and in- 
stalled March 9, 1825, after an inter- 
val of less than two months, the young 



minister was making progress witho 
tarrying and assuming grave respo 
sibilities. The text for his inaugur 
sermon was: "Who is sufficient ft 
these things ?" The church, howeve 
made no mistake, nor did Mr. Baco 
Rarely may there be found in chur< 
annals a pastorate so prolonged, 
successful and so distinguished. Y 
it is fair to state here that his call w 
not unanimous, there being sixt 
eight affirmative votes against twen 
in the negative. But it was by 1 
means strange that his youthful a 
pearance should inspire something 
doubt which his native modesty d 
not fully dispel. 

In his academic days he seems 
have been a member of the "Brothei 
Society," an organization which mai 
of us remember, but which long sin 
ceased to exist, and with Twining ai 
Woolsey (afterwards professor ai 
president), led in the entertainment 
the brotherhood by his sparkling eff 
sions of prose and poetry. He w 
also in Senior year member of a cli 
called the Hexahedron, of whi 
Woolsey, Twining, Stoddard, auth 
of the Latin grammar, John Broc 
way and Chester Isham, his root 
mate and dearest friend till his deal 
were members, and who devoted ; 
evening each week to the reading ai 
study of English poetry. Bacc 
however, took little pleasure, it 
stated, in the poems of Wordsworl 
which were just then becoming po 
ular in this country. His scholarsh: 
though good, was not among the fir 
for the reason that he gave, so mu 
time to cursory reading on topics 01 
side the curriculum. But on the d 
after graduation he started on foot f 
Hartford with two of his classmat 
who walked with him as far as Wh 
neyville and who warned him agair 
his superficial habits of reading. Frc 
this time forth he seems to have be 
impressed with the seriousness 
life's responsibilities, and enterii 
Andover soon after, graduated t 
first in his class, and was chosen 



ONE OF THE MOST EMINENT CLERGYMEN IN AMERICA 401 



make the principal address on leaving 
the seminary. 

Bacon, of course, could not have 
been altogether a stranger in New 
Haven, though probably unknown to 
very many of its residents. Dr. 
Walker says of him that during the 
three years of his college course in 
which he had walked these streets, he 
had doubtless sometimes wandered in- 
to yonder church and from some gal- 
lery corner listened to the impassioned 
utterances of Dr. Taylor, one of the 
princeliest of New England's preach- 
ers, as little dreaming then as did the 
fathers of the congregation how much 
wider a place he was to fill in the 
church's history than even that elo- 
quent mam 

The major part of Dr. Bacon's life 
must necessarily be considered in con- 
nection with his pastorate. Begin- 
ning at the age of twenty-three he 
continued therein, practically without 
a break, for some fifty-seven years, 
though the last sixteen were in the re- 
lation of pastor emeritus. He gave 
his life to the Center Church, all other 
activities being secondary. He loved 
his church and was proud of it. His 
church loved and was proud of him. 
The field he had entered was a severe 
test of his powers. He was following , 
a long line of preachers and theologi- 
ans, from John Davenport onward, 
than whom none in New England 
have attained larger celebrity, and he 
was the immediate successor of Dana, 
Professor Stuart and Nathaniel W. 
Taylor. His audience comprised men 
in the higher walks of life, like Noah 
Webster, the lexicographer; James 
Hillhouse, United States senator and 
New Haven's most cultured benefac- 
tor ; Eli Whitney, inventor of the cot- 
ton-gin; Dennis Kimberly, leader of 
t>ie New Haven bar ; Jonathan Knight, 
whom none excelled as physician, sur- 
^ geon and medical instructor; Henry 
Trowbridge, founder of a great mer- 
cantile house, many college professors 
and others equally eminent in their re- 
spective spheres. We cannot wonder 



that he undertook the leadership of 
such a congregation with hesitancy 
and misgiving. Selected as he was 
from such candidates as Edward 
Beecher and Albert Barnes his con- 
gregation naturally manifested some 
distrust of his capability. But it did 
not last long. It is related of him that 
at one time during his early ministry 
he was approached by a committee of 
gentlemen from the society, headed, I 
believe, by Mr. Hillhouse, who inti- 
mated to him that his sermons were 
not reaching that standard of excel- 
lence to which the congregation had 
been accustomed. Without uttering 
a word in his own defense, he simply 
replied: ''Gentlemen, they shall be 
made worthy." And they were. 

Although the two previous pastor- 
ates had been marked by great reli- 
gious awakenings, yet in 1828 came a 
turning-point in his career when he 
received to his church by confession 
forty-eight persons, this great revival 
thus begun, reaching its climax in 
1 83 1 when one hundred and eight 
united with the church and large 
numbers afterward in 1832, 1833 and 
1837. It may be that ministerial suc- 
cess was measured more largely in 
that day by the number of converts 
than it would be now, but from this 
time onward doubts about the minister 
were heard no more and his position 
and reputation for efficiency and 
power was established beyond cavil. 
Henceforward his life became one of 
prodigious activity as a writer and 
author, and, as Dr. Walker has said: 
"The church now saw that in the long 
line of honored men who had pre- 
ceded him, there was none worthier of 
love and admiration than the man 
who stood now, at thirty-six years of 
age, her representative, borrowing 
conspicuity no more from the place he 
occupied, but conferring conspicuity 
on the place." 

The church, which already had a 
noble history, was approaching its 
two hundredth anniversary, and Dr. 
Bacon, as he was now called, having 



402 



RECOLLECTIONS OF DR. LEONARD BACON 



recently received his doctor's degree 
from Hamilton College, prepared in 
her honor his series of thirteen "His- 
torical discourses," embodying the 
history of the church, which was 
essentially the history of the colony, 
and including that of the earlier Puri- 
tan movement in England, out of 
which the New England colonies had 
grown. It was a work of large and 
accurate research, charming in its 
style, and is to-day one of the most 
valuable contributions to every impor- 
tant library and to New England his- 
tory. The work fixed his reputation 
as a master of literary style and an 
historical scholar. 

He was the author of several other 
works, of which, perhaps, the most 
prominent is the "Genesis of the New 
England Churches," a most readable 
and fascinating contribution to the 
historical literature of New England, 
and which he dedicated "to all who 
honor the memory of the Pilgrim 
Fathers and especially to his own 
church, as an endeavor, after forty 
years of his pastorate, to bring forth 
fruit in old age." His literary activ- 
ity, however, was intense through life 
and his published works almost num- 
berless. They consisted largely of 
occasional sermons and addresses, 
contributions to periodicals and the 
press, editorials and discussions of 
public and national questions on the 
platform and elsewhere. 

He was the leading editor of the 
New York Independent, established in 
1848, with Drs. Joseph P. Thompson 
and Richard S. Storrs, as associate 
editors, on the so-called "free soil 
doctrine." He was also founder and 
editor of the New Englander, a quar- 
terly journal of the highest character, 
to which he contributed over one hun- 
dred essays from 1843 to 1861, — 
enough to fill several large volumes, 
and which rendered that journal con- 
spicuous. The New Englander con- 
tinued to receive frequent contribu- 
tions from his pen until his death. 
He had already, from, his seminary 



days, been an abundant contributor to 
the Christian Spectator. His "Essays 
on Slavery" were among the means 
that made Lincoln an abolitionist, and 
the modesty of his own words in 
acknowledgment of the fact are worth 
repeating. He says: "Not knowing 
that he had ever heard of me, I had 
the privilege of an interview with 
him, and his first word after our in- 
troduction to each other was a refer- 
ence to that volume, with a frank 
approval of its principles. Since then 
I have heard of his mentioning the 
same book to a friend of mine in terms 
which showed that it had made an im- 
pression on his earnest and thought- 
ful soul." 

In the time of the Kansas troubles 
he was one of the signers of a memo- 
rial which called forth a reply in the 
president's own hand. He presided 
over two of the most famous councils 
of the last century in Brooklyn to 
which Plymouth Church and Henry 
Ward Beecher were parties; and his 
influence also went abroad, striking 
the Vatican so hard that Pope Greg- 
ory XVI did him the honor to issue 
a bull against one of his productions, 
consigning it to the Index Expurga- 
torius. Time would fail to give 
scarce an intimation of the extent of 
his voluminous writings and public 
work. 

It is probably safe to assert that Dr. 
Bacon did more than perhaps any one 
man in New Haven in launching the 
Temperance Reform in his early days 
and soon after his installation at 
which, he said, there was not only 
"abundance of wine but also of more 
perilous stuff." It may be of interest 
to repeat here what was related by 
one whose memory extends beyond 
my own back to the installation. He 
records that soon after it, Reverend 
Nathaniel Hewit of Fairfield ex- 
changed with Dr. Bacon and preached 1 
here with great eloquence a sermon in 
which he denounced the "use of dis- 
tilled liquors as a beverage," and he 
so startled the congregation that many (j 



ONE OF THE MOST EMINENT CLERGYMEN IN AMERICA 403 



said a madman had been preaching. 
It was not long, he remarks, before 
they concluded that the madness, if 
anywhere, was in themselves. Dr. 
Bacon was among the earliest to sup- 
port the movement for temperance, 
which very rapidly became popular 
and successful, and in which he was 
himself one of the pioneers. 

Again he had no peer as a promo- 
ter of the great benevolent enterprises 
of his age, such as Home and Foreign 
Missions. To those who are familiar 
with the hardships endured by his 
father and his young mother in their 
missionary labors among the Indians 
along the Western frontier in what 
was then a wilderness, to reach which 
required a journey of nearly three 
months, it will not seem strange that 
both training and sentiment, as well 
as a native philanthropy, may have 
stimulated his zeal in this direction. 
He was himself an originator or di- 
rector of many of these noble organi- 
zations and trained his church into a 
generous support of them, which has 
honored its record as a factor in the 
progress of God's kingdom on earth. 

His Thanksgiving sermon in 185 1 
on the "Higher Law" furnished a 
political watchword which lives even 
to-day, and probably no man then liv- 
ing in the land exerted a more power- 
ful influence in the anti-slavery agita- 
tion of those days than he, who was 
sometimes called the "fighting par- 
son." 

As a pastor, his career was unique 
for its length and wide influence. 
Probably no pastor of the Center 
Church, from John Davenport to his 
own day, has attained on the whole 
so wide a fame. In his later years 
there were some who thought his ser- 
mons "dull." I never heard one of 
them; the congregation generally felt 
content in the consciousness that he 
was their David who could at any 
{ • time go out before them and smite the 
Philistines of every name and color. 
Yet even his sermons were solid and 
strong. They were never sensational, 



always dignified, clear and perfect in 
construction, often eloquent. I do 
not believe he ever made an error, 
even in pronunciation, though Pro- 
fessor Walker relates an instance 
where one of his hearers criticised his 
pronunciation as not being in accord 
with Noah Webster's. Said the doc- 
tor : "Mr. Webster is a member of my 
congregation and I should consider it 
as incumbent on him to adopt my pro- 
nunciation as on me to follow his." 
He certainly n^yer transcended the 
limits of good taste in manner and ex- 
pression. I doubt if he was ever 
known even so much as to call a 
stanza a verse. He had the widest 
acquaintance with English literature 
and was master of the purest English 
style. He was fitted to shine with 
brilliancy on all special subjects and 
occasions for which he was foremost 
among those sought for as having no 
peer throughout the land. There are 
many of his writings which may be as 
well studied for models of admirable 
style as the best of Addison, Macau- 
lay and other English authors. 

I cannot refrain from allusion to his 
gift and language in prayer. His 
prayers at close of sermon, at funeral 
services, — everywhere, indeed — were 
simply gems of thought and expres- 
sion ; they were absolutely wonderful, 
unequalled. Drawn largely from 
Scriptural phrase, his lips seemed 
touched with heavenly fire, and as Dr. 
Walker has said : "No liturgical utter- 
ances of prayer one can find anywhere 
are more perfect types of what prayer 
should be than the petitions which 
rose from his lips." And I may add 
that hardly less impressive than the 
lofty rhythm of his words in prayer 
was his beautiful reading- of the hymn. 
A following musical rendition by the 
choir was never really necessary and 
might easily be such as to impart a 
serious shock. 

An incident of his pastorate occur- 
ring twenty-five years after his settle- 
ment made deep impression on me. 
though a mere child at the time, and 



404 



RECOLLECTIONS OF DR. LEONARD BACON 



is illustrative, not only of the quality 
of his prayers, but of the efficacy of 
prayer in general, as well as of the 
genuineness and depth of that type of 
Christian piety which characterized 
the man. I remember that it also 
made deep impression on the whole 
community, though perhaps in mod- 
ern days, since travel has become so 
much more extended, it might receive 
less comment. In 1850, after a quar- 
ter century of unbroken service in the 
ministry, Dr. Bacon expressed a de- 
sire to cross the Atlantic that he might 
visit the country from which our an- 
cestors came and especially those 
countries surrounding the Mediterra- 
nean where our missionary stations 
were located, but most of all Pales- 
tine and the lands of the Bible. Such 
an absence was cheerfully granted and 
provision made for a supply of the 
pulpit till his return. When attempt- 
ing to travel in Asiatic Turkey from 
Mosul to Ooroomiah, Dr. Bacon, with 
his son and Reverend Mr. Marsh, an 
American missionary, had a most 
thrilling experience with the savage 
Koords of that region, a region very 
tardy in yielding to the influences of 
civilization, but which has, I believe, 
very recently been penetrated by the 
telephone. On this memorable night 
the party, instead of pitching their 
tents, had spread their beds on the flat 
roof of a house built against the hill- 
side so as to be easily accessible in the 
rear from the ground. During the 
night they were awakened by the 
stealthy approach of intruders and 
low whispering conversation and the 
sight of a stranger with gun in hand 
talking to their guide. The guide, 
however, induced the robbers to with- 
draw for the night under the plea that 
the party was under his protection. 
But after some two hours travel in the 
morning they were again held up in a 
narrow pass of the mountains by a 
company of six men who openly an- 
nounced their purpose of murder and 
robbery, resting their guns on the 
rocks and taking aim at the travelers 



with a "grin of fiendish delight." Of 
course the travelers surrendered. At 
this point the lord of the castle near 
by appeared and ordered a temporary 
respite, directing the party to be sta- 
tioned a few rods distant where a 
spreading mulberry tree offered some 
protection from the noonday heat. 
Here they awaited their doom, sen- 
tenced, as they supposed, to immediate 
and bloody death. Dr. Bacon, in 
writing home of this, scene, said : "I 
cast one glance upon the vast amphi- 
theater of mountains and felt that I 
was in the presence of Him 'who set- 
teth fast the mountains by His power 
and without whom not a hair of our 
heads could fall to the ground.' I felt 
myself tranquil and strangely self-pos- 
sessed, as if I were sure of being de- 
livered." After a moment's consulta- 
tion the party determined what to do, 
namely, to send their servant to the 
lord of the castle with the document 
which they had in their hands giving 
them right to protection and an escort. 
While the messenger was on this er- 
rand they united quietly in prayer, 
committing themselves "to the power, 
care and loving kindness of a redeem- 
ing God, to live or die as His wisdom 
should determine." Then they prayed 
for deliverance, but that whatever 
should befall them might turn out for 
the furtherance of the Gospel. He 
says: "We prayed for the dear ones 
far away, for the dear churches in our 
native land, for those dark mountains 
full of the habitations of cruelty, that 
the dayspring from on high might 
visit them and even the men that were 
thirsting for our blood might put on 
the nature of the Lamb and learn to 
sit at the feet of Jesus." While these 
devotions were going on their messen- 
ger had been able to convince the 
chief that the party had no money a^d 
the Moslem reverence of one of the 
chiefs who had insisted on observance 
of the laws of hospitality, had, through I 
God's overruling Providence, saved 
their lives. The impression made 
upon the community in New Haven , 



ONE OF THE MOST EMINENT CLERGYMEN IN AMERICA 405 



was very marked and it was generally 
conceded that the reverent, dignified 
and courageous Christian bearing, as 
well as the trustful and believing 
prayer of Dr. Bacon in that fearful 
emergency, were the means of rescue 
from instant death. The occurrence 
certainly exhibited a type of fervent 
faith and manly Christian character 
which is unique and commands our 
highest reverence. 

With regard to the personal rela- 
tions of Dr. Bacon to members of his 
congregation, it may be said that 
while he was by no means a visiting 
pastor, he was acquainted with the 
condition and even the personal his- 
tory of every parishioner, and in days 
of trial or affliction no pastor could 
have brought to them richer spiritual 
consolation than he did. His very 
presence was comforting and even his 
silence in the house of death a deeper 
expression of sympathy and support 
than words. 

But Dr. Bacon was much more 
than a local pastor. America was his 
pulpit and her people his congrega- 
tion. He was the most eminent Con- 
gregationalist in America, as well as 
in other respects a man of national 
reputation and power, especially in his 
relation to the slavery struggle of the 
last century, when he made some ene- 
mies even in his own congregation. 
He was a representative Congrega- 
tionalist — a most thorough student of 
its history and an ultimate authority 
on all matters pertaining to its polity. 
He was inspired by the story of its 
struggle from its early beginnings in 
England and from its planting in 
America, and to the day of his death 
its most courageous and powerful 
champion. A contemoorary writer 
said: "He counted neither the host 
t!?at opposed nor the recruits that fol- 
lowed," and this was true of him in 
I every struggle for human right and 
welfare. In all great Congregational 
assemblies and councils, his was the 
foremost and guiding spirit. His 
wisdom was superb, as well as his 



wit; his self-control perfect. Un- 
matched in debate his power over an 
assembly was immense, but always in 
the interest of peace and reconcilia- 
tion, if such could be accomplished on 
principles of right. Formidable in a 
great conflict, as an antagonist he was 
gentle and kindly, considerate toward 
those who were his inferiors in mental 
grasp. Always appearing in the dig- 
nity of the dress coat and white neck- 
cloth his personality was imposing 
and distinctive ;Mns whole bearing that 
of the gentleman and self-possessed 
leader of men, but exhibiting the "cul- 
tured presence which indicates both 
the man of letters and the man of 
affairs." Some one has said that "to 
hear him speak on a great occasion 
was like listening to the roar of the 
Atlantic when driven on the coast by 
a northeaster; he swept everything 
before him." Another has said: "He 
came into the field of debate like the 
line-of-battle ship of some great ad- 
miral, ports all open and heavy guns 
pouring forth their thundering broad- 
sides. Then all the treasures of his 
historic reading came forth at his bid- 
ding to make his argument massive 
and weighty, while an exhaustless 
memory and a kindled fancy illumined 
and enlivened the whole with apt quo- 
tation and pithiest anecdote." He 
may fairly be estimated as the most 
eminent ecclesiastical leader of the 
nineteenth century. 

No account of Dr. Bacon may pass 
by his relation to Yale College as stu- 
dent, friend, fellow and professor. 
He was early in 1839 made a member 
of the corporation, but when, in 1846. 
Woolsey became president, he re- 
signed to make a place for ex-Presi- 
dent Day. He was afterwards in 
1864 re-appointed and was long rec- 
ognized as one of the most capable 
and efficient members of the board. 
In 1866, when relinquishing the active 
pastorate of Center Church, he was 
called to the chair of theology in Yale 
Theological Seminary, which he filled 
till the appointment of Dr. Harris in 



40 6 



RECOLLECTIONS OF DR. LEONARD BACON 



1 87 1, and from 1871 he gave instruc- 
tion in church polity and ecclesiastical 
history of New England. 

It is impossible for me to forget 
that Dr. Bacon was a man of most 
pungent wit, and that he could use it 
either as a weapon or for entertain- 
ment as the case might require. His 
sense of humor must have been inher- 
ited, for it was early exhibited. An 
instance occurred, which I may be 
permitted to repeat, when he was 
studying for the ministry at Andover, 
and where he had already given indi- 
cation of those commanding powers 
which were destined to make him a 
ruler among men. It was told of him 
that by his bold, aggressive methods 
in public discussion, he had raised 
about as much of a storm as there is 
room for in a well-regulated theologi- 
cal seminary. Accordingly he was 
waited on by a committee, led by a 
youth in whose composition piety and 
dullness were about evenly mixed. 
"Brother Bacon," he ran on, "for 
your own sake, give up this fault. 
It is the one thing, Brother Bacon, be- 
tween you and greatness. Give it up, 
Brother Bacon, and you are sure to 
be a much greater man." The young 
Bacon, who, with all his polemic 
force, had in him a good infusion of 
the meekness which helped Moses to 
rule, bore all patiently, and finally, 
after silence had ceased to be golden, 
closed the interview with this reply: 
"But, brother, I am already a greater 
man than I know what to do with." 

It is related of him that on one 
occasion, many years ago, when Con- 
gregational churches began to be built 
in the more modern and ornate style 
of architecture, he was invited to in- 
spect one of them which had just been 
erected in a New England state, 
whose elaborate decorations were a 
wide departure from the simple archi- 
tecture of colonial times with which 
the doctor had become familiar as 
well as in wide contrast with the old 
Center Church. As his guides were 



calling attention to its many beauties 
and conveniences, he looked up at its 
grand arches and rather brilliant col- 
orings, and remarked thoughtfully: 
"It's fine, fine as a fiddle." While this 
reply may not have comported with 
his usual dignity, it contained the es- 
sence of his appreciation, from which, 
we may hope, his entertainers may 
have derived satisfaction. 

He was said to have been riding one 
day with a friend who was enlarging 
with considerable enthusiasm on the 
marvelous excellencies of the great 
state of Rhode Island, through which 
they were driving. Said the friend: 
"The people of Rhode Island are 
unique; they exhibit most remarkable 
individuality. They are an independ- 
ent people. Just notice," said he, 
"this farmhouse that we are passing; 
on that little slope near by is the 
family burying-plot enclosed by a neat 
white fence; that family, even in 
death, will not mingle with others in 
the common cemetery as in other 
states. Our people are most remark- 
ably individual." "True," said the 
doctor, "and I should say that this 
was individuality run into the 
ground." 

He was expert also in the art of 
combining wit with sarcasm, and 
often employed his skill to thus place 
an opponent in a ridiculous position. 
In the days of the bitter anti-slavery 
discussion, he is said to have comfort- 
ed his disputants with the conciliatory 
reflection: "We all have our preju- 
dices; some are prejudiced against a 
black skin, some against a black coat." 
But in the employment of this very 
effective weapon there was never any 
bitterness nor evil. 

The doctor, however, was conscious 
of his limitations, for at the annual 
meeting of the American Board c«n 
1865 at Plymouth Rock, when called 
upon suddenly to fill a narrow gap of 
time, he replied : "What is the use of a 
man who is essentially long-winded 
undertaking to make a speech in three 
minutes?" I presume he made the 



ONE OF THE MOST EMINENT CLERGYMEN IN AMERICA 407 



speech, for who ever knew him to fail 
anywhere ? 

In the decade ending with 1840 
there had been a long controversy, of 
which I often heard my parents speak, 
between Dr. Taylor of the New 
Haven school and Dr Tyler of the 
"old school," the parties thereto being 
designated respectively as "Taylor- 
ites" and "Tylerites." When in the 
later stage of the dispute Dr. Bacon 
entered the discussion, he pointed out 
that as the schools agreed on twenty- 
six points, which more than covered 
the essential facts of the Christian re- 
ligion, he thought fighting ought to 
cease. And it did cease. His tact as 
a peacemaker made his services as a 
presiding officer invaluable. 

While Dr. Bacon never knew an 
occasion which was too great for him, 
I well remember his troubled expres- 
sion and fervent prayers for help 
when conditions became such as to 
threaten the prosperity of his beloved 
church. It was customary in the last 
century for the pews in the meeting- 
house to be held in fee by individual 
owners and the title thereto would 
thus pass from father to son, or other- 
wise, as the deed or will of a decedent 
might specify, until many pews were 
held by non-residents and the rental 
was passing to outside parties instead 
of to the treasury of the society whose 
ownership and control was continu- 
ally diminishing as well as its revenue 
for support of public worship. The 
condition at one time had become crit- 
ical and quite alarming. But, rein- 
forced by the fervent appeals and 
prayers of the pastor, the society at 
last gained possession of its pews 
either by gift, bequest, or, in more dif- 
ficult cases, by purchase, and when 
Dr. Bacon laid down his work he was 
enabled to see its financial status well 
established, and, while rejoicing in re- 
lief from a great anxiety, must have 
1 been happily conscious of his own in- 
fluence and effort in accomplishing so 
valuable a result. His effort for this 
reform, by which the old system of in- 



dividual ownership should be aban- 
doned and the society should own its 
house of worship, was introduced by 
a sermon preached to his own congre- 
gation from the aptly chosen text, 
"Make not my Father's house a house 
of merchandise." , 

Whenever and wherever Dr. Bacon 
spoke, his words were always fitly 
chosen. They often glowed with the 
poetic spirit. Some of our most beau- 
tiful hymns are of his authorship. 
His hymn for "Forefather's Day," be- 
ginning : ^ — 

O God, beneath thy guiding hand 

has a grandeur and stateliness which 
place it among the best of our New 
England classics, while many of his 
other hymns are characterized by a 
more emotional and tender tone. In 
whatever he wrote a marked felicity 
of expression is apparent as in the 
preamble and introductory article of 
his last will and testament, which 
reads : "I, Leonard Bacon, of the city 
and county of New Haven and state 
of Connecticut, being, by the favor of 
God, notwithstanding my age of more 
than seventy-six years, in full health 
and of sound, disposing mind and 
memory, do make and establish in 
these following articles my last will 
and testament: 

"First, Holding fast that faith in 
the Lord Jesus Christ which I have 
preached to others, and which, by 
God's blessing on the diligence of my 
godly parents, has been my strength 
and comfort from my youth up. I 
commit my soul to Him, the Lamb of 
God who taketh away the sins of the 
world. In this confidence I hope to 
die, assured that He is able to save to 
the uttermost all who come to God bv 
Him. Concerning the burial of my 
body, I ask of those on whom that 
care shall devolve, that the funeral 
may be managed with an exemplary 
care to avoid expense, by whomsoever 
the expense may be defrayed. Let 
the dust return to dust. I hope to 
rise with them who sleep in Jesus." 

There are not very many now liv- 



4o8 



RECOLLECTIONS OF DR. LEONARD BACON 



ing who have definite recollections of 
Dr. Bacon, as he lived and walked 
among us — New Haven's most dis- 
tinguished citizen. The thought of 
him which now impresses my mind 
most vividly is the manliness and no- 
bility of character exhibited in every 
relation of life, and which became 
more gentle, more symmetrical and 
more beautiful in its maturity to the 
very end. His mind was unclouded, 
his vigor unabated and his labor in- 
cessant to the last, an unfinished paper 
on the Mormon question being left on 
his table, on which he had been writ- 
ing in the evening only a few hours 
before his death. Notwithstanding 
the fervidness of his indignation 
against all wrong, the tenderness of 
feeling and generous benevolence, 
qualities of heart which always be- 
longed to him, became more pro- 
nounced till at the end the evident 
mellowness, goodness and godliness 
of his life deeply impressed all who 
knew him. As President Woolsey 
said of him: "Like the sun, he grew 
larger at the setting." 

The foundation of his Christian 
character was laid in his boyhood and 
inspired by his mother whom he re- 
vered as a saint; his purpose in going 
to college was to fit himself for the 
ministry, and out of this personal de- 
votion to the Master grew his power- 
ful influence in all reformatory agen- 
cies which characterized the earlier 
portion of his ministry and the earlier 
part of the last century. It was an 
era, too, when religious awakenings 
or "revivals" reached their climax, 
that of 1 83 1 being perhaps the most 
marked — an age for which, in all its 
development, Dr. Bacon was most 
eminently qualified and with which he 
not only kept pace, but in which he 
led the advance. 

When the call came to rest and to 
reward it was sudden. The final 
attack of angina pectoris was one of 
many which had been warning him 
that the end was approaching, and he 
passed away on the twenty-fourth of 



December, 1881, having almost at- 
tained the four-score limit of man's 
age. 

Perhaps no better summary of his 
life has been given than that prepared 
by his children and inscribed on the 
mural tablet to his memory in Center 
Church. It is as follows : 

By the grace of God 
Leonard Bacon, 
A servant of Jesus Christ and of all men 
for His sake, here preached the gospel for 
fifty-seven years ; fearing God and having 
no fear beside, loving righteousness and 
hating iniquity, friend of liberty and law, 
helper of Christian missions, teacher of 
teachers, promoter of every good work, he 
blessed the city and the nation by cease- 
less labors and a holy life and departed 
peacefully into rest December 24, 1881, 
leaving the world better for his having 
lived in it. 

His funeral was attended on the fol- 
lowing Tuesday, December 2J, in the 
Center Church, which was heavily 
draped in black, and which, though 
the day was dark and wet, was filled 
with a niultitude of every name and 
rank to pay their last offices of respect 
and affection to him who was New 
Haven's most influential civic friend 
and her most distinguished citizen. 
The father of fourteen children, four 
of whom became Christian ministers, 
was borne to the grave by six of his 
sons, the bell of City Hall was tolled 
and business very generally suspended 
as the procession passed from the 
church to the cemetery, in grateful 
rcognition of the honor which he had 
conferred upon the city and the ser- 
vice he had rendered it, and he was 
laid at rest in the ancient Grove Street 
burial ground, where sleep so many of 
the honored fathers of the state and 
nation. 

No closing word comes to my 
thought which seems to me more fit- 
ting than the last stanza of his own 
beautiful evening hymn, whose praver, 
we may well believe, was his own as 
he passed from earth : 

Calmly the day forsakes our heaven 

To dawn beyond the West ; 
So let my soul in life's last even 

Retire to glorious rest. 




THE SWORD OF GIDEON HOTCHKISS 



A CONNECTICUT SOLDIER IN THE FRENCH 
AND INDIAN WAR 

LIFE OF GIDEON HOTCHKISS, BORN 1716 AT CHESHIRE, 
CONNECTICUT— HIS GOOD WORKS IN WAR AND PEACE 

BY 
Reverend SHERROD SOULE 

Naugatuck, Connecticut 

One hundred years ago on the third of this September there died a man whose daily life in War and 
Peace was consecrated to his God and his Country. The life of this Connecticut patriot is here told by 
Reverend Sherrod Soule, pastor of the Congregational Church in Naugatuck, Connecticut. The church 
was organized February 22, 1781, as the "Congregational Church of Salem," a parish in tte town of 
Waterbury. Gideon Hotchkiss was one of the first deacons and a powerful pillar. About fifteen years 
later the parish of Columbia (now town of Prospect) was " set off" and Gideon Hotchkiss lived within its 
borders and he identified himself with the Congregational Church there, serving as a deacon until his 
decease in 1807 in the ninety-first year of his age. The author acknowledges large assistance and valuable 
information from Mrs. F. A. Sanford of Westfield, Massachusetts, a lineal descendant of Gideon Hotchkiss. 
The plates for the illustrations portraying the sword and commissions of Ensign ar>d Captain Gideon 
Hotchkiss are furnished by Dr. Calvin S. May of New York City, a native of Naugatuck and a lineal 
descendant of Gideon Hotchkiss. Dr. May is the owner of the original articles and has them in his 
possession. This paper was recently read before the Colonial Dames of Connecticut at Hotel Elton in 
Waterbury.— Editor 



THERE were giants in other 
days than those of Genesis. 
There was a sword of the 
Lord and of Gideon in the 
Colony of Connecticut as well as in 
the country of Canaan. 

In piety, the Connecticut patriarch 
compares with the Chaldean, for no 
less was he a friend of God and be- 



lieved in Him and had it reckoned 
for righteousness. As a patriot and 
a warrior, the Gideon of old with his 
three hundred picked men bearing 
trumpets and dark lantern pitchers is 
not discredited by one bearing his 
name thirty odd centuries later. The 
courage of each came from confi- 
dence in "The Sword of the Lord and 



4 io CONNECTICUT SOLDIER IN FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 



of Gideon" and both swords were 
"bathed in heaven." 

The latter-day Gideon and his two 
eldest sons served in the French and 
Indian War and himself, two sons 
and a grandson in the Revolutionary 
War. When three generations at one 
time and all together strike for their 
altars and their fires, God and their 
native land, it warrants big, brave 
blood. This heroic individual first 
saw the light, lived as a godly, goodly 
Christian citizen and peacefully rests 
in God's acre in places within easy 
pleasure-driving distance from this 
place where we are assembled. 

One of the first and foremost im- 
portant things done by Gideon Hotch- 
kiss was the selection of his ancestry. 
Many persons make a choice of poor 
parentage, but not he. 

True, it is often hard to keep up 
the record of progenitors, but there is 
likely to be an inheritance of power 
to do it. "To go back to the big 
rock" we would have to start at 
Essex, England, with Samuel Hotch- 
kiss, the great-grandfather of Gideon, 
who got over to Guilford about 1640. 
Then in a Scriptural succession of 
Joshua and Stephen we come to 
Gideon. He selected Cheshire as the 
place of his nativity and the date of 
December 5, 1716. His father, 
Stephen, true to the name, was des- 
tined to be a deacon and a worthy 
one, and the son seeking Scriptural 
significance in the start was the sev- 
enth child. He was a feeble babe 
and first had a frail hold upon life. 
On account of his slender vitality or 
the smallness of his size, the infant 
was named Gideon — -"least in his 
father's house" (Judges 6:15). But 
from observation and experience I 
am sure that the babe was insignifi- 
cant only in strength and avoirdupois, 
for the inevitable rule in the house- 
hold is that importance is inversely 
proportional to size. 

But the child Gideon was not de- 
creed to die in infancy nor destined 



to remain the least of the household, 
for he became "the lion of the tribe 
of Judah" and filled out 'a full life of 
fourscore and ten years and the sur- 
plus score was not waste, neither was 
the strength of that time labor and 
sorrow. ; . 

Of course Gideon Hotchkiss got a 
good mother, whose maiden name 
was Elizabeth Sperry, the daughter of 
John Sperry, whose family fed the 
"Regicides" while they were in hid- 
ing in "Judge's Cave" on West Rock. 
There is no "divine right of kings" 
leaven in the Hotchkiss lineage. The 
early employment and education of 
our chosen character was according 
to the age in which he lived. "In his 
youth his thoughts and his heart ap- 
parently were turned on divine things. 
He publicly professed religion and 
united with the church in Cheshire 
about the twentieth year of his age." 

Soon after his majority he married 
and he selected a wife with as rare 
judgment as he did parents, the bride 
being Anne Brocket, "an eminently 
pious woman," a descendant of John 
Brocket, one of the first settlers of 
New Haven, "who was said to have 
forsaken title and wealth for the sake 
of religious freedom. and the love of a 
Puritan maiden, and so cast in his lot 
with the little band of colonists in a 
new world. Having a liberal educa- 
tion he became surveyor and laid out 
the city of New Haven in nine 
squares, leaving the central square 
vacant, for it was intended to found 
'a" greate city ;' therefore Yale College 
has its beautiful foreground to-day." 

Soon after the youthful Gideon 
Hotchkiss married the worthy wife, 
Anne Brocket, the twain came to 
Waterbury and settled in that por- 
tion which is now within the town of 
Prospect. He bought a farm -and 
built a house, the site of which is 
about two miles southwest from 
Prospect Center on the road which 
runs to the sparse settlement now 
known as Straitsville in the town of 
Naugatuck. ) 



1? 



THE SWORD OF GIDEON HOTCHKISS— BORN IN 1716 41 



Here commenced and continued a 
career as a Christian citizen that tin- 
gles one with pride and pleasure to 
portray. It was a long way to travel 
to church, to vote, and to market 
from the homestead to where we are 
to-day, but one may be sure that the 
means of grace and political duties 
were never neglected by this family 
which speedily increased in size. 

Gideon Hotchkiss by his integrity 
and industry became a man of influ- 
ence and importance. His family life 
was most commendable, being a fond 
and faithful husband and father. His 
devout and devoted wife lived with 
him long enough to pass the silver an- 
niversary. July 27, 1762, she bore her 
twelfth child and five days later is the 
date of her death, aged forty-six 
years. 

In Bronson's "History of Water- 
bury" there is noted in the family 
record the birth of this babe which 
was a boy, with the peculiar paren- 
thetical note "(died before it was 
born)" and yet bearing a name Be- 
noni, which biblically means "Child 
of my sorrow." 

Anne Brocket was a genuine and 
original Colonial Dame and her moth- 
erhood has made children and chil- 
dren's children even down to the pres- 
ent generation "rise up and call her 
blessed." 

A single instance reveals her pietv 
and her faith in the power of prayer. 
On the morning of July 8, 1758, she 
forsook her family and went out into 
the forest primeval of Prospect, that 
she might spend the day interceding 
with God for the life of her husband, 
who was then a lieutenant and en- 
gaged in the French and Indian War. 
At dusk she returned, her face shin- 
ing with a glory like that of Moses 
descending from the Mount, and she 
announced to her reverentlv subdued 
children that their father's life would 
be spared and that he would return 
home in safety. That was the very 
day of the fearful carnage at Ticon- 
deroga, through which Lieutenant 



Gideon Hotchkiss passed in safety 
and from which he did return to his 
family. How the assurance was re- 
vealed to her I know not, but shame 
on the one who suggests that it was 
superstition. On the Washington's 
Birthday following, six months after 
the wife's death, Gideon Hotchkiss 
married another worthy 'woman with 
a most modern name » of Mabel, 
daughter of Isaac Stiles of Wood- 
bury, and fame followed, for the first 
child became the wi£e-~of Chauncey 
Judd, the lad who was kidnapped by 
some treasonable . Tory allies, lest he 
disclose what he had accidentally 
overheard or seen of their proposed 
plots. He was from near his home 
in what is now Millville, in Nauga- 
tuck, to a place beyond Gunntown, on 
the borders of what is now Middle- 
bury, and there concealed and con- 
fined in cellar and cave for some days. 
Then, under the cover of darkness, he 
was conveyed to Derby and stowed 
on a boat sailing to and landing at 
Long Island. A rescuing party was 
formed, the youth was recovered safe, 
but hardly sound, being shaken, if 
not shattered, in mind and body, by 
the suffering and scare. Some of his 
captors spent a season in the New 
England "Newgate" near Simsbury. 

But let us return to Gideon. With- 
out particulars we introduce the pre- 
vailing uneasiness of the colonies un- 
der the paternal government during 
the sixteenth century, which drew 
sharp lines and soon made men stand 
upon one side or the other. The 
French and Indian War commenced, 
one can hardly tell when and where, 
but eventually raged along and on the 
beautiful lakes George and Cham- 
plain and ended in the death of Mont- 
calm at Quebec. In this loyaltv to 
the Crown contest Waterbury played 
her part well. In the military com- 
pany that went out from here, the 
ensign was Gideon Hotchkiss, ap- 
pointed by Governor Thomas Fitch. 
November 3, 1756. Doubtless he 
served a year but not more, for we 



4i2 CONNECTICUT SOLDIER IN FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 



find the subject of our sketch a 
deputy to the General Court in 1757. 
But again he goes forth to war and 
this time with the commission of 
lieutenant in 1758. The next year 
he repeats and alternates by being- 
deputy to the General Court, but only 
to find him in another twelve months 
marching toward the front and at 
the front bearing the commission of 
captain granted March 22,- 1760. 
The spirit of the sire seized the sons 
and two who were big enough en- 
tered the ranks and I doubt not but 
what the two next in succession, aged 
seventeen and sixteen, respectively, 
begged to go too. The following let- 
ter written by Gideon Hotchkiss 
when in service in the French and In- 
dian War, to his eldest son, Jesse, also 
in service at another station, bears 
witness to the patriotism and piety 
of the man : 

"Saratoga, Aug. 16, 1757. 

After my tender regards to you, hop- 
ing that these lines may find you in good 
health as I am at present and so was your 
mother and brothers and sisters and all 
your and our friends when I came from 
home. You will hear the melancholy 
news of our upper fort. I understand you 
was well the last I heard from you. I am 
glad to hear from you and the welfare of 
all of our friends. Give my love to Lieut. 
Beebe and to Cor. Weed and tell Cor. 
Weed that I would not have him send any 
letter to me but what he is willing every 
one should see, for they break almost all 
open that comes. You will hear the rea- 
son of our being here. I have not time to 
write for the men are now agoing and so 
I must conclude with a word of advice to 
you, beseeching of you to seek to him that 
is able to deliver you and to sanctify and 
cleanse you from all sin. O my son I beg 
of God to fit you for a dying hour, this is 
the only time, now while you are in 
health. 

Gideon Hotchkiss." 

(This son, Jesse, and his son, Asabel, 
served in the Revolutionary War where 
the father, Jesse, died from the effects of 
the smallpox caught in nursing his brother 
Eben, ill with the disease. Jesse died at 
the early age of thirty-eight, leaving eleven 
children fatherless.) 



After the French and Indian War, 
Gideon Hotchkiss returned to his 
family and farm, doubtless with the 



desire to follow peaceful pursuits. 
But another contest was soon on and 
this time against and not for the 
Crown. The records of the town of 
Waterbury dated November 17, 1774, 
reveal an intimation of the approach- 
ing War of the Revolution when a 
meeting was warned "to take action 
on the Eleventh Article of the Asso- 
ciation of General Congress." The 
substance of the "Article" was that 
every town he recommended to ap- 
point a committee whose business it 
should be to attentively observe the 
conduct of all persons touching that 
Association of General Congress, and 
if anyone was found inimical to it the 
case was to be published in the Ga- 
zette; "to the end that all such foes 
to the rights of British America 
might be publickly known and uni- 
versally contemned as the enemies of 
American liberty." 

Fourteen men were appointed 
called the "Committee of Inspection," 
and from Salem (now Naugatuck) 
district, we find the names of two, 
one being that of Gideon Hotchkiss. 

Again, in 1777, after the surrender 
of Burgoyne, .on "the request of the 
Governor and Council of Safety," the 
town appointed fifteen men to give 
aid and relief to the Continental sol- 
diers and here we find again the name 
of Gideon Hotchkiss among the rest- 
But in this great conflict which re- 
duced life and property Gideon 
Hotchkiss was too advanced in years: 
to sustain continued service. He 
sent two sons and a grandson to the 
front and he was expected to stand 
by the stuff at home. But the ruling 
spirit was strong in old age and after 
the autumn work on the farm was 
done, Captain Gideon and his com- 
pany of veterans "soldiered" it 
through the winter where they were 
most needed and also organized a 
company known as "Light Horse j£ 
Cavalry" and went to Woodbury and 
Danbury and wherever there was an 
alarm of British invasion along the 
coast of Connecticut. It is told that 



THE SWORD OF GIDEON HOTCHKISS—BORN IN 1716 413 



when New Haven was attacked, Cap- 
tain Gideon heard the firing while 
working on his farm in present Pros- 
pect. Like Putnam, he mounted his 
horse in the field and with a hired boy 
behind, ealloped toward the Elm City, 
encountering the enemy at Westville, 
where there was then a ford, the 
fight having been changed from the 
former attack at West Haven. 
Arriving at the scene of battle he dis- 
mounted and was about to send back 
the servant with the steed. Just then 
a cannon ball struck the lad, killing 
him instantly. But there was no 
time to show sorrow or sentiment. 
The old soldier picked up the body 
of the boy and laid it tenderly in a 
concealed place beside the road, then 
turning his horse's head homeward 
he gave him a sharp cut with a whip, 
which started him off at a furious 
gait, while the veteran captain re- 
mained to take part in the existing 
fray. 

It would not be fair to omit in this 
sketch the mention of this man's con- 
nection with the church as well as the 
relation to the country which has been 
told. He bore the title of deacon as 
well and as worthily as that of cap- 
tain. Of course, when coming from 
Cheshire, he connected himself with 
the First Church in Waterbury, for 
there was no other church therea- 
bouts. It was a long way to worship 
from what is now Southern Prospect 
to Waterbury Green. "Winter priv- 
ileges" were allowed for Salem or 
Salem Bridge (now Naugatuck) as 
early as 1769. In 1772, petition was 
made to the General Assembly for a 
distinct and separate Ecclesiastical 
Society and signed by Gideon Hotch- 
kiss. The petition was granted and 
the moderator of the first society 
meeting, 1773, was Gideon Hotch- 
kiss. The church was organized 
Feb. 22, 1 78 1, and one of the first two 
deacons was Gideon Hotchkiss. The 
first meeting-house on a hill over the 
river east of the present center of 
Naugatuck was completed a little 



over a year after the organization of 
the church and Gideon Hotchkiss 
paid promptly as his assignment the 
no mean sum, in those days, of twenty 
pounds. At the time of the "raisin"' 
he showed that the "spirit" was will- 
ing, for he provided "a bbl of sider" 
and also that the "flesh" was not 
weak, for he furnished, 

"9 lbs of salt pork 
30 lbs fresh pork 
two of the best sheep I had." 

He served as deac on a nd generous 
supporter of this church and society 
for eighteen years and then when 
Columbia (now Prospect) was "set 
off" as a parish he fell within its 
boundaries. The church in Prospect 
he served as deacon for eight years 
and gave liberally to its support, 
though from the records of the Nau- 
gatuck church and society it seems 
that he never formally severed his re- 
lations with the same. In his will he 
remembered equally both the church 
in Prospect and Naugatuck. He 
died full of years aged ninety-one, 
having had nineteen children, one 
hundred and five grandchildren, one 
hundred and fifty-five great-grand- 
chilren and living to see four great- 
great-grandchildren, in all two hun- 
dred and eighty-three — a record 
which would readily write down 
President Roosevelt as a race sui- 
cidal ist. 

A memorial sermon on the man 
delivered shortly after his death was 
printed and after a long search a sin- 
gle copy has been secured, though 
doubtless others are in hiding. The 
sermon was preached by Reverend 
Abram Fowler, the first minister of 
the church in Naugatuck, though 
then the pastor at Milton, a parish of 
Litchfield. It is a remarkable dis- 
course, but the author had a remark- 
able subject. A short extract is illu- 
minated, showing the marvelous busi- 
ness ability of the man, for he accu- 
mulated ample means, and to make 
money on a farm in Prospect means 
almost a miracle. It is silent as to 



4 i 4 CONNECTICUT SOLDIER IN FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 



the military career of Gideon Hotch- 
kiss, but reveals that which is 
mightier, for it makes him an exam- 
ple of one who "ruleth his own 
spirit" and that, Scripture asserteth, 
h better than taking a city. It shows 
a man whose faith had works and 
whose piety was as practical as it 
was pronounced. 

"He was to appearance a steady 
and unshaken professor of the Chris- 
tian religion for seventy-one years. 
The deacon had a great taste for 
reading, and books on moral subjects 
were his chief attention. Being a 
man of property, his library, for one 
in his occupation, was large and ex- 
cellently chosen- Nor was this treas- 
ure unimproved. 

"Though his natural temper was 
rather severe, yet he obtained so 
complete a victory over it as to be 
mild and candid in almost every in- 
stance, so that at all times he ap- 
peared the meek and benevolent 
Christian. He so governed himself 
that what of his natural temper might 
otherwise have been to his disadvan- 
tage, seemed to add a dignity to him 
in the government of his family, and 
in his advice, cautions and reproofs 
to others. He was a person of dis- 
tinguished integrity, sobriety and jus- 
tice, and warmly urged, by his exam- 
ple, that important direction of the 
Saviour: 'As ye would that men 
should do to you, do ye the same to 
them.' It was a maxim with him 
that with respect to spiritual con- 
cerns men ought to live constantly 
ready to die ; but as to temporals, as 
though they should live always ; or 
that men should never omit the doing 
of anything which might be in future 
a benefit to others, because they might 
not live to enjoy it themselves. 

"He was a warm and decided advo- 
cate for order, regularity and govern- 
ment in community, and those who 
were unruly might always expect a 
strict, conscientious and faithful re- 
proof, and though always adminis- 
tered with coolness, yet with that 



firmness and perseverance as would 
render it intolerable to live with him 
and their vices. He was a strict ob- 
server of the Sabbath and a constant 
attendant on orderly public worship 
and urged the duty on all neglectors. 
He was solemn and devout in worship 
and ever paid a sacred regard to all 
the ordinances and institutions of the 
house of God. His conversation with 
all people generally turned on sub- 
jects of religion and he was a faith- 
ful, though friendly, reprover of all 
vice and immorality; the gravity and 
serenity with which he appeared at all 
times^ manifested the sincerity of his 
heart to all his acquaintances. He 
always considered candid and plain 
dealing the best mark of friendship 
to mankind. He appeared to love 
the religion of the gospel and those 
doctrines in particular which place 
Jehovah on the throne and abase 
man in the dust; he was a pray- 
ing man for saints and sinners, for 
God's glory and Zion's good. He 
was ever mindful of the poor and 
needy of all descriptions, and was 
ready to do good to all men, espe- 
cially to the household of faith. The 
two last churches, of which he was a 
member (Salem and Columbia), 
shared in his liberality and benevolent 
regard for them as churches of 
Christ. 

"To each he bequeathed sixty-six 
dollars, sixty-seven cents for the bene- 
fit of their poor members. Nor was 
his benevolence of a contracted kind, 
for he had in his heart a tender re- 
gard for those who had not the bene- 
fit of the stated ministry by means of 
their local situation; his feeling mind 
for the good of mankind led him to 
remember not only the new settle- 
ments, but the heathen world. He 
bequeathed to the missionary society 
of Connecticut likewise sixty-six 
dollars, sixty-seven cents, to be ap- 
plied to the purposes of assisting the I 
new settlements and to enlighten the 
heathen of our wilderness into the 
gospel of Jesus Christ. . 



r H () \i A S FITCIB Ef q r 
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;>1 Hh M eft\ •; Colon v ol Connecticut in 

NEW- ENGLAND. ' 

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COMMISSIONS OP 
GIDEON HOTCHKISS AS 
ENSIGN AND CAPTAIN IN 
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 



Prom Originals in Possession 

of Dr. Calvin S. May, a 

Lineal Descendant 



416 CONNECTICUT SOLDIER IN FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 



"Nor were these donations for want 
of natural heirs to his property; his 
posterity are numerous ; he has been 
the father of nineteen children, one 
hundred and five grandchildren, one 
hundred and fifty-five great-grand- 
children and four of the fifth genera- 
tion ; in all, two hundred and eighty- 
three. 



"The deceased was a sincere friend 
to those whom he considered the 
faithful ministers of Jesus. He justly 
considered them but men, and that 
they depended like other men and 
Christians on God for grace and 
strength to fulfil their duty. He con- 
sidered their work great and arduous 
and of everlasting importance to man- 
kind, and that their success depended 
on an arm Divine. These considera- 
tions led him ever to feel an heart to 
encourage and support them. These 
feelings were on his heart when at 
the throne of grace. We, who have 
in turn been his accepted ministers, 
have doubtless shared in the benefits 
of his sincere addresses at the throne 
of grace for divine aid, grace and 
faithfulness in our ministry and for a 
blessing to attend it, as well as his 
liberalities for our temporal comfort 
and support. He loved the company 
of the saints and the fellowship of the 
church of God, and often spoke of the 
importance of their shining as a light 
in the world, by being conformed to 
the gospel in faith and manners and 
of their beauty when they were in 
unity. These were things for which 
he labored. The churches to which 
he belonged have shared the strength 
of his wisdom and exertions to pro- 
mote this object and his prayers to 
God for this blessing; for on God he 
ever depended for success. 



"This church, then, has lost an im- 
portant blessing and pillar of its sup- 
port; a faithful seeker of its increase 
in number and graces; by his exam- 
ples, by labors with the members to 
stir up their minds by way of remem- 
brance, and by his faithful exertions 
for the salvation of sinners, and by 
his prayers to God for His presence 
and blessing upon all the people." 

The grave of Gideon Hotchkiss is 
in the cemetery at Prospect in rather 
an obscure situation and marked by 
a stone altogether too modest, in- 
scribed only with the title of deacon 
and with no information save the 
date of his death September 3, 1807, 
and the age ninety-one. 

A recently received letter from a 
lineal descendant reads as follows : 
"About four years ago I found the 
head stone, which was a rather tall 
slab, broken entirely off and lying 
upon the ground. Fearing that the 
site would be entirely lost, I had the 
slab cut off and reset at my own ex- 
pense. I hope that it will last until 
some of his many descendants see fit 
to place a more enduring monument 
at the resting-place of this most loyal 
servant of his country and honored 
servant of his God." 

As an indication of the respect 
which the children and children's 
children, even to the fourth genera- 
tion, paid to him, it is said that when 
they entered the room where sat their 
aged ancestor, they uncovered their 
heads, and, putting their hats under 
their arms, addressed him with the 
words : "Honorable father !" 

So we, having been presented to 
him to-day and heirs of the results of 
his pious and patriotic life, now' on 
our departure from his presence, with 
uncovered heads and in admiring and J 
grateful hearts, echo those earlier 
words : "Honorable father !" 




FAMOUS CHARTER OAK AT HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 
Drawn by Charles L. N. Camp 



Che Charter Oak 



BY 

LYDIA BOLLES NEWCOMB 

New Haven, Connecticut 



Long years ago, in unknown past, there fell 
An acorn fair, within whose cup-shaped 
shell 
A germ of history lay. 
Of future destiny appeared no outward 

sign, 
Silent its rootlets 'neath the soil entwine 
Till winter blossomed into May. 

Two tiny leaves enticed by summer's sun 
Burst from the shell, and life's long race 

begun 
As branch from branch outgrew. 
The sturdy stem reached upward toward 

the sky 



Undaunted when the northern blast swept 
by 
Or icy mantle threw. 

Years sped apace, yet firmer stood the tree 
With patience waiting its forecasted des- 
tiny 
And place in history. 
With neighboring leaves it sung its wind- 
blown songs. 
Heard 'neath its shadow tales of whis- 
pered wrongs 
And life's deep mystery. 



4i8 



THE CHARTER OAK 



On topmost branch the eagle stayed to rest ; 
On lesser bough the robin plumed her 
breast. 
While blue-birds twittered low. 
The antlered deer oft sought the cooling 

shade, 
Erstwhile the wily fox from nearby glade 
Crept cautiously and slow. 

Adown the slope where grew this mighty 

tree, 
A river broad, from snow-clad hills set 
free, 
Caught, as it rolled along, 
The trickling rills that laved the old tree's 

foot, 
Or danced in glee about its outspread root. 
Singing their merry song. 

The Indian mother from her wigwam rude 
Brought to its shade the eldest of her 
brood, 
In vision saw him grown 
A warrior bold the sachem of his tribe ; 
Brave deeds of might all other chiefs 
ascribe 
Won by his arm alone. 

Camp fires were lit; dark branches hang- 
ing o'er 
The pipe of peace passed on as each one 
swore 
To keep the compact true. 
Then to his home each brave with stealthy 

tread, 
Silent as stars move on their way o'erhead 
In firmament of blue. 

Years multiplied by years twice told, and, 

then 
Bravely across the sea a race of men 

Came seeking for the right. 
Hoped in the unknown land they sought 
To find the freedom that, tho' dearly 
bought, 
Outranks a tyrant's might. 

No welcoming hand in loving grasp out- 
stretched ; 
The land of promise imagination sketched 

Was but an icy shore. 
While forests bare in low, weird cadence 

moaned, 
As when the priest a requiem mass intoned 
For those we see no more. 

Courageous hearts were theirs, and cheer- 
ful will, 
Unwavering faith bade murmuring be still, 

Their worship none could own. 
What tho' too often want stalked as a 

dreaded foe, 
And even love itself seemed lost, in depths 
of woe, 
God was their trust alone.. 



More loved ones came, o'er sea, and, lured 

by Indian trail, 
Westward they turned their steps, nor 
stopped for hill or dale 
Till, by the river's side, 
A halting came. "Here will we cast our 

lot," 
The elder said : "Here on this goodly spot 
Will we with thanks abide." 



A glad response the river gave; the stars 

shone out anew; 
Each lowly blade of grass glinted a wel- 
come too, 
As from the forest dim 
Glad murmurs rose ; the willowy branches 

broke 
The silence drear, as if from slumber woke 
To join a matin hymn. 

The trees upon the hillside and on the riv- 
er's brink "'- 
Each leaf a flutter gave, a merry, gladsome 
link 
To catch the rippling flame. 
One grand old tree, stirred with prophetic 

fire, 
In every sunbeam saw fulfillment of desire 
To win historic fame. 

As time wore on and sturdy households 

grew, 
Tidings were borne of colonies loyal, true, 

To Charles upon his throne. 
A Charter broad he gave with generous 

hand, .= - - . = 

Including care and wide domain of land, 
Whose boundaries were unknown. 

This life so often holds but transient 

gleams 
Of love and hope and future sunny beams; 

Then shadows follow faster; 
So to the dwellers by the river's side 
There came across the sea a surging tide 

That forbode dire disaster. 



Andros, the wily governor by kingly order 

sent, 
Entered the Council hall on deed of evil 
bent, 
In tyrant voice proclaimed : 
"The Charter that you prize is, by the 

king's command 
Repealed, to be surrendered to my hand, 
This day King James has named." . 



Dread silence for an instant, then mur- 
murs To'ud arose, 

Entreaty, eloquence, protesting words dis- 
close 
Their claim for Freedom's right. 



THE CHARTER OAK 



419 



But all in vain. The day too quickly 
waned ; 

Evening drew on, with feelings scarce re- 
strained, 
Courageously they fight. 

But suddenly a total darkness fell 
Within that Council hall, as when a spell 

Is cast by evil power. 
Wondering in silence lest following other 

woes 
An influence malign proceeded from their 
foes 
In this so darksome hour. 

With no delay candles again were lit; 
Each looked to each; on every face was, 
writ , ; 

New courage for the fray. 
One hasty glance, and lo ! the table bare; 
The Charter of their hopes no longer 
there; ,;■ , 

Doubt mingled with dismay. 

Safe in the hollow of the ancient oak, 
That centuries gone had looked for this 
bold stroke, 
The precious Charter lay, — 
Borne in the darkness by unwavering 

hand, 
Hidden beyond the reach of king's de- 
mand, 
Till dawned a brighter day. 

Search was in vain. The secret none 

would tell ; 
The Charter kept its hiding-place and 
naught befell 
For two long years. 
Meantime the oak, proud of its secret rare, 
In summer's green or outstretched branches 
bare 
Congratulation hears. 

Years fled apace. The oak its glory spread 
In widening circle, till one by one had fled 

The neighboring trees. 
No woodman's axe dared touch this hon- 
ored wood; 
Emblem of manhood's rights alone it 
stood 
Guerdon of liberties. 

Thc»"Charter Oak" — it soon was known by 
name, 

As children's children learned its well- 
earned fame 
And sought its ancient shade. 

Each generation heard the story of its 
birth. 



How staunch it stood, firm as the solid 
earth, 
Nor once its trust betrayed. 

One hundred years of varied changes 

passed 
When swept across the land the war's 
shrill blast 
A cry for Liberty. 
Borne on the wind the cannon's sullen roar 
To desolated homes a sorrow's message 
bore 
Yet hope for victory. 

Peace came at last; her wings spread o'er 

; the land ; 

Sorrow and joy commingled, hand in hand 

Joined in the loud acclaim 
To liberty, the boon our grandsires sought, 
Endured the struggles, lightened with the 
thought 

Inspired by Freedom's name. 

The Charter Oak, in loyal friendship true, 
Listened and heard and woke to life anew, 

Till on uplifted boughs 
The fluttering leaves and branches waving 

wide, 
Bespoke its joy to all the trees beside 

Like children in carouse. 

Years came and went, and every spring- 
time bright 
Wakened again the oak to life and light. 

Again a century's knock 
Upon Time's door where centuries mani- 
fold 
Had passed and left enduring letters bold 
Upon the undying rock. 



One fateful day the wind that oft had 

played 
And frolicked in and out the old oak's 
shade 
Came with impetuous roar; 
Onward it flew with wild delicious swing, 
One touch, alas ! This tree of trees the 
king, 
Bent low to rise no more. 



Its memory still is to the country dear ; 
Its glorious life is told to eager, listening 
ear; 
Its name in history 
Lives canonized, as that of reverent sage. 
Whose deeds recounted low from age to 
age. 
Are full of mystery. 



travel 

in Bmerica 




THE WONDERS OF GOD'S HANDIWORK 

Nearly a mile straight down 

from Glacier Point in the Yosemite 

Valley in California — Sun Sculpture by 

Underwood and Underwood, New York — Copyrighted 



travel 
in America 



& 



-r *■ » 




TER'S MARVELOUS ARCHITECTURE 

the Primeval 
e Grand Canyon of 
an Sculpture by Underwood 
trood, New York— Copyrighted 



4*3 




Fathoming the depths of a 

vanished sea— that in ages past 

swept thro' the Grand Canyon of Arizona — 

Sun Sculpture by Underwood and Underwood, New York — Copyrighted 

4»4 



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mnp^FWifr^mffff'ir'MrcfEfjijjjfCf^g'fr^ 



AN ANECDOTE OF COUNT ROCHAMBEAU 
IN CONNECTICUT 



BY 

SUSAN E. M. JOCELYN 

New Haven, Connecticut 

This is the centenary of the death of Comte de Rochambeau (Jean Baptiste Donactfen de Vimeure) 
the scion of French nobility who came to America and fought in the Revolution. During the Great 
Struggle for Independence, the Count crossed Connecticut with his army and this narrative of his 
romantic experience in Southington, Connecticut, is absolutely true, even to the remark of Rochambeau 
concerning the heroine, and repeated by old Aunt Sairy. Luciannah Smith was her real name before 
marriage. She was the daughter of Lieutenant James Smith of Southington, and mother of Nathaniel 
Jocelyn, the distinguished portrait-painter. The author is a daughter of Nathaniel Jocelyn and the facts 
here related have come down through her family and are now recorded as historical anecdote.— Editor 



L 



ITTLE Sarah, whose fingers 
had for an hour plied wearily 
through monotonous exer- 
cises, gave a sigh of relief 
when the clock struck five. 

jerking the old green instruction 
book from the piano rack and compla- 
cently spreading in its place her first 
sheet music, she gave sundry prelim- 
inary twitches at her pink gingham 
skirt, a final painstaking adjustment 
of her weight on the piano-stool, then 
braced herself for a fresh start, and 
brisk little notes came twinkling from 
rosy finger-tips. 

Sarah played them well, bringing 
gay dancers to the mind's eye as she 
dashed along, the melody floating out 
through the open window to the 
piazza, where the grandmother in a 
shaded corner made a perfect picture 
of peace and beauty in old age. 

In an old-fashioned rocker, straight 
and regal she sat, the soft folds of her 
black dress falling in pleasing curves 
about her, and the white kerchief gen- 
tly outlining her bust and shoulders. 
A widow's cap with its band of black 
brought into strong relief the bur- 
nished silver of her hair, shading a 
brow of marked smoothness, and the 
eyes of that unusual shade of blue, 
matching the sea, still retained their 



sparkle, and deepened the roses which 
the suns of many summers had ''set" 
in her cheeks. 

When the bright quick notes fell 
upon her ear, the rocker ceased for a 
moment its gentle sway, and a new 
ripple of light came into the blue eyes. 
Swift-flying needles grew quiet and 
the half-formed stocking dropped un- 
heeded in her lap; then bending for- 
ward to listen, she caught the time of 
the swift swinging measures, and her 
head nodded in unison through all 
the quick turns. 

"Sary," she called when the last 
note was sounded. 

"Yes, grandma," answered the 
young musician. 

"What was that tune you were 
playing, child?" and Grandma's voice 
had a tone indicating more than pass- 
ing interest. 

"'Come, Haste to the Wedding,' 
grandma ; pretty, isn't it ?" and young 
Sarah parted the muslin curtains and 
sprang through the long windows to 
her grandmother's side. "You must 
have heard it before this, grandma." 
she said. "It is an old song, pub- 
lished in England almost a hundred 
years ago, so my teacher says.'' 

"It was new to me when I heard it, 
'way back in 1781. I danced to that 



4»5 



426 ANECDOTE OF COUNT ROCHAMBEAU IN CONNECTICUT 



time with 



" and Grandma hesi- 



tated, then added in a slightly exult- 
ant tone, ''with Rochambeau, Sary." 

"Grandma !" exclaimed Sarah, 
"you don't mean the Count de Roch- 
ambeau in my history, do you?" 

Grandma nodded smiling assent 
and her granddaughter, a-tilt with in- 
terest, clamored for details. 

"Wait till I run and call Margaret," 
she said, and springing down the 
piazza steps and racing over the lawn 
she called in a high treble : "Marga- 
ret ! Margaret ! Come in and hear 
about grandma and the Count de 
Rochambeau. Grandma knew him 
and danced with him, and she's going 
to tell us all about him. Come in ! 
Come in!" 

Then little Sarah, repetitious and 
emphatic, led her somewhat incredu- 
lous sister to the piazza. 

"Grandma, what fairy tale is this?" 
asked Margaret, and grandma, for 
answer, drew both of the girls down 
on the seat beside her. Closing her 
eyes, she sat for a moment in silence, 
then, with a far-away look into the 
past, she said : 

"One July day, just about sun- 
down, Sister Sary and I were busy 
putting away the tea-things, when 
Sylvy Hart came in. She was full of 
talk and laugh about the French sol- 
diers who were in camp near the 
town. The spot has been called 
'French Hill' ever since. They had 
marched from Rhode Island to Con- 
necticut and were on their way to 
meet Washington in New York. It 
was a great thing for Southin'ton 
folks to have those thousands of sol- 
diers, in their gay coats, let right 
down . in the town, all of a sudden. 
All day they had been straying 
around, and Sylvy Hart said that two 
of them stopped at her house for a 
drink of water and her father invited 
them in to tea. 

"Now Sylvy was a great mimic 
and she showed us just how one of 
them made his manners when she 
passed his cup to him. She put her 



hand on her heart and made a low 
bow, saying: 'Pretty Polly, pretty 
Polly!' in a queer little choppy voice, 
which she said was just like his. 'It 
was his way of giving a compliment,' 
she tittered. 'So/ said she, T made 
a curtsy and he made another bow, 
jumping up from the table every 
time. Oh, Luciannah Smith!' she 
said, T wish Harvey Upson would 
act like that.' She married Harvey 
in the fall, but he never learned to bow 
and scrape and say 'Pretty Polly !' 

'Well, while she was talking, 
Daddy came 'round to the back steps. 
'Come, Luciannah,' said he, 'you and 
Sary had better smart yourselves up 
a bit and go along with me. There's 
a-goin' to be a dance for the soldiers 
up by the French camp. It's no more 
than right that we should make things 
sort o' pleasant for them.' 

"Sylvy started right off for home 
to put herself into trim and Sary and 
I got out of our short gowns and pet- 
ticoats in no time. Mother had gone 
out visiting, so I dared put on my 
best white dimity and red shoes, and 
we wore white gauze scarfs around 
our shoulders. Behind Daddy we 
walked up the road, hardly daring to 
lift our eyes to the beautiful soldiers 
who peered at us from every side ; 
the green seemed to be covered with 
them and the colors of their uniforms 
looked in the distance like bright po- 
sies growing there. 

"Pretty soon we met Sylvy and 
Harvey Upson. She was talking and 
giggling about her Frenchman, which 
gave Harvey a pretty dark face, and 
it looked blacker still when the young 
soldier, along with a comrade, came 
sidling up, and with his hand on his 
heart, took 'Pretty Polly' off to the 
dance ground. Sister Sary followed 
with the comrade, leaving me^ with 
Harvey Upson, who wasn't very good 
company just then. 

"After a while he said in a crusty 
sort of a tone: 'It's only the low- 
grade officers who dance with the 
girls. There's the general, the Count 



HOW HE ATTENDED A DANCE IN SOUTHINGTON 427 



Rochambeau, he isn't dancing. I 
don't believe he'd take any of these 
girls for a partner. See him over 
there? Don't he look fine?' 

"I felt my color a-risin' and I guess 
I must have cast a pretty animated 
glance in the direction marked by 
Harvey's thumb, for in a minute I 
saw that the general was staring 
straight at me. He was standing a 
little apart from the others, with his 
arms folded, and was a smallish sort 
of a man, but was as straight as an 
arrow. His long, dark-blue cloth 
coat was faced with red and white, 
and his cocked hat bore the same 
colors. He had dreadful piercing 
eyes and I felt pretty uncomfortable 
and turned and looked the other way 
and fidgeted,, tying and untying my 
scarf; then I thought, how foolish I 
am; 'tisn't likely he was noticing me 
at all; so I slyly gave another little 
peep at the red and white cocked hat 
and the next minute called upon the 
hills to cover me, for lo, and behold ! 
he was a-crossing right over towards 
me, cocked hat in hand, and a smile 
on his face. Then he stopped short, 
sort o' military-like, made a low bow, 
and said: 'Madamoiselle?' as though 
he was asking a question, and held 
out his hand for a partner." 

"Had he been introduced?" inter- 
rupted young Margaret, whose ideas 
of propriety were at that early age 
well-formed. 

"Introduced? No," explained 
grandma. "It was war times, you 
know, Margaret, and this was a great 
general, who had come 'way across 
the water to help us beat the British. 
That was introduction enough, child ; 
so I just made my prettiest curtsy, 
put my hand in his, and with a glance 
at Harvey, which meant, 'What do 
you say now?' I went skipping off 
into the reel with the Count. 

"He was not young (fifty years old 
they said he was), but oh, how beau- 
tifullv he danced ! I had no fear of 



making mistakes with such a partner. 
I suppose that was the way he led his 
troops. Whirling and whirling, this 
way and that way, forward and back- 
ward we went, while the fiddles were 
spinning over and over the pretty 
tune that Sary just played. I have 
never heard it since till to-day. 

"You want to know how he talked 
and what he said? Well, I guess I 
did most of the talking. He could 
understand me better than I could 
him. I don't believe I had ever heard 
any but Southin'ton folEs~"talk before 
that. I think I must have been 
pretty bright or pretty foolish, for he 
seemed a good deal amused by my 
talk, and once he clapped his hands 
and said some funny French words. 
I didn't know what they meant, un- 
less they were for me to go on danc- 
ing, so, as I was serving my country 
according to my gifts, we danced till 
the moon came out. Then, when the 
music stopped, the Count led me to 
my father, and said some beautiful 
sounding words, half English and 
half French I took it that he was 
thanking me for my company, so I 
said: 'Thank you, Sir/ and dropped 
a curtsy and he made a low bow, hat 
in hand, and walked away. In a mo- 
ment he turned, looked back, lifted 
his hat once more and smiled. I can 
see him now, just as he looked then," 
and grandma sat smiling reflectively. 

"You haven't told all he said, Luci- 
annah," laughed great-aunt Sary 
from behind the window-curtain, 
where she had been living over her 
own little part in the play of long ago. 
"Why, children," she continued, quite 
regardless of grandma's protesting 
hand, "he told lots of folks that your 
grandmother was the most beautiful 
girl that he had seen in America." 

"He hadn't been here long, chil- 
dren," was the modest rejoinder, "and 

sister, you shouldn't " 

"Was Rochambeau anything like 
grandpa?" interrupted little Sarah, 
thus early in life recognizing cause 
and effect. 



428 ANECDOTE OF COUNT ROCHAMBEAU IN CONNECTICUT 

"Not at all," laughed grandma. in my belt. Sary, go play that tune 

"I wasn't thinking of Rochambeau, once more," and grandma, in the 

child, when I said 'yes' to grandpa, "vision splendid," again tripped 

Sylvy Hart and I were not much lightly through the merry dance with 

alike." Then, leading back again in- the Count. 

to the past, she said: "Why, let me And Rochambeau, did ever there 

think, children. I believe it's just come to him again in life 
sixty-five years ago to-day that all «*■,',-• 

this happened. Honeysuckles were T A ^ ovel y apparition, sent 

. ,, w . ,, J ... To be a moments ornament — 

in bloom then ; the air was sweet with A dancing sh a P e, an image gay, 

them, just as it is now. I wore some To haunt, to startle, and waylay?" 



"I KNEW THERE WAS A SPOT LIKE THIS" 

WHAT YOU MAY SAY TO ME, 
OR WHAT I MAY SAY TO YOU 

BY 

ANNA J. GRANNISS 
Plainville, Connecticut 

I knew there was a spot like this 
Reserved somewhere in God's green, 

For I had caught the breath of flowers 
Whose colors I had never seen. 

I always thought that I should win 

Some time a nearer, clearer view, 
And always hoped it would be in 

Close company, Dear Heart, with you. 

I wonder by what way you came? 

I must have missed the way you took; 
What recks the road? You are the same, 

Grown fairer, since that last long look. 

I feared I should arrive too soon, 

Urged on by that impelling wind ; 
I did not wait the stroke of noon, 

And thought you would be hours behind. 

Yet here you meet me as of old; 

Your hand as warm, as strong, as true; 
Was there a moment dark and cold? 

It has not left its mark on you ! 

Dear Heart, whereon I oft have leaned, 
And talked of future rest and bliss; 

As longs an infant yet unweaned, 

So have our tried hearts longed for this. 

Let's yield to our new blessedness! 

Your road was steep, and mine was rough — 
Done with the buffet and the stress ; 

At last the voice has said, "Enough !" 

Here grow the flowers, whose breath I drank 

With eager wonder yesterday, 
And here we stand upon the bank 

Which we had thought so far away. 

I do not know just where we are; 

I only know how we have striven; 
It may be some unnamed Star — 

Think you, Dear Heart, it can be — Heaven? 
Was there a moment's dark and cold? 



FIRST DENTAL COLLEGE IN THE WORLD 

ITS DEVELOPMENT FROM THE ANCIENTS AND ITS FOUNDA- 
TION AS A PART OF THE GREAT AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL 
SYSTEM— THE WORK OF DR. HORACE HAYDEN OF WINDSOR, 
CONNECTICUT, BIRTHPLACE OF THE NEW SURGICAL SCIENCE 

BY 
DR. JAMES McMANUS 

Hartford, Connecticut 

Dr. McManus here contributes to American historical records, and especially to Connecticut's historical 
pre-eminence, his researches into the development of the surgical science of dentistry. There is no 
authority in America more capable of presenting the subject than Dr. McManus. He is not only a 
thorough scholar but his services to the profession and its elevation as a science have been recognized 
throughout the United States and Europe. He stands in the foreranks of his callirrg^and is held in the 
highest esteem by his colleagues. In the first volume of the Connecticut Magazine, Dr. McManus 
contributed the " History of Anesthetia" and established for all time the position of Horace Wells of 
Connecticut as the true discoverer. His lectures in this country and abroad have been important factors 
in the development of dental surgery.— EDITOR 



THE student of early medical 
history can find little infor- 
mation in the early records as 
to the methods of treating 
diseases of the mouth, gums and 
teeth. That substitutes for lost 
teeth were worn by the wealthy, 
the pieces of fine gold metal work 
to hold such in place in the mouth 
that may be seen in several of 
the museums of Europe prove conclu- 
sively that there were artisans in the 
dental prosthetic line several hundred 
years before the Christian era. Many 
years ago, when I was young and 
credulous, I listened with great in- 
terest and pleasure to Wendell Phil- 
lips deliver his celebrated lecture on 
the "Lost Arts." He told of many 
things as facts that I could readily 
believe, but when he stated that gold 
fillings had been found in the teeth 
of mummies over three thousand 
years old, the germ of doubt found 
lodgment and my faith and belief in 
the eloquent orator weakened. 

In a paper before the American 
Dental Society of Europe at Geneva, 
Switzerland, in 1905, by Dr. W. J. 
Younger, formerly of California, now 
of Paris, France, he told of his mak- 
ing a study of mummies in the mu- 
seum of Cairo, Egypt, under the su- 
pervision and intelligent assistance of 
the doctor in charge, G. Elliott Smith, 



and after critical examination of 
many subjects, some dating seven 
thousand years B.C., in none did they 
find any trace of dental art. We 
have, however, evidence that gold leaf 
was used by Italian dentists previous 
to 1450, as stated by Giovani de Arcoli 
in a work on medicine that he pub- 
lished in 1450 in which were several 
chapters on dental medicine. 

While it is believed that dentistry 
had its origin in ancient Egypt coming 
down through Greece, Italy, Germany, 
France and England, and, while some 
of the medical writers of those coun- 
tries as early as the thirteenth cen- 
tury gave some attention to the teeth 
and diseases of the mouth, it was not 
until 1700 in France that one desiring 
to do any dental work was compelled 
to pass a examination before an Ex- 
amining Board, and in 1728 Pierre 
Fauchard, a dentist in Paris, after 
many years' practice, published a 
work on dentistry which to-day is 
held in high estimation for its ad- 
vanced and valuable teachings. 

It is within the past one hundred 
years that surgery and surgeons have 
commanded respect and professional 
rank, as the early records tell that 
surgeons were generally held in con- 
tempt and operations given over to 
barbers or "Menial Servants" of phy- 
sicians to be performed under their 



439 



43° 



THE FIRST DENTAL COLLEGE IN THE WORLD 



direction. The surgeons were just 
tolerated at the time when their ser- 
vices were in demand, but of little im- 
portance after the operations were 
performed. As many of the minor 
operations, such as bleeding, cup- 
ping, dressing wounds and extract- 
ing teeth fell to the care of the 
barbers, they were incorporated into 
a common company with the surgeons 
in London in 1308, but the name or 
title Surgeon Dentist was not known 
until 1622. 

The first qualified dentist on record 
in the United States was an English- 
man named Robert Woffendale, who 
practiced in New York in 1766. 
There was a Mr. John Baker in Bos- 
ton in 1768, who had as a pupil that 
Boston celebrity and patriot of revo- 
lutionary fame, Paul Revere, who, 
it would seem, was "Jack-at-all- 
Trades." During the War of the 
Revolution there came, with the 
French soldiers under the Count de 
Rochambeau, a young officer named 
Joseph Lemaire, who, previous to his 
joining the Army, had been a practic- 
ing dentist in Paris. While the 
French and American soldiers were in 
winter quarters near Providence, 
Rhode Island, in 1781-84, Lemaire 
gave his services to the officers and 
others who were in need of dental 
operations and also gave instructions 
in dentistry to Josiah Flagg, the first 
native American to take up dentistry 
exclusively for a business. There 
was also with the French fleet, a sur- 
geon by the name of James Gardette, 
who had, as required by the French 
service, received instruction in dentis- 
try. He later resigned from the ser- 
vice and located in Philadelphia where 
he practiced dentistry for forty-five 
years. 

From 1790 and for years following, 
many men handy with tools and suffi- 
cient assurance to offer their services 
were classed as dentists. The "Hall 
Mark" of ability and respectability 
was conferred on John Greenwood of 
New York city by President Wash- 



ington, who wrote to him from Mount 
Vernon, New York, in 1795, saying: 
"I shall always prefer your services 
to those of any other in the line of 
your present profession." 

The dentist whom tradition holds 
in highest esteem as an educated, cul- 
tivated, skilful dental practitioner is 
the Irishman, Edward Hudson, who 
practiced in Philadelphia from 1803 
for many years. The Army and 
Navy standing of the Frenchmen, 
Lemaire and Gardette, and the experi- 
ence of the Irishman, Hudson, in the 
office of his uncle, a dentist of reputa- 
tion in Dublin, Ireland, with the so- 
cial and educational advantages they 
possessed, enabled these foreigners to 
offer assurances to the public that 
they would give intelligent and com- 
petent service. Their success was an 
object-lesson and they opened up a 
new and attractive field for Americans 
to enter. Previous to 1840, there 
were a few graduates in medicine 
who turned their attention success- 
fully to dental work, but for twenty 
years later to i860 the large majority 
were men who had been employed in 
some kind of mechanical work, such 
as wood and ivory workers, tool-mak- 
ers, engravers and jewelers; and the 
transition from bench-work to office 
workers was often quickly effected by 
giving a few weeks' time in looking 
on, and practicing in the office of a 
dentist who had attained reputation 
and success on as little previous prep- 
aration. There were few text-books; 
the French and German works were 
not then translated and the few Eng- 
lish books were expensive and not in 
the American market. Dentistry then 
was in this country a possible artistic 
trade, and those following it could 
expect no more cordial recognition 
from the medical men than the sur- 
geons received fifty years earlier. 

Among the few, early in 1800, who 
chose dentistry as their calling after 
spending years in other and varied 
avocations, was a man named Horace 
H. Hayden, who was born in Wind- 



CONNECTICUT— BIRTHPLACE OF NEW SURGICAL SCIENCE 431 



sor, Connecticut, October 13, 1769. 
His name and fame as the Father of 
American Professional Dentistry is 
known not only in the United States 
but is universally acknowledged in all 
civilized countries. The name of 
William Hayden is mentioned in Co- 
lonial History as early as 1630, and in 
1637, his name as a soldier is spec- 
ially mentioned for bravery in the 
report of Captain John Mason, whose 
life he saved in the Pequot War. 
William Hayden bought and secured 
land from the Colony of Connecticut 
for military services in the Pequot 
War and settled in Windsor, Con- 
necticut, in 1642. His eldest son, 
Daniel, was a lieutenant in the Colo- 
nial Service and a member of the Gen- 
eral Court of Connecticut, and his eld- 
est son was also a member of the Gen- 
eral Court. The third Daniel was a 
lieutenant in the French and Indian 
War, and was considered a rich man. 
The third lieutenant, Daniel Hayden's 
eldest son, Thomas Hayden, was the 
father of Dr. Horace H. Hayden. 
The Revolutionary War Record of 
Thomas Hayden reads as Sergeant in 
the Army at the alarm at Lexington 
in 1775 and later as Sergeant Major, 
Second Lieutenant and Adjutant in 
the Revolutionary War until 1783. 
Previous to his military service his 
business was an architect and builder, 
which he resumed after the close of 
the war. The wife of Thomas Hay- 
den, Abigail Parsons, had an ances- 
tral record, equally honorable as a 
descendant from families noted for 
their intellectual and scholarly at- 
tainments. Horace H. Hayden was 
born in Windsor, Connecticut, Octo- 
ber 13, 1769, with the Hayden inheri- 
tance, and a mother's record, as de- 
scendant of one of the brainiest fami- 
lies in New England ; the legend may 
well be accepted that the boy learned 
to read as soon as he could talk ; that 
he early loved to tramp in the woods ; 
his later botanical and geological 
writings and the first book published 
on geology in the country, written by 



him, and his discovery of a mineral 
which was named "Haydenite" after 
him, proved that his love of nature 
studies was an early development. 

At fourteen years of age he made 
two trips on a brig, working his pas- 
sage to the West Indies. On his re- 
turn, he went to school until he was 
sixteen, when he learned the trade of 
a carpenter of his father and later 
studied architecture. At twenty-one 
he sailed again to the West Indies, but 
his stay was short on account of an 
attack of fever, returning the next 
year and again forced home on 
account of the unhealthy condition of 
the island. For several years he con- 
tinued his studies in architecture and 
at twenty-four years of age he went 
to New York, remaining a few 
months, but not meeting with suc- 
cess he returned to Connecticut and 
taught school one winter near Hart- 
ford. His ability as a teacher was 
recognized and he was advised to fol- 
low that calling, but while on a visit 
to New York he called for dental 
work on a Mr. John Greenwood, Pres- 
ident Washington's favorite dentist, 
and, while under his care, he became 
so much interested in the man, his 
methods and his skill, that he decided 
that he would like to be a dentist. 

The manual ability acquired, as a 
boy and man, in the different lines of 
work he had followed, his studies, 
travels, and the few months' experi- 
ence as a school teacher, well fitted him 
to take up the study and practice of 
dentistry, with, it is told, only one or 
two books and pamphlets on dentistry, 
a few instruments, such as he could 
procure, depending on the instruction 
that Greenwood was able to give him, 
in the short time he was with him. with 
little money and no friends, he opened 
an office in Baltimore, Maryland, in 
1800. While he was fairly success- 
ful from the start, he wasted no time 
but took up the study of medicine and 
surgery, and by his zeal in his studies 
and close attention to his business, he 
soon gained the confidence of the pub- 



43 2 



THE FIRST DENTAL COLLEGE IN THE WORLD 



lie and the esteem of many of the 
medical profession. When the British 
attacked Baltimore in 1814, Hayden's 
military inheritance broke out, and he 
enisted as a sergeant; but, as medical 
men and surgeons were in demand, 
General Smith, who knew his skill, 
assigned him to an hospital, as an 
assistant surgeon, where he remained 
as long as the sick and wounded need- 
ed his care. To his dental and medi- 
cal studies he added the studies of 
botany and geology and, in 18 10, pub- 
lished a geological sketch of Balti- 
more. It was near that city that he 
discovered a form of "Chabazite" to 
which Professor Silliman gave the 
name "Haydenite." Dr. Hayden, 
early in his practice, felt the need of, 
and realized in part what might be 
gained, if dentists were to meet fre- 
quently in convention. After years of 
thought he started a movement in 
1817 to call in convention the leading 
dentists of the country. The effort 
was unsuccessful. 

The great interest taken to-day, by 
professional men, in post graduate 
schools, and the great benefit they, as 
well as the country, gained by these 
meetings, tell how far-seeing and edu- 
cational were the aims and ideas of 
Dr. Hayden as early as 18 17. His 
love for the study of geology and the 
difficulty of finding works on the sub- 
ject in Engish forced him to learn to 
read and translate French, as the best 
works on the subject were in that lan- 
guage, and in 18 12 he published a vol- 
ume of four hundred pages entitled 
"Geological Essays," the first work on 
that subject published in the United 
States. He had for the time a valu- 
able collection of American minerals, 
which are now a part of the collection 
of Roanoke College, Virginia. His 
reputation as a dentist and a student, 
his fame as a professional and scien- 
tific writer and his success as a teacher 
gained for him the compliment, the 
first of the kind ever paid to a den- 
tist, of an invitation to give a course 
of lectures on dentistry before the 



Medical Class in the University of 
Maryland in 1825, and in 1837 tne 
Honorary Medical Degree was con- 
ferred on him by both the University 
of Maryland and the Jefferson Med- 
ical School of Philadelphia. From 
1817, when the effort made by Dr. 
Hayden to organize a Dental Society 
failed, until 1840, dental progress was 
of the individual go-as-you-please 
order. 

Dr. Hayden's many years of daily 
office work, and his habits of study 
had convinced him that dentistry 
meant more than how to fill teeth and 
make artificial ones ; and, that one 
attempting to practice dentistry should 
have a knowledge of medicine. With 
settled belief that through associated 
efforts great good would speedily re- 
sult, he again invited a few of the 
leading dentists of the country to 
meet in New York city, August 18, 
1840, when the American Society of 
Dental Surgeons was organized. Dr. 
Hayden was then elected president, 
continuing in that office four years, 
until his death. Solyman Brown, 
M.D., Secretary, and J. Smith Dodge, 
M.D., a member, were all of Connec- 
ticut birth. 

The first serious public move- 
ment made towards elevating the call- 
ing of dentistry, quickly led to the sec- 
ond, the publishing of a journal. The 
Dental, Medical, Scientific and other 
papers, written by Drs. Hayden, Har- 
ris, Hudson and many others in the 
country, were at the mercy of the 
medical publishers, and at the second 
meeting of the society, it was decided, 
through the efforts of Dr. Hayden, to 
publish a journal, the first devoted to 
dentistry ever published, to be known 
as the American Journal of Dental 
Science, and Dr. Hayden was a fre- 
quent contributor to this journal dur- 
ing his life. 

The third, and without doubt, most 
important step was the establishing of 
a school for dental instruction. From 
the early years of his practice, Dr. 
Hayden felt the need of a properly 



CONNECTICUT— BIRTHPLACE OF NEW SURGICAL SCIENCE 433 



equipped dental school, and with his 
friends, both dental and medical, it 
was a subject frequently talked over, 
with the hope of inspiring them with 
the high professional ideas that col- 
lege instruction should foster. One 
of Dr. Hayden's former students 
named Chapin A. Harris, was not 
only an enthusiastic admirer but was 
in full sympathy with his ideas. As 
to the necessity for an advanced sys- 
tem of dental education, as also an 
energetic, practical, intelligent worker, 
they both had presented their views 
and hopes to men connected with the 
Maryland University, and urged the 
advisability of their adding a dental 
department to the Medical School. 
The faculty, like others of later years, 
were blind to their best interests, and 
gave as an excuse for rejecting the 
proposition "that dentistry was of no 
consequence." This refusal forced 
them to think of organizing an inde- 
pendent dental school, and, acting on 
the advice of Dr. Hayden, the work 
preparatory to applying to the Legis- 
lature for a charter, was mainly done 
by Dr. Harris. He was successful in 
getting influential citizens to favor the 
movement, and February I, 1840, the 
Maryland Legislature granted a char- 
ter incorporating the Baltimore Col- 
lege of Dental Surgery. 

In the Articles of Incorporation, 
Section two, were appointed and con- 
stituted as professors of said college 
Horace H. Hayden, M.D., to be Pro- 
fessor of Dental Pathology and Physi- 
ology; Chapin A. Harris, M.D., to be 
Professor of Practical Dentistry; 
Thomas E. Bond, junior, M.D., to be 
Professor of Special Dental Pathol- 
ogy and Therapeutics, and H. Willis 
Baxter, M.D., to be Professor of 
Special Dental Anatomy and Physi- 
ology. A meeting of the faculty was 
held in the house of Dr. H. H. Hay- 
den, February 3, 1840, and H. H. 
Hayden, M.D., was elected president 
and Chapin A. Harris, M.D., was 
elected dean. The long wished for 
dental college was incorporated, a 



faculty appointed and ready to re- 
ceive students. The second faculty 
meeting arrangements were made to 
advertise in several of the leading 
newspapers of the country and in the 
American Journal of Dental Science 
and the Maryland Medical and Surgi- 
cal Journal. The first annual an- 
nouncement sent out stated that the 
desire of the faculty was to offer to 
students a course of instruction in the- 
oretical and practical dentistry, and 
told of the advantages the college 
already possessed inTrre cabinet of 
anatomical and physiological speci- 
mens of Professor Baxter and the val- 
uable pathological specimens collected 
during many years of extensive prac- 
tice by Professor Hayden ; the college 
opened its first course in the winter of 
1840 and 1841 with five students. A 
small room in a good locality was tem- 
porarily engaged for a lecture hall, but 
for the teaching of anatomy and dis- 
section a private and secluded stable 
loft was deemed the most prudent 
quarters for the student to occupy. 
From the introductory lecture to 
the students and friends, delivered 
November 3, 1840, by Professor Chapin 
A. Harris, a few quotations will be of 
interest: "Accessible as has been the 
calling of the dentist to all that were 
disposed to engage in it, and that, too, 
without regard to qualification, it has 
been resorted to by the ignorant and 
illiterate and I am sorry to say, in too 
many instances, by unprincipled indi- 
viduals until it now numbers in the 
United States about twelve hundred, 
and of which I think it may be safely 
asserted that not more than one-sixth 
possess any just claims to a correct 
or thorough knowledge of the pursuit, 
— a little mechanical tact or dexterity 
is thought by some to be all that is 
requisite to a practitioner of dental 
surgery, and that this could be ob- 
tained in, at most, a few weeks, — ele- 
vate the standard of the qualifications 
of the dental surgeon to a level with 
those of a medical practitioner, and 
the results of his practice will be 



434 



THE FIRST DENTAL COLLEGE IN THE WORLD 






always beneficial, which at present 
are frequently the reverse. Require 
of the practitioner of dental surgery 
to be educated in the collateral 
sciences of anatomical and physiologi- 
cal surgery, pathology and therapeu- 
tics and the sphere of his usefulness 
and his respectability will be increased, 
— aware of the responsibility that rests 
upon them; the faculty will spare no 
efforts to make it creditable to the 
state that created it and beneficial to 
the public, — in short, they are deter- 
mined that no reproach shall rest 
upon them for fixing a standard of 
qualification that shall not at once be 
respectable, and entitle those coming 
up to it to the confidence of an en- 
lightened community." 

Dr. Harris, in his introductory lec- 
ture to students, tells: "that in 1840, 
there were twelve hundred dentists in 
this country, and not over two hundred 
of them possessed any just claim to 
correct, or thorough knowledge of the 
calling they pursued." The aim of the 
professor of the Baltimore Dental 
College was to teach students scienti- 
fic and practical dentistry, and at the 
first commencement exercises in the 
Assembly Hall, Baltimore, March 9, 
1 841, Professor Bond in his valedic- 
tory address tells the friends and stu- 
dents gathered there what has been 
taught to them during the course of 
instruction, and what they ought, or 
were believed to know. "You have 
been taught that dental surgery is not 
a mere art, separate from, and inde- 
pendent of general medicine, but that 
it is an important branch of the 
science of cure. Your knowledge has 
been based on extensive and accurate 
anatomical investigation. You have 
seen and traced out the exquisitely 
beautiful machinery, by which the or- 
ganism is everywhere knit together. 
You have learned the secrets of ner- 
vous communication and studied the 
simple, yet admirable, arrangements by 
which nutrition is drawn by each part 
from the common receptacle of 
strength. You have also carefully ex- 



amined the phenomena of health and 
disease, as they are manifested in the 
dental arch, its connections and rela- 
tions. Your attention has been partic- 
ularly directed to the effect of irrita- 
tion on the general health, and you 
have seen how readily organs appar- 
ently unconnected and independent 
may be involved in mutual disease. 
You have been taught to regard the 
human body as a complete whole, 
united in all its parts and pervaded 
everywhere by strong and active sym- 
pathies, and your principles of practice 
have been carefully formed on a sound 
knowledge of general medicine." 

This instruction from November 
3, 1840, to the day of the valedictory 
address by Professor Bond at the 
commencement exercises in Assembly 
Hall, Baltimore, Maryland, the con- 
ferring of the degree of Doctor of 
Dental Surgery upon two students 
who had passed a satisfactory exami- 
nation, Robert Arthur and R. Coving- 
ton Mackall, by the president of the 
college, Horace H. Hayden, M.D., 
incidentally proclaimed to the world 
that the trade or calling of dentistry 
had, by virtue of an act of incorpo- 
ration granted by the Legislature of 
the State of Maryland, been changed 
to the profession of dentistry and ad- 
mitted to the rank with the learned 
professions. One of the provisions of 
the charter allowed the conferring of 
the honorary degree on any dentist 
who had distinguished himself in his 
profession or any reputable dentist 
who could not obtain an honorary de- 
gree, could apply for an examination 
and if, after the presentation of a 
thesis, showing specimens of me- 
chanical work, and demonstrating his 
ability to operate skilfully in the 
mouth, one could pass a satisfactory 
oral examination before each member 
of the faculty, the degree of Doctor 
of Dental Surgery might be con- 
ferred. During the early years of the 
college, this power was judiciously 
exercised for the records of the col- 
lege show that not all who applied 



CONNECTICUT— BIRTHPLACE OF NEW SURGICAL SCIENCE 435 



were successful in gaining the cov- 
eted, degree; after the first session the 
faculty conferred the honorary de- 
gree on a number of worthy dentists 
in this country, Canada, England, 
Scotland and France. There were 
two graduates the first year, three the 
second, and the third year, six. The 
fourth year the president, Dr. Hayden, 
died January 26, 1844, aged 75. The 
college that was "opposed by many, 
and a short life predicted," he lived 
to see firmly established and in charge 
of earnest men, on the road to assured 
success. In 1846 a suitable building 
was secured that gave ample facilities 
for both theoretical and practical in- 
struction and for the establishment of 
a dental infirmary and operating 
room. In 1846, Cyrenus O. Cone, 
M.D., D.D.S., a Connecticut man, was 
appointed professor of mechanical 
dentistry. Connecticut holds the 
record of furnishing the first presi- 
dent and first professor of the princi- 
ples and practice of dental surgery, 
and the first professor of mechanical 
dentistry in the first dental college in 
the world. 

The marked success of the Balti- 
more College led to the establishment 
of the Ohio Dental College, which was 
chartered in 1845 an d commenced its 
sessions that year in the city of Cin- 
cinnati. Soon followed the establish- 
ment of dental colleges in Kentucky, 
New York, Pennsylvania, Missouri, 
Louisiana and Massachusetts. Har- 
vard University in 1867 was the first 
to add a dental department to its Med- 
ical School, and the Boston Dental 
College was established in 1868. The 
Baltimore Dental College commenced 
in 1840 with four professors, and in 
1855 there were added five, making 
nine. Harvard University opened a 
dental school twenty-seven years later, 
1867, with a teaching faculty of ten 
professors. The medical and dental 
schools then required students to 
attend two full courses of lectures 
before examination for graduation. 

The courses of instruction were 



mainly alike. The dental having 
additional studies in metallurgy and 
mechanical and manipulative training 
in place of general surgery and ob- 
stetrics. In the lecture room students 
were taught the use of the microscope 
and dental histology, anatomy — hu- 
man and comparative — physiology, 
pathology, therapeutics, materia med- 
ica, chemistry, anaesthesia, general 
and oral surgery, bacteriology and 
orthodenthia. In the laboratory met- 
allurgy was scientifically and practi- 
cally taught, with special reference to 
the working of lead, zinc, tin, silver, 
gold and platina ; also vulcanite. The 
student was taught to make and artis- 
tically adjust artificial teeth, to make 
continuous gum work, make crowns, 
bridges and porcelain inlays. He 
was taught to treat and master cleft 
palate deformities, make and adjust 
splints for broken jaws and restore 
portions of the jaws when lost, either 
by accident or disease. These include 
the scientific, artistic, mechanical and 
practical teaching that is given by 
the professors and demonstrators in 
dental colleges. 

In the first twenty-five years of 
the nineteenth century there were 
twelve books published by American 
authors on dental subjects. A "Sys- 
tem of Dental Surgery'' was published 
by Samuel Sheldon Fitch, M.D., sur- 
geon dentist, New York, 1829. This 
work was not claimed by its author 
to be more than an extended com- 
pilation. "Dentalogia," a poem on dis- 
eases of the teeth and their proper 
remedies, in five cantos, was published 
by Solyman Brown, A.M., New York, 
183 ^, and another poem, "Dental 
Hygeia," 1838. The year the Balti- 
more College was organized, Chapin 
A. Harris, M.D., surgeon dentist. Bal- 
timore, 1839, published "The Dental 
Art," a practical treatise on dental 
surgery. This was the first entirely 
original work published in this country 
for the use of the profession exclu- 
sively. In 1845. a second edition, en- 
larged and revised, appeared under 



43 6 



THE FIRST DENTAL COLLEGE IN THE WORLD 



the title of "The Principles and Prac- 
tice of Dental Surgery." This work 
was generally acknowledged to be the 
best practical treatise on dental sur- 
gery that had ever appeared in any 
language. There have been many 
editions of this work since and it still 
is a standard text-book in the dental 
colleges of the world. 

Human teeth were used to replace 
lost front teeth. An advertisement of 
M. Lemaire, dentist, in a Philadelphia 
paper, offering two guineas each for 
front teeth, tells that they were so 
used in 1784, and have been occasion- 
ally ever since. Those wanting a 
partial or full upper or lower set of 
teeth had to take what the dentist 
could best make for them, using either 
the teeth of cattle, sheep, or teeth 
carved from hippopotamus ivory or 
elephants' tusks, until about 1825, 
when porcelain teeth were introduced 
from France. The improvements 
over the French formula for making 
porcelain teeth by Americans were 
many; the most successful were those 
made by Samuel S. White, who 
opened a manufactory in Philadelphia 
in 1844 f° r making porcelain teeth for 
dentists. That establishment has 
since grown to be the largest and 
most successful manufactory of arti- 
ficial teeth in the world. Only the 
well-to-do could afford artificial teeth 
on gold, platinum or silver; cheaper 
metals had been experimented with 
and were failures. The poor had lit- 
tle show for looks or comfort until 
after the invention and introduction 
of vulcanite by Nelson Goodyear in 
185 1 and 1855; another Connecticut 
man whose invention enables dentists 
to make artistic and serviceable artifi- 
cial teeth that are within the reach of 
the poor. 

The Drs. Hayden, Harris, and 
all associated with them, were desir- 
ous that dental students should be 
given as good opportunities to acquire 
education as the student at medical 
colleges, and the standard in the col- 
leges to-day are no higher than the 



one set by Professor Harris in his in- 
troductory lecture, and Professor 
Bond in his valedictory to the stu- 
dents in the Baltimore Dental Col- 
lege in 1841. Medical colleges send 
out graduates, as physicians and sur- 
geons, and it is well known that a 
large majority never practice either 
general nor special surgery. Dental 
practitioners have to do daily more 
or less surgery and many have at- 
tained high rank in that most delicate, 
difficult and dangerous specialty, oral 
surgery. These are from choice — 
surgeon dentists and mechanical den- 
tists. The degree of the medical and 
dental colleges alike confers on all 
graduates professional rank. It is 
rather amusing to think of the State 
Legislature of Alabama passing an 
act to regulate the practice of den- 
tistry in 1841, the year the Baltimore 
Dental College held its first session. 
The gift of foresight surely impelled 
the few dentists of that state to be the 
first to procure by legislative enact- 
ment professional and legal standing 
for dentistry. Connecticut, that fur- 
nished the men to organize a dental 
college, societies and journals, did not 
procure an effective dental lav/ until 
1893, fifty-two years after the State 
of Alabama. 

That the upward development of 
the calling of dentistry along scien- 
tific and professional lines was 
largely the work of Connecticut- 
born men, will be admitted when the 
names are chronologically noted and 
the character of the work, even 
though it was done outside the borders 
of their native state. Horace H. 
Hayden, M.D., born in Windsor, Con- 
necticut, October 13, 1769, architect 
and builder, dentist, army surgeon, 
geologist, the organizer of the first 
dental college in the world, its first 
president and first professor of the 
principles and practice of dental 
science, a voluminous writer on den- 
tal and scientific subjects was one of 
the organizers of the first dental soci- 
ety and the first dental journal of the 



CONNECTICUT— BIRTHPLACE OF NEW SURGICAL SCIENCE 437 



world. Solyman Brown, A.M., D.D . 
M.D., D,D.S., born in Litchfield, 
Connecticut, November 17, 1790, a 
dental writer, dental poet, teacher, was 
first secretary of the first dental or- 
ganization and one of the organizers 
of the first dental journal. Dr. J. 
Smith Dodge, born in Connecticut, 
1806, writer, teacher, was one of the 
organizers of the first dental society; 
J. M. Riggs, born in Seymour, Con- 
necticut, October 25, 1810, was a 
student with Dr. Horace Wells. On 
the eleventh of December, 1844, he 
extracted a tooth for Dr. Wells while 
he was under the influence of nitrous 
oxide gas administered by Professor 
G. Q. Colton. This was the first ap- 
plication of anaesthesia in surgery, an- 
tedating by nearly two years Dr. Mor- 
ton's use of sulphuric ether. Dr. 
Riggs gave a clinic before the Con- 
necticut Valley Dental Society at 
Northampton in June, 1867, and also 
gave a description of his method of 
treating and operating for the condi- 
tions now known as Pyorrhoea Alve- 
volaris, but which for a time was 
called by his name "Rigg's Disease." 
Dr. John S. Clark, born in Brooklyn, 
Connecticut, 181 3, practiced for sev- 
eral years in St. Louis and in New 
Orleans. In that city, 1850, he pub- 
lished a magazine called "The Dental 
Obturator." Dr. Asa Hill, born in 
Norwalk, Connecticut, November 20, 
1816, a man of fine literary attain- 
ments and a frequent contributor to 
the newspapers and magazines, asso- 
ciate editor of several dental journals, 
the first president of the Connecticut 
State Dental Association, invented 
the valuable temporary filling ma- 
terial known as "Hill's Stopping." 
He was also a member of the Con- 
necticut State Legislature, 1856. Dr. 
C. A. Kingsbury, born in East Wind- 
sor, Connecticut, 1819, writer, teacher, 
was for many years a professor of the 
Philadelphia Dental College. Cyre- 
nus O. Cone, M.D., D.D.S., born in 
East Haddam, September 20, 1820, 
was pioneer professor of mechanical 



dentistry in the Baltimore Dental Col- 
lege. Dr. Horace Wells, writer on 
dental subjects, was the discoverer and 
demonstrator of the anaesthetic prop- 
erties of nitrous oxide or laughing 
gas, December 11, 1844. The first 
one to manufacture gold foil in this 
country was Marcus Bull of Hartford, 
Connecticut, in 1812. Levi Gilbert, a 
confectioner in New Haven, Connect- 
icut, in 1848, obtained a patent for 
cavity plates, the first application of 
the principles of atmospheric pressure 
in dentistry — a most/ important part 
of mechanical dentistry. Nelson 
Goodyear of New Haven, Connecti- 
cut, in 1 85 1 invented a process of 
making hard rubber or vulcanite, 
which has since been so successfully 
used for making artificial dentures, 
obturators, dental splints, and regulat- 
ing appliances and in many and vari- 
ous ways has proved of great value to 
mankind. 

In other states and cities the 
pioneer Connecticut dentists named 
were successful in organizing colleges 
and societies, while in Connecticut 
there was no move in either direction 
till 1864, when the Connecticut State 
Dental Association was organized, 
and in 1866, when Dr. Asa Hill of 
Norwalk, Connecticut, with the co- 
operation of the State Dental Associa- 
tion, petitioned the medical faculty 
and corporation of Yale and the Con- 
necticut state medical societies for the 
addition of a dental department. The 
Maryland University in 1839 refused 
to add to its medical school a dental 
department on the ground that "den- 
tistry was of no consequence." and the 
faculty and corporation of Yale Col- 
lege, when asked to add a dental de- 
partment twenty-seven years later, in 
1866, would give the project consid- 
eration if ten thousand dollars was 
given as a starter. Yale's opportun- 
ity in 1866 was a grand one, for not 
only would a Yale dental department 
have been eminently successful, but 
would have ranked as first and it 
would also have attracted to its medi- 



438 



THE FIRST DENTAL COLLEGE IN THE WORLD 



cal department many more students. 
Harvard University was asked later 
that year, and a quick response was 
given and a dental school was estab- 
ished there in 1867. In 1907, there 
are twenty-one independent dental 
colleges; ten dental departments con- 
nected with medical colleges and 
twenty dental departments connected 
with universities throughout the 
United States. From these fifty-one 
institutions in the past sixty-seven 
years there has been graduated prob- 
ably over twenty-five thousand doc- 
tors of dental surgery. The record 
tells of how "much consequence" civ- 
ilized people considered dentistry, and 
bow much they value and appreciate 
the services of educated and skilful 
dentists. 

It is a well-known fact that 
dentistry has advanced much more 
rapidly, independent of the conserva- 
tive influence that medical men in 
those early days would have exercised 
over it, and it was allowed to go on 
its own way, developing until medical 
men, medical colleges and universities 
realized the commercial value of from 
forty to four hundred students each 
year and the amount of money that 
would reach the pockets of the pro- 
fessors and the treasurers of the in- 
stitutions. 

The great development of den- 
tistry through societies, journals and 
colleges naturally brought the dental 
student more in sympathy and touch 
with the medical student surgically 
inclined; each technically instructed 
were also gifted with manipulative 
ability; they had hands as well as 
brains and would be obliged to use 
them both and with their hands 
accomplish something. The general 
surgeon to-day realizes and fully ap- 



preciates the value of dentistry; he 
will hesitate before performing a 
serious operation, unless his patient's 
mouth is in as aseptic a condition as 
possible; neither will he operate until 
he has safe-guarded his patients by 
proper dressing, sterilizing his hands 
and covering his mouth so that no in- 
fectious germs, through his breath- 
ing, coughing or talking, during the 
critical moments of the operation, can 
reach his patient. The surgeon's 
great opportunity and glory is in skil- 
fully and successfully operating when 
necessary. The dentist's daily duty is 
to educate and to direct all patients 
along preventive lines and to conserve 
their health. The silent influence of 
the proposed memorial in Windsor to 
the memory of Horace H. Hayden, a 
great educator and scientist, and the 
bronze statue and memorial tablet in 
Hartford of Horace Wells, give evi- 
dence to the passersby that the public 
do not entirely forget to pay honor to 
the memory of their benefactors and 
those who have given valuable service 
to the country or to the cause of 
science. 

Dentistry has been rightly named 
"The American Profession," and 
wherever commerce and trade have 
gained foothold may be found den- 
tists who acknowledge Horace H. 
Hayden of Connecticut to be the 
father of professional dentistry. 
America has led the world in surgi- 
cal surprises and the marvelous opera- 
tions by surgeons all over the world, 
made possible only by the discovery 
and demonstration of the "Mastery 
of Pain" by Horace Wells, entitled 
Connecticut to rank first in educa- 
tional influence, and above all, first in 
the practical blessings bestowed on 
mankind. 



HOME— By William T^ler Olcott 

Norwich, Connecticut 

I saw the lights of a city great, I saw the lights of an unknown land, 

Like a host in bright array, Like a message from the skies, 

Flash out, and send their golden beams Flare forth at twilight's peaceful hour, 

To speed departing day. To greet my upturned eyes. 

And through the gray of dusk they streamed And in the radiance of the stars, 

Far out across the sky, That graced the night's vast dome, 

To welcome and to cheer alike I saw my life's long journey end, 

The stranger drawing nigh. A stranger nearing home. 



LETTERS OF EARLY AMERICAN WARRIORS 

PERSONALITIES OF GREAT AMERICANS OF A CENTURY AGO AS 
SHOWN BY THEIR CORRESPONDENCE— GENERAL JACKSON AND HIS 
INTIMATE FRIENDS IN FIRST DAYS OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC 

BY 
MABEL CASSINE HOLMAN 

Saybrook, Connecticut 



THE discovery of these old let- 
ters, rich in their side-lights 
on the personalities of many 
of the distinguished Ameri- 
cans of the first days of the Republic, 
is of especial value to the historical 
literature of Connecticut inasmuch 
that much of the correspondence took 
place in this commonwealth and many 
of the descendants are to-day its most 
highly esteemed citizens. 

Connecticut is rich in its historical 
associations. There is hardly an 
event of import in the early annals of 
the nation in which Connecticut did 
not take a very significant part. It 
is doubtful if its antiquarian wealth 
can be excelled. I have found so 
much that supports this contention 
that I am willing to enter my claim 
for Connecticut with all due respect 
to grand old Virginia, that mother of 
presidents, and the sister colony of 
good old Massachusetts. 

Not long ago I became acquainted 
with a wealth of ancient documents 
that had been secreted in the privacy 
of one of our oldest Connecticut 
homes for several generations. I was 
favored with the permission to delve 
among them. In them I found re- 
vealed much that had hitherto been 
unknown to me and through them I 
gained a clear knowledge of the early 
American character. 



The frankness of tftese time-worn 
letters, inscribed by hands that have 
long since left the affairs of state to 
other generations, was such that I 
felt an intimate acquaintance with the 
writers. I sought the privilege of 
bringing them before the public and 
it was granted me. 

In introducing them I wish to make 
public recognition of the courtesies 
extended me by Mr. Charles Eben 
Jackson of Middletown, Connecticut, 
in whose possession the originals now 
remain. Mr. Jackson is a descendant 
of General Michael Jackson, around 
whom much of the correspondence 
centers. It is hoped that at some 
time a complete volume may be com- 
piled from the rare data in the Jack- 
son family. 

The beautiful miniatures here re- 
produced are also in possession of 
Mr. Jackson who has generously per- 
mitted their presentation in these 
pages. I further take the opportun- 
ity to congratulate the commonwealth 
on having The Connecticut Maga- 
zine as a repository in which docu- 
ments of such rarity may be preserved 
for posterity. Its service to the state 
and the nation cannot be ovej-esti- 
mated. 



439 



44° 



THE LETTERS OF EARLY AMERICAN WARRIORS 



M 



ORE than a hundred years ago 
there came from Savannah, 
Georgia, a gentleman look- 
ing for a summer home in 
the north, and being directed by 
friends to Middletown, Connecticut, 
or to Newport, Rhode Island, his 
choice fell upon the former place, 
where he purchased one of the fam- 
ous Wetmore houses, built as the 
houses were in those days to with- 
stand the ravages of time, a fine ram- 
bling brick structure, with heavy dog- 
tooth cornices running around the 
ceilings, and quaint sliding shutters 
at the windows. The wide colonial 
fireplaces were decorated in figures 
and garlands of high relief. The 
grounds, shaded by stately trees slop- 
ing to the banks of the Arawana 
stream. Here in 1801 Ebenezer 
Jackson, the third son of General 
Michael Jackson, of Newton, Massa- 
chusetts, accompanied by his charm- 
ing southern wife, and children, made 
his Connecticut home, which is 
known as "Walnut Grove," and still 
occupied by his descendants. Some 
years before this, Ebenezer Jackson 
had been sent by the government to 
establish the border-line between Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina, meeting in 
Savannah, Charlotte Fenwick Pierce, 
the widow of Major William Leigh 
Pierce ; he surrendered his heart and 
they were married in Savannah July 
25, 1792. Mrs. Jackson was a daugh- 
ter of Edward Fenwick and Mary 
Drayton of Charleston, South Car- 
olina, and a relative of George Fen- 
wick, an agent of the Warwick pat- 
ent, who, with his wife, Lady Alice 
Fenwick, were among the first set- 
tlers of Saybrook, Connecticut. 
Brought up in a true southern home 
in the midst of wealth and refinement, 
Charlotte Fenwick developed early 
into a beautiful woman. When fif- 
teen years old, during the absence of 
her mother in England, she was 
placed at school. As the English 
Army approached Charleston the 
school disbanded, and the teachers 



fled. Charlotte took refuge with her 
sister, Harriette, the wife of Josiah 
Tatnell, afterward Governor of 
Georgia (their son gave the beauti- 
ful cemetery, Bonaventure, to the 
city of Savannah. A daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Ebenezer Jackson, 
Harriette Fenwick Jackson, married 
her cousin, the famous Commodore 
Josiah Tatnell of Savannah, who was 
the originator of the phrase, "Blood 
is thicker than water") ; here she met 
Major Pierce, and soon after became 
betrothed to him. The following de- 
scription of Miss Fenwick at this time 
is taken from a letter written to 
Major Pierce by a friend, July 10, 
1783: 

"Dear Pierce: 

Last evening for the first time in my life 
I saw Miss Charlotte Fenwick. She sang 
'Return enraptured hours' most divinely. 
She is rather pretty than handsome. She 
is lively, facitious and I think abominably 
clever. The whole town say you are en- 
gaged to her — its taken for granted — and 
now you are ranked on the list of a North- 
ern Gentlemen marrying a Southern 
Lady." 

The writer adds: 
"I am a little in love — not much." 
Mrs. Fenwick, upon receiving 
word of the trouble in Charleston 
at once hastened home to find her 
daughter Charlotte married to a 
stranger. Highly indignant, Mrs. 
Fenwick addressed her: "And who 
is this Major Pierce?" "A gentle- 
man, Madam," Mrs. Pierce replied, 
haughtily. "Go to your room, 
Madam, and stay there the rest of the 
day," which the young bride did. 
Major Pierce was born in Virginia 
about 1740; he engaged in the Revo- 
lutionary War and was commis- 
sioned a captain in the First Conti- 
nental Artillery, becoming an aide to 
General Green. After the battle of 
Eutaw Springs Major Pierce bore 
the general's dispatches with the news 
of the victory to Congress at Phila- 
delphia. On October 29, 1781, Con- 
gress resolved "that a sword be pre- 
sented to Captain Pierce." This 




Ancient Miniature of 
Charlotte Fenwick 
Beauty of the Revolutionary Period 
in America 



Original in Possession of 

Mr. Charles Eben Jackson 

of Middletown, Connecticut 

(see page 439) 



HEIRLOOMS OF THE JACKSONS OF CONNECTICUT 44 i 



sword suitably inscribed is now 
owned by a grandson of Mrs. Pierce 
in Middletown. In 1786 Major 
Pierce was elected to the Continental 
Congress from Georgia for one year. 
Among many valuable documents in 
the possession of the Jackson family 
is a small book bound in red morocco 
and lettered, "Pierces' Reliques," con- 
taining the notes taken by Major 
Pierce while attending the conven- 
tion (these notes were published in 
the American Historical Review, Jan- 
uary, 1898) and several interesting 
anecdotes. A memorandum in Wash- 
ington Irving's handwriting, pasted 
within, shows the book to have been 
borrowed by him, who derived from 
it the following anecdote in his "Life 
of Washington." "when the Con- 
vention first opened at Philadelphia, 
there were a number of propositions 
brought forward as great leading 
principles for the new Government to 
be established for the United States. 
A copy of these propositions was 
given to each Member with an injunc- 
tion to keep everything a profound 
secret. One morning, by accident, 
one of the Members dropt his copy of 
the propositions, which being luckily 
picked up by General Mifflin was pre- 
sented to General Washington, our 
President, who put it in his pocket. 
After the debates of the Day were 
over, and the question for adjourn- 
ment was called for, the General 
arose from his seat, and previous to 
his putting the question addressed the 
Convention in the following man- 
ner, — ■ 

Gentlemen : 

I am sorry to find that some one Mem- 
ber of this Body, has been so neglectful of 
the secrets of the Convention as to drop in 
the State House a copy of their proceed- 
ings, which by accident was picked up and 
delivered to me this Morning, I must en- 
treat Gentlemen to be more careful, least 
our transactions get into the News Papers, 
and disturb the public repose by premature 
speculations. I know not whose paper it 
is, but there it is (throwing it down on the 
table), let him who owns it take it. 



"At the same time he bowed, picked 
up his Hat and quitted the room with 
a dignity so severe that every Person 
seemed alarmed; for my part I was 
extremely so, for putting my hand in 
my pocket I missed my copy of the 
same Paper, but advancing up to the 
Table my fears soon dissipated; I 
found it to be the handwriting of 
another Person. When I went to my 
lodgings at the Indian Queen, I found 
my copy in a pocket which I had 
pulled off that Morning. It is some- 
thing remarkable that/no Person ever 
owned the Paper." / 

Among the characters described by 
Major Pierce the following are of 
special interest: "Characters in the 
Convention of the States held at Phil- 
adelphia, May, 1787." 



FROM VIRGINIA 
Genl Geo. Washington 
Genl Washington is well known as the 
Commander in chief of the late American 
Army. Having conducted these States to 
independence and peace, he now appears 
to assist in framing a Government to make 
the People happy. Like Gustavus Vasa, 
he may be said to be the deliverer of his 
country; — like Peter the great he appears 
as the politician and the States-man; and 
like Cincinnatus he returned to his farm 
perfectly contented with being only a plain 
Citizen, after enjoying the highest honor 
of the confederacy, — and now only seeks 
for the approbation of his Country — men 
by being virtuous and useful. The Gen- 
eral was conducted to the Chair as Presi- 
dent of the Convention by the unanimous 
voice of its Members. He is in the 52d 
year of his age. 



FROM CONNECTICUT 
Sam Johnson, Rodger Sherman and W. 
Elsworth* Esquires. 
Dr. Johnson is a character much cele- 
brated for his legal knowledge ; he is said 
to be one of the first classics in America, 
and certainly possesses a very strong and 
enlightened understanding. As an Orator 
in my opinion, there is nothing in him 
that warrants the high reputation which 
he has for public speaking. There is 
something in the tone of his voice not 
pleasing to the Ear. — but he is eloquent 
and clear, — always abounding with infor- 
mation and instruction. He was once em- 



*01iver Elsworth. 



442 



THE LETTERS OF EARLY AMERICAN WARRIORS 



ployed as an Agent for the State of Con- 
necticut to state her claims to certain 
landed territory before the British House 
of Commons ; this Office he discharged 
with so much dignity, and made such an 
ingenious display of his powers, that he 
laid the foundation of a reputation which 
will probably last much longer than his 
own life. Dr. Johnson is about sixty 
years of age, possesses the manners of a 
Gentlemen, and engages the Hearts of 
Men by the sweetness with which he 
accosts his acquaintance. Mr. Sherman 
exhibits the oddest-shaped character I ever 
remember to have met with. He is 
awkward, un-meaning, and unaccountably 
strange in his manner. But in his train of 
thinking there is something regular, deeo, 
and comprehensive ; yet the oddity of his 
address, the vulgarisms that accompany his 
public speaking, and that strange new Eng- 
land cant which runs through his public as 
his private speaking make everything that 
is connected with him grotesque and laugh- 
able; — and yet he deserves infinite praise, 
— no Man has a better Heart or a clearer 
Head. If he cannot embellish he can fur- 
nish thoughts that are wise and useful. 
He is an able politician, and extremely 
artful in accomplishing any particular ob- 
ject; — it is remarked that he seldom fails. 
I am told he sits on the Bench in Connect- 
icut and is very correct in the discharge of 
his Judicial functions. In the early part 
of his life he was a Shoemaker; — but de- 
spising the lowness of his condition, he 
turned Almanack maker, and so pro- 
gressed upwards to a Judge. He has been 
several years a Member of Congress, and 
discharged the duties of his - Office with 
honor and credit to himself, and advan- 
tage to the State he represented. He is 
about 60. 

Mr. Elsworth is a Judge of the Supreme 
Court in Connecticut; — he is a Gentlemen 
of a clear, deep, and copious understand- 
ing; eloquent, and connected in public de- 
bate ; and always attentive to his duty. He 
is quick in a reply, and choice in selecting 
such parts of his adversary's arguments as 
he finds make the strongest impressions, — 
in order to take off the force of them, so 
as to admit the power of his own. Mr. 
Elsworth is about $7 years of age, a Man 
much respected for his integrity, and ven- 
erated for his abilities. 



FROM NEW YORK 
Alexander Hamilton 
Col. Hamilton is deservedly celebrated 
for his talents. He is a practitioner of the 
Law, and reputed to be a finished Scholar. 
To a clear and strong judgment he unites 
the ornaments, of fancy, and whilst he is 
able, convincing, and engaging in his elo- 
quence the Heart and Head sympathize in 



approving him. Yet there is something 
too feeble in his voice to be equal to the 
strains of oratory; — it is my opinion that 
he is rather a convincing Speaker, than a 
blazing Orator. Col. Hamilton requires 
time to think, — he enquires into every part 
of his subject with the searchings of 
phylosophy, and when he comes forward 
he comes highly charged with interesting 
matter, there is no skimming over the sur- 
face of a subject with him, he must sink 
to the bottom to see what foundation it 
rests on. — His language is not always 
equal, sometimes didactic like Boling- 
broke's, at others light and tripping like 
Stern's. His eloquence is not so defusive 
as to trifle with the senses, but he rambles 
just enough to strike and keep up the 
attention. He is about 33 years, of small 
stature, and lean. His manners are tinc- 
tured with stiffness, and sometimes with a 
degree of vanity that is highly disagree- 
able. 



FROM PENNSYLVANIA 
Benjamin Franklin 

Dr. Franklin is well known to be the 
greatest phylosopher of the present age; — 
all the operations of nature he seems to 
understand, — the very heavens obey him, 
and the Clouds yeild up their Lightning to 
be imprisoned in his rod. But what claim 
he has to the politician, posterity must de- 
termine. It is certain that he does not 
shine much in public Council ;— he is no 
Speaker, nor does he seem to let politics 
engage his attention. He is, however, a 
most extraordinary Man, and tells a story 
in a style more engaging than anything 
I ever heard. Let his Biographer finish 
his character. He is 82 years old, and 
possesses an activity of mind equal to a 
youth of 25 years of age." 

After conversing with Benj amine Frank- 
lin one morning Major Pierce writes, — 
"When I was in Philadelphia attending the 
federal convention June 1787, I waited on 
Dr. Franklin one morning to pay my re- 
spects to him and after some little conver- 
sation which was of a gay and cheerful 
kind he gave me an opportunity to ask him 
his age, when he informed me he was 82 
years old, to which he observed that he 
had 'lived long enough to intrude himself 
on posterity,' and a few words concerning 
General Green,— After the raising of the 
seige of Ninety six in So. Carolina when 
the American Army were retrenching, an 
officer of high rank persuaded Gen Green 
to abondone the States, and to go into Vir- 
ginia, on which the general replied — 'no 
Sir I will conquer this Country or die in 
the attempt.'" Major Pierce died Decem- 
ber 10th 1789, and three years later Mrs. 
Pierce became the wife of Ebenezer Jack- 
son. 



HEIRLOOMS OF THE JACKSONS OF CONNECTICUT 



443 



After buying "Walnut Grove" Mr. Jack- 
son greatly improved and beautified the 
old mansion. The walks winding in and 
out among the ancient trees and terraced 
lawns were bordered with boxes of orange 
and lemon trees Mrs. Jackson sent from 
the south. The gentle murmur of the 
stream, with the sounds of childish laugh- 
ter, and the patter of little feet guarded by 
colored mammies made it an ideal home. 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson usually made the 
journeys between Middletown and Savan- 
nah by water, until their lives were endan- 
gered by a severe storm, during which one 
of their slaves who was very ill and fright- 
ened, begged the captain to put her ashore 
and "let her walk home." After this the 
trips were accomplished by carriage, the 
journey taking five or six weeks. Occa- 
sionally a winter was passed in Middle- 
town, and "Walnut Grove" became the 
scene of many social gatherings. The ta- 
ble is still there on which Major Andre 
took tea. Mr. Jackson owned the first 
carriage in Middletown, and frequently 
Mrs. Jackson would send the carriage for 
her friends that they might enjoy a game 
of cards to while away the long winter 
evenings. After some years Mr. and Mrs. 
Jackson decided to locate permanently in 
Middletown, great was the grief of the 
slaves who with tears in their eyes begged 
to be taken north with master and mis- 
tress. They were not separated but all 
found a home with a relative of the family. 
Mrs. Jackson died in Savannah, April 4th 
1819, where she is buried. Ebenezer Jack- 
son spent his last days in Middletown, 
where he died in 1836, and was buried in 
Indian Hill Cemetery. 

It was at "Walnut Grove" that Ruth 
Parker Jackson, the widow of that grand 
soldier, General Michael Jackson, passed 
her last days. Mrs. Jackson was a true 
soldiers wife, not only did she bravely see 
her husband depart to lay down his life if 
need be, for the freedom of the new coun- 
try, but with him served their five sons. 
General Jackson was a descendant of Ed- 
ward Jackson, a nailor of London, who 
settled at Cambridge, Mass., in 1643. Gen- 
eral Jackson was born in Newton, Decem- 
ber 18th 1735. And it is a very strange 
coincidence that his son Ebenezer, was 
born on the same date. His great-great- 
grandson, born December 18th graduated 
from West Point in 1900, and entered the 
army; and another great-great-grandson, 
born on the same date, desired to enter 
West Point, but was unable to get an ap- 
pointment. Every member of the family 
born on December 18th either follow, or 
desire to follow, a military life. General 
Jackson served from the battle of Lexing- 
ton to the close of the Revolutonary War 
with his five sons, all officers of the Con- 
tinental Line — Michael, jr., Simon, Ebe- 



nezer, Amasa and Charles. Four brothers 
of General Jackson enlisted for three years 
of the war, and two more brothers served 
as volunteers from time to time. General 
Jackson and his five sons were all members 
of the Society of Cincinnati. When rais- 
ing his famous 8th Massachusetts Regi- 
ment, he tried to have his five sons mus- 
tered in, the three youngest were rejected 
as too young, but he finally succeeded with 
another muster-master in having them 
accepted as drummers and fifers, and 
maintained that boys were better than men 
for that service. The eldest of the three, 
Ebenezer, was but thirteen, and the young- 
est, Charles, only ten. /General Jackson 
first served in the Colonial army during 
the French War, and was present at the 
seige of Louisberg. And later was as- 
signed to the command of a company of 
Minute Men. Before the battle of Lexing- 
ton while on his way to Boston horseback 
one morning before day light, with his 
panniers filled with "garden sauce," the 
Sergeant of the minute company at Cam- 
bridge, Major Timothy Jackson, met 
a man coming from the city to inform 
them of the British having started for 
Lexington and Concord. He immedi- 
ately turned back and dismounting at the 
Meeting house, the rendezvous of the com- 
pany, rang the bell. By sunrise the whole 
company was present with the exception 
of the Captain who sent an excuse of ill- 
ness.. Michael Jackson was nominated 
and unanimously chosen to fill his place. 
Wasting no time in returning thanks, he 
at once marched his men to the Regimental 
Muster ground, and found the officers of 
certain companies in council deliberating 
as to further plans. As soon as General 
Jackson had an opportunity to speak, he 
told them no brave men would stop to de- 
liberate, all they needed to do was to per- 
sue the enemy to Lexington, and no time 
was to be lost. The council broke up and 
all proceeded to Lexington, where they 
arrived in time to engage the enemy, until 
they re-entered Boston. The following 
letter written from Savannah in 1823 from 
Ebenezer Jackson to his son Ebenezer, jr. 
concerning his grandfather's brilliant ser- 
vice during the Revolutionary War, gives 
in a few words a brief account of those 
years. 

Savannah, May 7th. 1823. 

My Dear Son : 

With respect to the history of my late 
father's life, my recollections are imper- 
fect. I believe the date of his age and 
death is recorded in his family Bible now 
at Middletown. When quite a young man 
he was appointed a subaltern officer and 
was attached to one of the Massachusetts 
Provincial Regiments. I do not recollect 



444 



THE LETTERS OF EARLY AMERICAN WARRIORS 



to have heard him say what services he 
performed. I think he marched to join 
Gen. Amerst at Ticonderoga or Ft. Ed- 
ward. On his return from this tour of 
duty to the Westward, he engaged and 
went with the Provincial Troops as a sub- 
altern at the taking of the Island of Cape 
Breton where he saw some service. He 
was one of those who under a disguise of 
Indian dress destroyed the tea in Boston 
at the commencement of the Revolution. 
At the early commencement of the trou- 
bles between England and her colonies, 
when the people in the different towns in 
New England began to prepare an opposi- 
tion to the Mother Country by raising 
Minute Companies to be ready at a mo- 
ment's call, and to be better disciplined 
than the common Militia, a company was 
raised in Newton, and the command 
assigned to Capt. Michael Jackson, in con- 
sequence of his former military experi- 
ences, and the high opinion they enter- 
tained of his courage and personal firm- 
ness. This Company he lead into the 
memorable first battle of Lexington, at 
which time all the officers were armed with 
guns, and my father who was a firstrate 
shot, informed me that he had 32 thirtv- 
two very fair and deliberate shots at the 
enemy on that day. Soon after this battle, 
Captain Michael Jackson was promoted to 
the rank of Major in the Regiment com- 
manded by Col. Gardner, who afterwards 
lost his life from wounds received in the 
Battle of Bunker Hill. At the Battle of 
Bunker's Hill, Major Michael Jackson 
acted in the most spirited manner during 
the whole of that action, and informed me 
repeatedly that on that day he had forty- 
two very fair shots at the enemy, many of 
which were deliberately fired as near a 
Eleven to Thirty yards distance, and I 
think he said his piece was loaded with a 
ball and 3 buckshot. He informed me 
that the day was so very hot that he threw 
away his coat and on the retreat near the 
margin of Bunker's Hill towards Cam- 
bridge, he rallied about twenty-five men, 
all he could collect, and made a stand, 
which checked the advance of the British, 
as they suspected some kind of an ambush, 
that he and his little party stood their 
ground until they had discharged ten or 
twelve rounds, and often within twelve 
yards of each other, that in the last skir- 
mish, while taking aim at the enemy, he 
received a ball through his Bayonet Belt 
which passed through his jacket and shirt, 
just drawing blood from the side of his 
ribs, and passed through the other side of 
his Bayonet Belt, so that to see him after 
the action, it would appear that the ball 
must have passed through his body. What 
saved his life on that occasion was the 
attitude in which he threw his body while 
taking aim at the enemy. It was acknowl- 



edged by all his acquaintances that Major 
Michael Jackson has performed most dis- 
tinguished and gallant services to his coun- 
try on that memorable day. Major 
Michael Jackson was immediately after 
promoted to the rank of Lieut. Colonel in 
one of the Regiments of the Massachusetts 
Line, which was ordered on in the year 
1776 to the defence of New York. This 
Regiment was stationed at Hell Gate, be- 
fore which the British opened several 
heavy batteries of cannon and Mortars, 
and during eight days the cannonading and 
bombarding was continued mostly day and 
night until all our great guns were dis- 
mounted and incapable of further use. 
About this time or a few days after, the 
action of York Island took place. Col. 
Michael Jackson was in the hottest of this 
action, and a ball from the enemy carried 
away a part of the smaller part of the 
breach of his musket, and cut his fingers 
slightly. Soon after the Americans re- 
treated from York Island, with the excep- 
tion of Fort Washington. While the Regi- 
ment to which Col. Michael Jackson was 
attached lay a little above King's Bridge, 
General Health projected an expedition to 
capture an Island, called Montresor's on 
the East River, where there were about 80 
British Troops, with fifty or sixty officers 
belonging to the British Army. The com- 
mand was given to Col. Jackson, allowing 
him to take 260 men as volunteers. They 
went in 5 boats, and passing down the 
Harlem River, the American sentinels fre- 
quently fired upon the boats, and gave the 
alarm to the British on the Island. On 
Col. Jackson's arrival at the mouth of the 
Harlem River, he reported to General 
Scott then commanding on the spot, and 
asked his orders, what he should do. Gen. 
Scott replied that Col. Jackson might do 
as he pleased. His reply then was, "I 
must go on, but must proceed under every 
disadvantage." Accordingly he arranged 
his plans, so that one boat with 60 men,, 
commanded by a Captain, should advance 
on the right, and another boat of equal 
force to advance on his left, and with 
three boats he would lead the van in the 
centre. His own leading boat was the 
smallest with only 42 men. Commenced 
their approaches to the Island. There 
was no means of chaining the boats to- 
gether, so that as the leading boat ad- 
vanced, the British in perfect order hailed 
the van boat and ordered them to lay on 
their oars. Col. Jackson told them not to 
fire, and pushed forward his boat for the 
shore. The British commenced a heavy 
fire on the boats, and all the boats fled with 
the exception of the one in which Col. 
Jackson was, who effected their landing, 
charged and drove the British, expecting 
to be instantly seconded by the troops in 



HEIRLOOMS OF THE JACKSONS OF CONNECTICUT 4 45 



his four other boats. The British seeing 
the party so small renewed the attack. 
Major Hendly, an aid of Genl. Heath, who 
had volunteered his services was killed, 
the Major who was second in command 
was badly wounded, and a Captain of the 
British Navy who had taken part with the 
Americans and volunteered his services on 
this occasion, fell dead, and Col. Jackson 
received an ounce ball about 2 inches be- 
low the right knee, which split one bone 
and broke the other bone of the leg. So 
severe was the shock, not more than 12 
yards off, that he fell to the ground. His 
men came to his assistance, and told 
him he was deserted by all his other boats, 
and they urged him to allow them to assist 
him to the boat, and endeavor to effect 
their retreat, which they did under a most 
galling fire. The whole party of 42 was 
killed or wounded, with the exception 
of 8, and there were counted 32 ball holes 
through the sides of the boat on her 
arrival back. Several captains were broke 
for cowardice, and Col. Jackson languished 
for eighteen months before the ball could 
be extracted, and I have it in my posses- 
sion, being so bruised by the bones that it 
measured i-^4 inches in length and 24 inc. 
in width.* In the organization of the 
army at the commencement of the year 
1777, Col. Jackson was promoted to com- 
mand of the 8th Massachusetts Regiment, 
and as soon as he had sufficiently recov- 
ered from his wounds, he took the com- 
mande of his Regiment, and continued 
that command until he was promoted to 
the rank of Brevet Brigadier General, and 
in November 1783, with the rest of the 
Revolutionary Army, honorably disbanded, 
and retired to private life. 

I have written the foregoing in great 
haste, and from my best recollection. 
When you write it over again, do not say 
too much, but try to imitate Facities of 
whom Pliny said everything he wrote 
would be immortal. How interesting is a 
plain, simple and well told story or narra- 
tive. Your ever effectionate father, 

E. Jackson. 

An interesting incident related by 
General Jackson during the Battle of 
Bunker Hill is that on the retreat he 
met quite an aged man standing by a 
stone wall armed with a musket 
which he was loading with swan shot 
from his hat that lay on the ground 
between his feet; to the urgent ad- 
vice of Major Jackson that he should 
leave the field, he replied: "I must 

*This bullet is now in the possession of 
the New England Geneological & Histori- 
cal Society. 



have one shot more/' and curiosity 
detained the major long enough to 
see what the effect would be of am- 
munition. When the charge struck 
the British line, one man fell, and 
others were evidently wounded, but 
Major Jackson was never able to 
learn who the brave old patriot was, 
or what was his fate. Perhaps the 
nearest of General Jackson's personal 
friends was a man of whom the old 
State of Connecticut should justly be 
proud, although for/' many years, 
through the force ot circumstances, 
his name rested under a cloud, only 
in the end to shine clearly and truly. 
This man was General William Hull. 
In the following words he informed 
one of General Jackson's sons of the 
death of his father, General Hull be- 
ing one of the executors of his will. 



Newton, 20th April, 1801. 
Dear Friend: 

Before this reaches you, you probably 
will have heard of the death of your 
Father. On the 14th inst, his funeral was 
attended with all the honors which possi- 
bly could have been conferred on him. 
For a particular account of it, I refer you 
to your brother Ebenezer. He died as he 
lived, firm, dignified, and satisfied. En- 
closed is a copy of his will. He men- 
tioned you in his last moments with tender 
affection. I was with him when he ex- 
pired, and he was easy and tranquil. I 
hope your health is restored, and shall 
have the pleasure of seeing you this Sum- 
mer. It would be a happiness inexpressi- 
ble to your mother. 

I am very sincerely your friend. 
William Hull. 



This friendship continued not only 
during the life of General Jackson, 
but into the lives of his children and 
grandchildren. In 1824, when Gen- 
eral Hull first published the accounts 
of his campaign in the War of 1812, 
he wrote several letters to Ebenezer 
Jackson, junior. The following two 
are of the greatest interest, showing 
his strength of character and deep 
feeling. 

Newton, 27. January 1824. 
Dear Sir: 

I have received of the lost., and we were 
highly gratified with the account you gave 



446 



THE LETTERS OF EARLY AMERICAN WARRIORS 



of our children at Augusta, particularly of 
the character }^ou gave of our dear Grand- 
daughter Sarah — I took the liberty, a few 
days ago to prepare a sketch of my revo- 
lutionary services, with a number of docu- 
ments, to substantiate the facts stated 
which I enclosed and sent you. I did it 
at the earnest request of Mr. and Mrs. 
Campbell, who wrote to me that they con- 
versed with you on the subject, and you 
was so kind as to say you would arrange 
from such documents, and select such as 
would arrange from such documents, and 
select such as would be suitable to present 
to Mr. Walsh, I likewise enclose letters 
to my friends Messrs. Binny and Sergeant 
on the subject, as it is a large packet I left 
it with Dr Clark of Boston, to be sent by 
a private conveyance. My time, this win- 
ter, has been employed in writing memo- 
ries of my unfortunate campaign of 1812- 
6 have nearly completed them, Mr. Ben- 
j amine Russell Esqr., the printer of the 
Columbian Centinel, has read a few of the 
numbers, and is very desirous of publish- 
ing them in his paper — He offers to begin 
where I am prepared. He does it gratis, 
and presses me very hard for the privi- 
lege, as he calls it. Perhaps when it is 
published Mr. Walsh may be desirous of 
examining it — it will be founded on 
authentic documents, principally from the 
records of the Government. And, certi- 
fied by the present Secretary of War, — the 
former Secretaries refused them to me. I 
do not know that Dr. Clark has as yet, had 
a private opportunity to send you the 
packet to which I alluded if not it shall 
be sent on. In looking over my old papers 
I found the account which I wrote of your 
Grandfather's funeral which was printed. 
I do myself the pleasure of sending you 
the original. With very great respects, 
and with strong wishes for your prosperity 
and Happiness. 

I am your Friend, and., 
Most O. B. S. 
William Hull. 
P. S. As it may be a satisfaction to you. 
I enclose a small lock of your Grandfath- 
er's hair which we have preserved, from 
our high respect to his memory. 



Three months later General Hull 
writes : 

Newton, 17m April 1824. 
Dear Sir : 

Next Monday, the 19th inst., the first 
number of my memours will be published 
in the Statesman, a republican paper . . . 
it will likewise be published in a daily 
paper, edited by Mr. Buckingham and 
probably a considerable part of the first 
number, and the others will be copied in 
the Sentinel. . . . The first is merely 



an introductory address — The whole will 
contain about 35 numbers, and two will be 
published every week, until the whole are 
finished. ... Mr. Walsh will have an 
opportunity of seeing them and by the 
documents and evidence which will be pub- 
lished in support of the facts, and be able 
to form an opinion on that of our History. 
From what I know of his character, I feel 
confident, truth alone will be his motive. 
When I was ordered to Philadelphia for 
my trial, I reed, great attention : and lib- 
erality and candour were manifested. . . . 
All I can now wish is, that the subject 
may excite inquiry, and the facts may be 
known, as thus alone I depend for the vin- 
dication of my honour, and the rectitude 
of my conduct ... all my statements 
are proven by the records of the Govern- 
ment, and the best evidence the nature of 
the case will admit. The Administrator 
Genl. Dearborn, the Court Martial, and 
other officers will be deeply implicated. 
There will be powerful opposition to mv 
attempt to exhibit the truth of the events 
which then took place. . . . Many 
characers who now have great influence 
will be brought into view in a manner not 
pleasant to themselves, or friends. . . . 
Fearless of any consequences I shall tell 
the truth, and produce evidence in support 
of it. . . . If there is any action of my 
life, on which I reflect with pleasure un- 
mixed with any alloy, it is my conduct for 
which I have been condemned — Nothing 
influenced me but a sense of duty, and my 
strong wish is to show that even my judge- 
ment did not deceive me, and that I faith- 
fully performed my duty. ... I hope 
you will receive the papers in which the 
History of these events will be published,, 
and I have no other request but that my 
fellow sitizens, will form an opinion of the 
facts, which will be proven. Mr. and Mrs. 
Campbell will be in Phil, probably in May. 
. . . In conformity to their opinion I 
have published the History of my cam- 
paign in the republican paper. It has 
already excited much attention here, and 
probably will be published in many papers. 
With true friendship, it is a happiness, to 
me to subscribe myself. 

Your very sincere and effectionate 

friend. 

William Hull. 

P S. I sympathize most sincerely with 
your family in the death of so admirable a 
character and so useful a citizen as your 
uncle Amasa. I hope you will* not come to 

M without visiting this part of the 

country and viewing the spot, which was 
the residence of your venerable ancestor, 
and the Tomb where his remains rest, and 
making my house your home — in such a 
visit, I think you would find an interest 
and it at least would make us happy. 






HEIRLOOMS OF THE JACKSONS OF CONNECTICUT 447 



Mrs. Ruth Parker Jackson often 
told many thrilling stories of the 
events that occurred while she was 
with her husband at Washington's 
headquarters. Here she nursed the 
sick and cared for the wounded sol- 
diers, often feeling that she was need- 
ed at home, and must go. General 
Washington would urge her to re- 
main. The late Governor Eustis, who 
had been a surgeon in General Jack- 
son's regiment, said: "I remember of 
meeting him once at General Wash- 
ington's table at West Point, and 
after the cloth had been removed, the 
General beckoned to Colonel Jackson 
to come and take a seat by him, and 
unbent himself more than I ever saw 
him do to anyone."* The following 
letter written to Ebenezer Jackson, 
junior, January 11, 1841, brings to 
light some additional facts concern- 
ing this time: 

Mr. Jackson : 

Thinking you might be pleased as I was 
to see your Grandfather's name and 
weight, with men of such weight of char- 
acter) and supposing you might not see 
the Observor, I transcribe it for you. Do 
you remember your Grandmother? She 
was an excellent woman, hours have I lis- 
tened to her account of events that oc- 
curred while she was with her Husband at 
the headquarters of Gen. Washington — 
Sometimes she said when she talked of 
leaving for her home where she was much 
wanted — General Washington would say — 
"do not leave us Mrs. Jackson, I would 
sooner spare any General officer of the 
Army." The soldiers she said called her 
Mother, and were so grateful for hei* 
attentions to them when sick or wounded, 
that it repaid her for all that she did — She 
gave me a detailed account of the dreadful 
scenes of the poor wounded soldiers who 
attempted to scale Stony point — and her 
manner of treating them — administering at 
the same time, spiritual comfort to them — 
Indeed Sir, she was an excellent woman, 
and deserves a monument to her memory 
far more than many that receive at this 
time these marks of late approbation. But 
the extract : 

The following memorandum was found 

*Some years since this letter was printed 
in the Boston Journal. 



a number of years ago in the pocket-book 
of an officer of the Massachusetts Line : 

WEIGHT OF MILITARY MEN 

August 19, 1783. 
Weighed at the scales at West Point. 

X General Washington 209 lbs 

X General Lincoln 224 " 

X General Knox 280 " 

General Huntington 132 " 

General Greaton 166 " 

Colonel Swift 219 " 

M. Jackson 252 " 

" H. Jackson 238 " 

X Lt Colonel Huntington 232 " 

" Cobb / 186 " 

X " " Humphreys 221 " 

Five of the gentlemen named I have 
seen, with three was well acquainted — 
This record proves them men of weight, 
and most fine looking men was those I 
have marked — Col. Huntington was among 
the handsomest men of his time, and that 
is saying much — for this State had some of 
the finest looking men at that period that 
ever appeared probably in our world — 
Ogden Morely, Pierpont Edwards, John 
Williams, Donnal Mitchel, Gideon Granger, 
Enoch Huntington of this town, the two 
Hosmers — were all handsome men — Gen. 
Knox and Col. Humphreys were fine per- 
sons and well looking. 

This memorandum pleased me, I hope 
it will you. Sir. My compliments to the 
ladies of your family. 

H. Whittelsey. 

January ii, 1841. 



Mrs. Benedict Arnold drank tea 
with Mrs. Jackson at the latter's home 
or quarters the night of the trea- 
son, and remembered perfectly that 
Arnold would not sit down but with 
teacup in hand stood by the window 
looking across the river, as later facts 
proved, watching for the signal that 
the boat was ready to take him to the 
enemy's camp. And it is remarkable 
that Mrs. Jackson's grandson mar- 
ried a granddaughter of Mrs. Com- 
fort Sage, wife of General Sage, 
of Middletown, who, after Arnold 
burned New London, and the mas- 
sacre of Fort Griswold, for a time 
sheltered and cared for his two young 
sons, and when he was burned in 
effigy in Middletown and the streets 
were filled with a mob, drew the win- 
dow shutters closely and passed an 
anxious night lest the children should 



44 8 



THE LETTERS OF EARLY AMERICAN WARRIORS 



learn the cause of the uproar. Some 
years later, when a young man, one 
of these boys called upon Mrs. Sage 
in Montreal to express the gratitude 
he should always feel for the kind- 
ness shown him by the wife of Gen- 
eral Sage. 

After General Jackson, under the 
disguise of Indian dress, helped to 
destroy the tea in Boston harbor, he 
forbade the use of it in his house un- 
til the tax should be removed, but 
Mrs. Jackson, who had melted her 
teaspoons into bullets for her hus- 



band, could not forego so delicious a 
concoction, and often, during the 
General's absence, brewed for her 
friends a cup while they chatted over 
their knitting; if her husband came 
home unexpectedly, the teapot was 
quietly placed in the deep drawer of 
Mrs. Jackson's tea table and the con- 
versation moved on as before. When 
the fire burns low on the hearth at 
"Walnut Grove" and the evening 
shadows come and go, again, to fu- 
ture generations shall these tales be 
told. 






TO OUR ANCESTRESS, HUMILITY 



BY 

SARAH E. L. CASE 
Hartford, Connecticut 



By fateful freak and vagary 
Were you, who wore that humble name, 
Born haughty, mandatory dame, 
High stepping, seeking place and fame, 
My Ancestress, Humility? 



But this I know, a little maid 
Was living, moving, growing wise, 
Fair was she in her mother's eyes 
Perhaps she dwelt in round-head guise, 
A little Primrose sweet and staid. 



Or did you, without touch of pride. 
Sing Bunyan's holy madrigal: 
"He that is down need fear no fall, 
He that is humble ever shall 
Have God to be his guide?" 



And then came gallant Christophe 
Who thought, enough, and honor bright 
His name to wear, her name despite, 
Who won and hid that fair birthright, 
So she is but Humility. 



'Tis a far cry from me to thee, 
Over the long, long centuries, 
Your "maiden-name" will notarise 
Your record set but husband-wise, 
"Ye Consort of first Christophe.' 



Ah well! a-walking o'er the ways 
Of Heavenly peace where dwelleth she, 
How little doth she reck that we 
Search vainly for "Humility" 

With name and lineage to her praise. 



But sometime in some in some garden gay 
Of that far Land toward which we press, 
May meet us this lost Ancestress, 
And tell us "every earthly guess 
Is best solved by Humility." 



MEMOIRS OF A CONNECTICUT PATRIOT 

LIFE STORY OF JAMES MORRIS AS TOLD IN HIS OWN 
MANUSCRIPT— EXPERIENCES OF A LITCHFIELD COUNTY 
MAN IN AMERICAN REVOLUTION — HIS EMINENCE AS A 
LECTURER AND A PIONEER IN THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN 

Original Manuscript now in Possession of His Great-Grand-Daughter 

Mrs. Washington Choate 



/ 



Greenwich, Connecticut 



James Morris, the author of the following diary, was born in Litchfield, South Farms, Connecticut, in 
1752 and died in Goshen, Connecticut, in 1820. He rendered distinguished and patriotic service in the 
Revolutionary War and at its close returned to Litchfield, South Farms. This portion of Litchfield has in 
more recent years become the town of Morris, named in his memory. In this town he established his 
Academy, one feature of which was that the educational advantages which he offered to young men should 
also be accorded to young women. This step roused great opposition culminating in a Church Council. 
After a long hearing of both sides the Council decided that the complaint, violation of Christian peace, 
was unsustained. Mr. Morris continued his work of teaching for twenty years, supplementing it with a 
weekly lecture on morals. He thus became in Connecticut a pioneer in the advanced education of 
women. —Editor 



IN looking back to my early child- 
hood I can well remember that I 
was very much attached to 
books. I learned to read when 
I was four years old and I plead with 
my father to get me a new Bible. 
My father told me I might read in his 
Bible and when I had read it through 
he would get me a new one. I then 
applied myself to reading and had 
read his Bible through by the time I 
was six years old. He then gave me 
a new Bible. My father lived three 
miles from the Bethlehem meeting- 
house and six or seven from Litch- 
field. On any Sabbath that I did not 
remember the text I was made to sit 
down on a small bench or form, and 
there to sit till sundown, which I 
found to be a great punishment, es- 
pecially in the summer time when the 
days were very long. 



In my youthful days I had an 
ardent desire to have a public educa- 
tion and to become a minister. But 
being the only son of my father, he 
could not brook the idea of my leav- 
ing him for that purpose. My father 
had a right in the Public Library in 
Bethlehem and the books he drew 
from time to time I was fond of read- 
ing. I was particularly fond of 
"Watts on the Mind." When I 
found a sentence of Latin in any book 
I was exceedingly desirous of know- 
ing the meaning of it. I had often 
solicited my father to let me go to 
college and the winter I was eighteen 
he told me that if I would go and 
sled home a quantity of wood, I might 
try what I could do in the study of 
Latin. 

In three weeks I had sledded home 
sixty boards of wood, loading and 



440 



45° 



MANUSCRIPT OF JAMES MORRIS— BORN IN 1752 



unloading the same myself. I then 
went to live with Dr. Bellamy and 
was put under the tuition of Mr. 
Thomas Miner, who was studying 
divinity with Dr. Bellamy. I studied 
Lilly's Latin Grammar, no English 
word being in the book. I under- 
stood nothing and I used to study 
and cry because I got no ideas. But 
I used to look at my instructor and 
hear him talk^ and I finally concluded 
that I had as much sense as Thomas 
Miner and if he had learned Latin 
and gone through college then cer- 
tainly I could. I would then plod 
away again. In the spring of 1770 I 
returned to my father. It was his 
idea that I remain at home and study 
with Rev. Mr. Herbert who was 
preaching in the place. I made 
however little progress. It was 
"James, you must bring in some 
wood." "James, you must draw some 
water and bring it in." "James, you 
must harness the old mare, your mas- 
ter wants to ride." When haying and 
harvest came on my father said, 
"Well, James, I think you must lay 
aside your studies till after harvest. 
Help is hard to get and we cannot 
afford to lose our crops." So I shuf- 
fled from pillar to post till in the fall 
I went to Mr. Brinsmade's in New 
Washington. Mr. Nathan Hale, 
afterwards Judge Hale of Goshen, 
was studying theology with Mr. 
Brinsmade. I had for company, pur- 
suing the same studies, Adoniram 
Judson and David Judson. In Octo- 
ber, 1771, I entered Yale college after 
passing a good examination. I passed 
through college, having my share of 
honorary appointments, and in 1775 I 
graduated and returned to my father 
determined to make theology my 
study. I went in the fall for that 
purpose to live with Dr. Bellamy 
with three of my college friends, Da- 
vid Fuller, Seth Swift and Adoniram 
Judson. I had during my college life 
many serious impulses and many stir- 
rings of peace. I was disposed to 
quarrel with the doctrines of election, 



divine decrees, fore-ordination and 
free agency. I prayed for divine di- 
rection. The study of theology was 
my delight but I thought my heart 
was not right. In the midst of these 
conflicting feelings, I had an invita- 
tion to teach the grammar school in 
my native town. I had an offer of 
handsome wages. I consulted my 
father, who had been at some consid- 
erable expense in my education and 
felt himself straightened. The Revo- 
lutionary war had commenced. The 
British were in possession of Boston. 
My father thought I had better un- 
dertake to teach the school and 
accordingly I began in the winter of 
1776 and kept the school till some 
time in the following May. There, 
unthought of and unsolicited, I had 
an ensign's commission sent to me 
from the Legislature of the State to 
go on a tour for six months to New 
York. This appointment threw me 
into a painful situation. I still meant 
to pursue the study of divinity. I 
asked Dr. Bellamy's advice and he 
said that our country was in peril and 
my father had property to defend. 
It was a dull time for preachers. We 
were all in an uproar. The doctor 
told me that his son, Jonathan, my 
friend and companion in college was 
going, and I had better accompany 
him. I accordingly followed his ad- 
vice, with the consent of my father, 
meaning to resume my studies the en- 
suing fall if I lived to return. 

I went to New York with a com- 
pany of men, was in the battle of 
Long Island on the 27th of August, 
was in the retreat from Long Island 
in the night, when our army made a 
safe retreat to New York. Was in 
the battle of York Island the 15th of 
September. Was in the battle of 
White Plains. The captain and lieu- 
tenant of the company to which I be- 
longed were taken sick and the com- 
mand of the company devolved upon 
me. The army retreated from White 
Plains to Newcastle and General 
Washington crossed the North River 






THE MEMOIRS OF A CONNECTICUT PATRIOT 



45i 



into New Jersey. My time of en- 
gagement expired in December but a 
commission of a second lieutenancy 
had been sent me from Congress. 
The soldiers told me that if I would 
accept they would enlist. On the 
first day of January I had a commis- 
sion sent me of a first lieutenancy. I 
finally consented to enter service dur- 
ing the war and I enlisted between 
thirty and forty men, more than half 
the company. During the winter of 
1777 I lived in Litchfield in the re- 
cruiting service and received an or- 
der to superintend the hospital in the 
town for the inoculation of all the 
soldiers who had not previously had 
small pox. Nearly two hundred of 
them were inoculated. In June, 1777, 
I marched with the men I had en- 
listed and joined the army at Peeks- 
kill. In September, General Wash- 
ington moved the army into Pennsyl- 
vania, and on October . 3rd the army 
had orders to march to Germantown. 
I left my baggage and my Bible, 
which my father bought for me when 
I was six years old, in my trunk. I 
marched with only my military suit 
and my implements of war, without 
even a blanket. The memorable 
battle of Germantown began on the 
morning of October 4th. Our army 
was apparently successful, but by the 
misconduct of General Stephens the 
success of the day turned against us. 
I was in the first column at the head 
of our company. What began the 
attack on the enemy was accordingly 
the last to retreat. I marched with 
a few men nearly ten miles but was 
finally captured. I was left without 
refreshments from break of day till 
night. Then I was taken back to 
Germantown after performing a 
march of nearly forty miles from the 
evening before at six o'clock. I 
reached Germantown a prisoner of 
war and much exhausted. I was the 
last officer captured. After sundown 
I asked if I might see the commander 
of the regiment. The sergeant es- 
corted me to the house where the 



commander was quartered and after 
waiting about fifteen minutes the 
Colonel came out and asked me many 
questions respecting my motives go- 
ing to war, rising in rebellion against 
my lawful sovereign. I answered 
him pleasantly and as evasively as I 
could with decency. He asked me 
what I wanted. I told him I had no 
blanket. I wished for liberty to sleep 
in the house and that I stood in need 
of food. The colonel ordered his 
servants to get me/ some victuals. 
They politely spread a table, set on 
some good old spirits and a broiled 
chicken with excellent bread and but- 
ter. This was really the best meal of 
victuals I ever ate in my life. I was 
told that I must sleep under the eye 
of the guard. I then asked if I could 
have a blanket and a large, clean one 
was given to me. I went out into the 
field and lay down among the sol- 
diers who were prisoners. The ser- 
geant observed that I had a watch 
and silver knee buckles. He said if 
I would give them to him he would 
return them to me for the soldiers of 
the guard would probably rob me. I 
accordingly committed them to him 
and he very honorable returned them 
in the morning. Near the setting of 
the sun on the 5th of October the 
prisoners were ordered to Philadel- 
phia, a distance of about six miles. 
We were taken to the new jail and I 
was locked in a cold room destitute 
of everything but cold stone walls 
and a bare floor. Not a seat to sit 
on, not a morsel to eat or water to 
drink. I groped about my cell and 
found two or three persons asleep on 
the floor. I stood on my feet and 
leaned my back against the wall and 
sometimes moved about the room. 
Then, to change my position, I sat 
down on the floor. It was a long and 
dreary and most gloomy night. I re- 
flected on the miseries of the damned 
in that eternal prison of despair. But 
still Hope hovered around my soul 
that I should see another morning. 
Morning at length arrived and we 



452 



MANUSCRIPT OF JAMES MORRIS— BORN IN 1752 



were furnished with some hard sea 
bread and salt pork and given some 
water to drink. Being without money 
I could purchase nothing for my com- 
fort. I soon sold my watch for half 
its value. With this money I was 
able to purchase some food pleasant 
to my taste. At this time seven hun- 
dred prisoners of war were in the jail. 
A few small rooms were sequestered 
for the officers. Each room must 
contain sixteen men. We fully cov- 
ered the floor where we lay down to 
rest and the poor soldiers were shut 
into rooms of the same magnitude 
with double the number. The sol- 
diers were soon seized with jail fever, 
and in the course of three months it 
swept off four hundred men who were 
all buried in one continuous grave 
without coffins. Such a scene of 
mortality I never witnessed before. 
Death was so frequent that it ceased 
to terrify; it ceased to warn; it 
ceased to alarm survivors. I made 
a contract with a family in Philadel- 
phia to furnish me two meals a day at 
$2.00 per week, and by the means of 
this good family I obtained the priv- 
ileges of the public library in the city. 
My time was devoted to reading and 
thus I endeavored to prevent my 
mind becoming soured by the severi- 
ties of misfortune. When the British 
left Philadelphia I was put on board 
a vessel and sailed to New York. 
Being put on my parole of honor I 
boarded with a Dutch family at the 
west end of Long Island. At Flat- 
bush I became acquainted with a Mr. 
Clarke who owned the most extensive 
library I had ever known in the 
United States. Mr. Clarke made me 
a welcome visitor to his home and 
gave me access to his library. In the 
two years and six months that I was 
a prisoner at Flatbush I completed a 
course in ancient and modern history. 
My exercise was hard labor and 
walking. I was treated with great 
kindness by the family and endeav- 
ored to be always on the pleasant 
side with them. Here I learned that 



the little nameless civilities and atten- 
tions were worth a great deal more 
than they cost. The 3rd of January, 
1 78 1, after a captivity of three years 
and three months, I was taken to 
Elizabeth, New Jersey, and there set 
at liberty. I procured assistance to 
carry me and my baggage to Peekskill 
and from there I marched to the 
Highlands to join the army. In 1778 
I was appointed Captain. I directed 
four men to procure a band and take 
me down the river to Peekskill where 
I had left my chest of clothing. The 
river was frozen near the banks. I 
landed on a very dark evening and 
by making a misstep near the shore, 
where the ice had been cut away for 
the boat to enter, I fell into the river 
and could find no bottom. I seized 
the edge of the ice, calling for help, 
till the men came to my assistance. 
A few seconds more would have land- 
ed me in eternity. 

In the forepart of the campaign of 
1 78 1 the army was stationed near 
White Plains. Several companies 
had skirmishes with the enemy near 
Kingsbridge. I was personally in 
several severe actions, but still I was 
preserved. 

Near the close of the month of 
August our regiment received orders 
to march to Virginia. I marched 
with the regiment at the head of my 
company to the head of Chesapeake 
Bay. We sailed down the bay and 
landed at Williamsburg. Here Gen- 
eral Washington with his army en- 
camped a few days. From there we 
marched to Yorktown. On the 16th, 
at evening, the light infantry was or- 
dered to take a fort by storm, which 
was situated near the mouth of York 
River. I had command of the first 
company at the head of the column 
which supported the forlorn hope. 
Not a man was killed in the forlorn 
hope. They were so near the enemy 
before they were discovered that the 
enemy overshot them. The forlorn 
hope commanded by Colonel Alexan- 
der Hamilton were successful in tak- 






THE MEMOIRS OF A CONNECTICUT PATRIOT 



453 



ing the fort. The French army made 
an attack on a fort on our left at the 
same time we made an attack on the 
fort on the bank of York River. 
When we had possession of these 
forts we had possession of the guard 
overlooking Yorktown. Our artil- 
lery began their play upon the town. 
On the 17th the British requested a 
cessation of hostilities for twenty-four 
hours. General Washington replied 
that he would grant them two hours 
only. * The moment the two hours 
expired the whole artillery of our 
Army and of the French discharged 
upon Yorktown. Before another dis- 
charge could be made the British sent 
another request that articles of capit- 
ulation for a surrender might be 
agreed upon. 

On the 1 8th our soldiers were or- 
dered to wash and appear clean the 
next day. On the 19th our army 
assembled on the right and the French 
army on the left, each line reaching 
more than a mile on an extended 
plain. The British army marched 
out between our two armies, with 
colors muffled, and after passing in 
review they piled their arms on the 
field of submission and returned back 
in the same manner with Yorktown. 
On the 20th General Washington 
issued his orders for a general par- 
don for all culprits of the army. He 
ordered the army to assemble for 
divine service and give thanks to God 
for our success, chaplains to do their 
duty praying and preaching to their 
several brigades discources suitable 
to the occassion. Here General 
Washington's character shone with 
true lustre in giving God the glory. 
After this I marched with my men to 
the Highlands on the east side of the 
Hudson in New York. In December 
I received a furlough for a few weeks' 
visit in Litchfield. While on this fur- 
lough I married Elizabeth Hubbard 
of Middletown. I returned to the 
army and continued with it until No- 
vember, 1782, when I was released 
from service. 



At this time I was thirty years of 
age. I felt a desire to resume my 
studies in theology and pondered on 
the subject. My father had become 
infirm from a wound he had received 
from an axe. My mother was sev- 
enty years old and sunk down in her 
dotage. My parents were both un- 
willing that I should leave them and 
I myself was still doubting and fear- 
ing my heart was not right with God. 
I lived with my parents during the 
winter of 1782-3 attending to their 
domestic concerns. My friends and 
neighbors united in saying that T 
must live in South Farms and be their 
Justice of the Peace. In May, 1783, 
I was appointed to this office and 
chosen by the people as selectman. 
Thus situated, and notwithstanding 
my heart had from early youth de- 
vised the way to be a minister of the 
Gospel, yet God designed it should 
not be so, but had otherwise directed 
my steps. In May, 1783, I moved 
my wife from Middletown and set 
up housekeeping in my father's house. 
I repaired the house and barn and as 
the saying is, I slicked up the place. 
In my office of Justice of the Peace I 
was often called on to do business. 
Courts were often held. Sometimes 
large numbers of people would attend 
and we often had company to visit us. 
My parents chose retirement. My 
mother could not be broken of her 
rest. Our visitors would sometimes 
stay till after nine o'clock and some 
noise would be made in conversation 
or when they bid us good-night. In 
the morning my mother would com- 
plain that I should send off my com- 
pany before nine o'clock. I finally 
consulted with my father and with 
his consent decided to purchase the 
house and land where I now live. 
At the same time he informed me 
that I must pay for it myself, as he 
had.no loose money to spare. Every- 
thing respecting the purchase was di- 
rected by a kind providence, and the 
bargain was made in December, 1784. 
I was elated with the idea that in the 



454 



MANUSCRIPT OF JAMES MORRIS— BORN IN 1752 



spring I should set up housekeeping 
in my present home. But God did 
not design that I should have alto- 
gether so smooth a passage. At the 
end of February I was cast on a bed 
of severe sickness with the bilious 
colic. I was seriously ill for thirty 
days and my life was despaired of. 
But by this sickness and distress the 
door was opened for the people to 
show me kindness and they became 
friendly to me. Hence the way was 
opened for what God had designed I 
should do for this people. About 
1780 Sabbath breaking, profanity and 
drunkenness were not uncommon 
among professors of religion. The 
young children were ignorant and 
uncivil. In 1783 and 1784 they were 
taught by ambitious teachers with 
whom I soon became acquainted. It 
w T as agreed that at the close of the 
schools in spring that the children 
should gather at the meeting house 
and that the eight scholars in each 
school who performed the best should 
have a book. I procured two dozen 
of Webster's new spelling books, the 
first that were introduced into this 
society, and presented them to the 
scholars as proposed. From this 
time forward I occasionally visited 
the schools. I exerted myself to se- 
cure able teachers, and I found there 
was a promising class of youth com- 
ing forward. At this juncture the 
news spread that the officers of the 
army had a commutation of five years 
pay for service during the Revolu- 
tionary War. This fired the minds 
of the community and I became ob- 
noxious to the mass of people because 
I was an officer of the number. 
When I had any severe sickness they 
hoped I would die. One noisy old 
man said he hoped I would die and 
that they would take my skin for a 
drum head to drum other officers out 
of town. 

In June 1789 my dear father died. 
A considerable sum of money and 
cattle was placed in my hands by 
which I was able to free myself from 



debt. I was at this time thirty eight 
years old. During my early life I 
had adopted a variety of maxims, 
such as these. Never to be wanting 
in integrity; never to contend in 
things unessential ; adopt an inde- 
pendent mode of thinking; never 
promise more than I can perform; 
honor and please the aged. As to 
my head I was a Christian while my 
heart was estranged from holiness. 
My mind was anxiously impressed 
with the idea that soon I should be 
forty years old, and if I sinned away 
the day of grace till after that period, 
my crime would be sealed in the book 
of God against me. On November 
7th, 1790, I made a public profession 
of religion and joined the church in 
this place. About this time the chil- 
dren to whom I had presented books 
in 1783-4 began to look to me for 
further instruction. I gave them 
access to my library and the best ad- 
vice I could as to what line of con- 
duct it was best for them to pursue. 
I informed them I would give them 
instruction in grammar and geogra- 
phy if they would attend to it. I 
took more pains with the young ladies 
in the outsetting than I did with the 
others, for experience has taught me 
that in every place where there was a 
chaste and virtuous set of young 
ladies there was a decent class of 
young men. It was a new thing for 
ladies to have any more education 
than could be obtained in the public 
schools. Reading, writing and spell- 
ing were taught. It was often said 
girls need not learn to write. It was 
sufficient if they could write their 
own names. The mode of instruc- 
tion I employed with the young peo- 
ple met with opposition. It was said 
I was making an innovation on the 
manners and customs of youth. I was 
blowing up their pride. A stop must 
be put to it. In January 1793 I was 
made a deacon in this Church. The 
opposition to me increased and I hes- 
itated whether I should take upon 
myself so important an office. But 



(THE MEMOIRS OF A CONNECTICUT PATRIOT 



455 



after consulting with friends and tak- 
ing the subject into prayerful consid- 
eration I accepted the office, I hope 
with meekness and fear. But the op- 
position to my school increased. 
Some men were envious because I 
was appointed Justice of the Peace at 
the age of thirty and deacon at the 
age of forty. Religion was made 
the shouting horn. I was disturbing 
the peace of the church. I was too 
familiar with the ladies in my school. 
A church meeting was held in July 
1794 and a committee was appointed 
to look into the reports respecting 
me. One of the brethren of the 
church charged me with a violation of 
the Christian peace and enumerated 
sundry items of my conduct to that 
effect. It was unanimously agreed 
to refer the complaints to a church 
council. The churches of South- 
bury, Woodbury, Bethlehem, Judea 
and Warren were sent to for their 
minister and delegate and on August 
27th, 1794, I had a public hearing. A 
great collection of people assembled 
as the hue and cry was to see the vil- 
lain fall. I viewed this trial as a 
chastisement in the Providence of 
God to prepare me for what he would 
have me do. After a long hearing 
and mature deliberation the council 
decided that the complaint brought 
against me by the church was by no 
means supported. The church was 
then asked whether it would abide 
the decision of the council and voted 
in the affirmative. The question was 
then put to me and I said I would 
acquiesce. My persecutors were ex- 
ceedingly appalled. Some of them 
soon moved out of the Society, some 
were taken away by the immediate 
hand of God, and one of the brethren 
who was violently opposed to me 
joined the Episcopalians and was 
finally excommunicated. 

All this persecution turned out to 
my advantage. My school had hith- 
erto been confined mostly to the youth 
of this society, but from 1794 to 1803 



I had as many pupils as I could at- 
tend to, summer and winter. In 1803 
sundry good people united and built a 
large school house and called it the 
Academy. In November 1804 I pro- 
cured an assistant. More than 1500 
pupils have attended the school com- 
ing from all the New England states 
excepting Rhode Island, also from 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, Virginia, South 
Carolina, Georgia and from the 
islands of St. Thoma/and Bermuda. 

Soon after I began to teach my 
school in 1790 I began a course of 
lectures on morals which I delivered 
weekly for twenty years. Thus God 
in His providence has directed me to 
spend my life in the place of my na- 
tivity. If I have ever done any good 
to my fellow men, let the praise be 
to Him who hath directed my steps. 
I have held an office of one kind or 
another in the gift of the town, for 
thirty one years. Twenty nine years 
I have held an office in the gift of the 
Society. Thirty years I have held an 
office in the gift of the State. In the 
year 1798 I was chosen representative 
from the town to the General Assem- 
bly and continued to represent the 
town for the greater part of the time 
till 1806. I then declined election. 
I have had my share of worldly hon- 
ors. I have had my share of happi- 
ness in domestic life. I have been 
blessed with obedient and affection- 
ate children. I have had a numerous 
circle of friends and have shared 
largely in the affections of my pu- 
pils. I have many times been ready 
to exclaim, Why have I been made 
the subject of so much goodness from 
the hand of God? 

In September 1814 my wife Eliza- 
beth died. Her funeral sermon was 
preached by Rev. Mr. Lyman Beecher 
from Job 14, 14. 

In 181 5 I married Rhoda Farnum a 
lady possessing all the qualities nec- 
essary to make my domestic lite 
happy. 



"WE ALL AS LEAVES DO FADE 



BY 



LEWIS SPRAGUE MILLS 



New Haven, Connecticut 



Afar o'er old New England's rugged hills 

Have autumn frosts their crimson banners flung, 

And through the quivering shades a silence falls 
Where summer birds their latest carol sung. 

Between the autumn glow and winter snow, 
While winds the yearly roll are softly calling, 

O'er all a quiet hush descending broods, 
As answering, one by one, the leaves are falling. 

And wafted on the wind some float afar; 

Perchance along the roadside some may lie, 
While others in the whirlwind's mighty grasp 

Are left upon the lonely plain to die. 

The silent changing of the forest hue; 

The flight of birds from haunts of summer shade; 

The whispered desolation of the trees 

Recall the words, 'We all as leaves do fade." 

v 

'Tis true we all as leaves must fade and die, 
But in their time the leaves do fade and fall; 

When summer sun is setting, autumn comes 
And Nature bows, for timely is the call. 

Until the destined goal of life is gained; 

Until the work appointed may be done, 
Shall we behold the closing days of earth, 

Or see the rays of life's low falling sun. 

So, when the summer days and songs have fled, 
And loving comes the timely call divine, 

On fading, falling leaves of human life, 
Let autumn's crimson banner brightly shine. 



456 







PILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO' CROSS AMERICAN 
CONTINENT— Statue of Saca.jawea by 
Bruno Louis Zimm, Sculptor 




INDIAN GIRL GUIDING EXPLORERS OVER ROCKY 
MOUNTAINS— Sacajawea and Her Paioose 
BArTisTE— By Bruno Louis Zimm 



PILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO CROSS 
THE AMERICAN CONTINENT 

IDENTIFICATION OF THE INDIAN GIRL WHO LED THE LEWIS 
AND CLARK EXPEDITION OVER THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS IN 
THEIR UNPARALLELED JOURNEY INTO THE MYSTERIES OF THE 
WESTERN WORLD— RECOGNITION OF SACAJ AWE A AS THE WOMAN 
WHO GUIDED THE EXPLORERS TO THE NEW GOLDEN EMPIRE 



BY 



GRACE RAYMOND HEBARD, Ph.D. 

librarian op the university of wyoming 

Member op Wyoming Historical Society 

Member op the Wyoming Bar 



/ 



THE most hazardous and the 
most significant journey ever 
made on the Western Conti- 
nent — a journey that rivals in 
daring and exceeds in importance the 
expeditions of Stanley and Living- 
ston in the wilds of Africa — a jour- 
ney that resulted in the greatest 
real estate transaction ever recorded 
in history and gave to the world 
riches beyond comprehension — was 
piloted by a woman. 

It was an epoch-making journey; a 
journey that moved the world along; 
that pushed the boundary of the 
United States from the Mississippi 
river to the Pacific; that gave us the 
breadth of the hemisphere from ocean 
to ocean; the command of its rivers 
and harbors ; the wealth of its moun- 
tains and plains and valleys — a do- 
minion vast and rich enough for the 
ambition of kings. 

When this woman led those first 
hardy explorers into the wonders of 
an unknown realm its solitudes were 
unbroken, except by the war-whoop 
of the savage and the growl of wild 
beasts echoing through the forests. 
The buffalo and wild horse roamed at 
will over its vast prairies — the stately 
elk, the timid deer, and the sprightly 
antelope. The bear and the wolf 
were monarchs of the forest. Its 
scenery is the grandest on earth; its 
natural curiosities the most remarka- 
ble in existence, and its river courses 
the longest in the world. 



It was a Connecticut man, John 
Ledyard of Groton, who first suggest- 
ed the opening of the great Western 
domain to civilization. 

In honor of the Indian girl, Saca- 
jawea, the only woman who accom- 
panied the Lewis and Clark expedi- 
tion into the northwest an hundred 
years ago, memorials are being 
erected. A bill was introduced in the 
Wyoming Legislature in February, 
1907, carrying with it an appropria- 
tion of $500 for the erection of a mon- 
ument to mark the last resting-place 
of this woman pilot, the amount asked 
for purposely corresponding to the 
amount given Charboneau by Lewis 
and Clark, at Mandan in 1806. The 
Legislature of North Dakota has re- 
cently, 1907, appropriated the sum of 
$15,000.00 for a foundation and ped- 
estal for a Sacajawean statue to be 
made by M|r. Leonard Crunelle. This 
is to be erected at Bismark. There is, 
also, a project on foot in Montana to 
erect a monument at Three Forks in 
memory of this woman. Although 
the governor of Wyoming earnestly 
recommended to the Legislature in his 
message an appropriation, the meas- 
ure failed to become a law, due doubt- 
less to the fact that sentiment for the 
measure had not been sufficiently 
aroused and a keen enough interest in 
the subject awakened. 

The grave of Sacajawea has re- 
cently been found, and her identity 
is established by newly discovered evi- 
dence herein recorded : 



4 6o WOMAN WHO LED THE WAY TO THE GOLDEN WEST 



TO have one's deeds extolled 
after a century has passed, 
when they were hardly rec- 
ognized when executed, has 
been the common fate particularly 
of that class of individuals known 
as explorers; for the service ren- 
dered must be subjected to the 
test of time and the benefits derived 
as a result of the exploration must be 
carefully weighed before applause 
may be adequately given. 

The only woman who accompanied 
Lewis and Clark across the Continent 
to the Pacific Coast during the sea- 
sons of 1804-6, did not in her life time 
receive any personal recognition of 
the services she rendered these ex- 
plorers during their unparalleled 
journey to the then unknown great 
Northwest. But the century that has 
passed since that event has brought a 
keener appreciation of her services 
from those who have taken interest to 
examine and unravel records of her 
deeds as a genius of a guide. This 
woman was a Shoshone Indian who 
was known by the name of Saca- 
jawea. 1 As she was a wife of a French 
interpreter, Touissant Charboneau, 
conventionality might demand that 
she be known as Mrs. Charboneau ; 
but we prefer to call her more famil- 
iarly by her tribal name, because it 
was her native instinct and intelli- 
gence that gave her a place in history 
rather than that she was the wife of 
an interpreter. The story of the part 
that Sacajawea played in this conti- 
nental expedition is as fascinating as 
a piece of knighthood fiction ; that it 
is history adds to the charm. 

Wyoming was not traversed by 
these explorers either on the journey 
to the coast or on the return, yet it 
claims the distinction of having had 
this Indian woman guide a resident 
within its borders for many years and 



1. Reverend John Roberts, missionary 
to Shoshone Indians, Wyoming, for 
twenty-five years, gives the pronunciation 
as Sak-a-jawe. The a as in far. Last a_ 
silent. 



holds now all that is mortal of this 
''native-born American." The facts 
leading to the establishment beyond 
doubt of the identity of the Wyoming 
woman with that of the woman guide 
are presented in detail now for the 
first time. This statement of identity 
has been met with ridicule, doubt, sus- 
picion, denial. Ridicule has been 
turned to consideration; doubt to be- 
lief; suspicion to admission; denial to 
acceptance, for fact after fact has 
been presented and • corroborated by 
those of unquestioned integrity. 

Sacajawea's life has two periods: 
that about which we know ; that about 
which nothing can be learned. It is 
this latter period that has been the 
stumbling block, "the winter of our 
discontent." We see her in the vigor 
of her splendid young womanhood; 
she disappears as mysteriously as she 
appeared; when she again is visible 
it is as the aged Sacajawea, white- 
haired and well preserved, whose fatal 
ailment could only be attributed to 
"old age." 

When Lewis and Clark with their 
party of men, in the fall of 1804, 
reached the Mandan Indian Villages, 
not far from the present site of Bis- 
mark, North Dakota, they engaged 
an Indian interpreter who was to 
accompany them in the spring on their 
farther western voyage. This French 
Canadian interpreter, Charboneau, 
had at that time at least two wives, 
Sacajawea, the younger, having been 
sold to him as a slave when she was a 
child of five years. When he made 
her his wife she was about fourteen 
years old. The following year, Feb- 
ruary nth, 1805, she gave birth to a 
son who was destined to occupy a 
unique position in the expedition 
which continued its western journey 
on the seventh of April of that same 
year. Sacajawea strapped her little 
papoose, not yet two months old, on 
her back and practically carried him 
in this cuddled position, with his view 
of the surrounding country limited to 
what he could see from over his moth- 
er's shoulder, to the coast and return, 



PILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO CROSS AMERICA 461 



a distance of over 5,000 miles. This 
youthful traveler has been known as 
''Little Touissant," "Little Charbo- 
neau," but he was called "Baptiste" 
by Clark and also at various other 
times when, grown older, he in his 
turn acted as guide, for he possessed 
the native instinct and cleverness 
characteristic of his mother. It is as 
"Baptiste" that he was known at the 
time of his death and his children have 
taken this as their family name. 

A century ago the Shoshone In- 
dians made their home around and 
along the Snake river in Idaho, just 
west of the Bitter Root Mountains, 
or, as they are now called, the Rock- 
ies. It was in this locality that the 
Minnetarees, or Blackfeet, swept 
down and, in mighty battle, slew many 
of the Shoshones, taking others into 
captivity. At this time Sacajawea, 
with a girl friend, was stolen and 
taken over the mountains toward the 
East. The girl friend escaped but 
Sacajawea was forced to the Mandan 
Village and sold. In journeying 
west with Lewis and Clark from the 
Mandans, in the spring of 1805, Saca- 
jawea became more and more con- 
scious that the country over which 
they were going was that over which 
she had been taken when in captivity 
five years previous, and when, after 
traveling many days, no one of the 
expedition knew where he was or the 
true direction to pursue, the party de- 
pended entirely upon the instincts and 
guidance of the Indian woman. The 
homing bird knew the direction was 
right, but intelligence had not yet 
awakened. 

At this time Sacajawea was not 
only helpful as a guide, but also ren- 
dered invaluable service on May four- 
teenth, when her husband, through 
his clumsiness, turned over the canoe 
containing all of the papers, instru- 
ments, medicine and almost every 
other article indispensable to the jour- 
ney, without which it would have 
been impossible to proceed. Had 
these properties been lost it would 
have been necessary to retrace three 




PURE TYPE OF THE SHOSHONE GIRL 

Virginia Grant, a pupil at the Carlisle Indian 
School in Pennsylvania, posing for Sculptor 
Zimm's statue of Sacajawea— The papoose on 
Sacajawea's back is modelled from the child 
of William Sitting Bull, son of the Sioux chief 



thousand miles in order to replenish 
the destroyed goods, which require- 
ment in itself would have postponed 
the journey for at least a year. At 
the risk of her own life and that of 
her child, Sacajawea plunged into the 
stream, righted the boat, rescued the 
papers and packages that already 
were floating down the stream. Sev- 
eral days after this when a new river 
was discovered, Lewis and Clark 
named it after her. It is now known 
as Crooked Creek. 2 

In the summer of 1805 the party 
camped on the exact spot, the junc- 
tion of the Jefferson, Madison and 
Gallatin rivers, where Sacajawea had 
been captured. 3 From this point on she 

2. Montana. 

3. Gass' Journal, page 114 (Hosmer's 

Edition). 



462 WOMAN WHO LED THE WAY TO THE GOLDEN WEST 



recognized familiar landmarks and 
the path to the West became more and 
more a matter of memory rather than 
of instinct. She found for Clark the 
pass in the mountain through which 
the party went, on the other side en- 
countering what threatened to be hos- 
tile Indians. These Indians, the Sho- 
shones, thought their old enemy, the 
Blackfeet, had returned to renew their 
war. Lewis advanced on horseback 
alone, having discovered an Indian 
chief with bow and arrows on an ele- 
gant horse without saddle. This In- 
dian proved to be a Cameahwait, the 
chief of the Shoshone tribe. Lewis 
took his blanket which he had in his 
knapsack and after holding it up with 
both hands by two corners, threw it 
over his head unfolded so to appear 
as if he were trying to spread it on the 
ground. This was a signal of peace 
to signify that it was to serve as a seat 
for a distinguished guest and is the 
usual sign of friendliness among In- 
dians of the West. At the same time 
Lewis kept calling "tabba bone," 4 
which, as taught to them by Saca- 
jawea, signifies "white man." While 
doing these things he rolled up his 
sleeves to show the white skin of his 
arms, for the many months of sun and 
weather had tanned both face and 
hands to the color of an Indian. 

A few days after this event Clark, 
who with Charboneau and Sacajawea 
had explored another region, made his 
appearance; upon his approach 
toward the Indians Sacajawea com- 
menced to dance with joy and excite- 
ment and sucked her fingers which 
was to indicate that the warriors in 
place of being hostile were of her own 
tribe. She at once discovered her 
treasured girl friend whom she em- 
braced with the most "tender affec- 
tion" and to her infinite delight recog- 
nized in the chief her long-lost 
brother. The Lewis and Clark Jour- 
nals speak of the most ardent manner 
in which the feelings of the brother 



and sister were expressed. Saca- 
jawea threw her blanket over him and 
with her head on his shoulder "wept 
profusely." Here she learned that all 
of her family had died except two 
brothers and a son of her eldest sis- 
ter, "a small boy, who was immedi- 
ately adopted by her. 5 This last 
fact, insignificant as it may appear, 
proves a strong point in establishing 
Sacajawea's identity. There is no 
record to show what became of this 
boy after adoption, whether he went 
on with the party or whether on its 
return he went with his adopted 
mother to the Mandan Villages. No 
record can be traced of him from that 
time until recent years when we find 
him living as the brother of Baptiste 
and son of Sacajawea, he being 
known as Bazil. 

Sacajawea was home again, not to 
stay, however, for she never hesitated 
in her choice to continue with the 
white man's party rather than to be 
reunited with her tribe. The expedi- 
tion at this point purchased horses 
which were absolutely necessary for 
the continuance of the journey, as the 
canoes which had done service to this 
point now had to be abandoned and 
the journey made overland until the 
waters of the Columbia became navi- 
gable. Sacajawea discovered a plot 
which was to drive the horses away 
that had been purchased from her 
brother and leave the expedition 
stranded, with the alternate of having 
to return by boat or press forward on 
foot, an impossible task owing to the 
scarcity of food. Here again she 
made herself valuable by giving infor- 
mation to Lewis and Clark, even 
though she had to testify to the 
treachery of her own brother and his 
people. 

Charboneau was the interpreter, she 
the guide, though many times she had 
to come to his rescue. One interest- 
ing circumstance will illustrate this 
important service. There was a con- 



4. Lewis and Clark Journals, Volume 
I, page 379 (Hosmer's Edition). 



5. Lewis and Clark Journals, Volume 
I, page 408 (Hosmer's Edition). 



PILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO CROSS AMERICA 463 



troversy in which two chiefs were im- 
plicated over some horses, at a time 
when the possession of horses meant 
success or failure. These chiefs, 
Twisted-Hair and Neeshnepahkeeook 
(Cut Nose), were of the Chopunn 
tribe. One of Lewis and Clark's men 
took the wording of the trial in Eng- 
lish and turned the English into 
French for Charboneau, who trans- 
lated this French into Hidatsa for 
Sacajawea, while Sacajawea gave 
this Hidatsa in Shoshone to the Sho- 
shone prisoner, who in turn adapted 
this Shoshone to Chopunnish for the 
contesting Indian chiefs. A recital 
of all of the service that this Indian 
woman rendered to the expedition 
would require a daily extract from the 
Lewis and Clark Journals, for it was 
as constant as it was unselfish. 

How Lewis and Clark who selected 
all of the men who were to accompany 
them for varied and special qualifica- 
tions which would best and most mis- 
cellaneously serve the expedition, 
failed to include some one of the med- 
ical profession or one skilled in surgi- 
cal science is a matter quite beyond 
comprehension. Along these lines, 
however, Sacajawea added to her 
value, for her native and secret 
knowledge of medicinal herbs and 
plants and their curative properties 
was of extreme worth in time of sick- 
ness. Again it is difficult to imagine 
when starvation seemed to be the only 
outcome what would have been the 
result if she had not concocted messes 
made from seeds and plants and had 
not known of the riches stored away 
in the prairie dog holes where were 
found artichokes as valuable as pota- 
toes. The coast was finally reached 
December 7, 1805, where the party 
made winter quarters at Clatsop^, four 
thousand, one hundred and thirty-five 
miles from St. Louis, the starting 
point. 

March, 1806, found the party ready 
to retrace the many weary miles. 
The entire party that left Mandan 
reached that point in August of this 
same year. At this point we must 




GREAT - GREAT - GRANDDAUGHTER OF 
SACAJAWEA — Indian Woman, Eunice Bazil, 
photographed in her native costume on the Sho- 
shone Reservation for Dr. Hebard's identification 
of the Lost Pilot of the Lewis and Clark Expedition 
into the Unknown Northwestern American Frontier 

abandon the exploring party and con- 
fine ourselves to the movements of the 
actors who are most vitally connected 
with the history of our Indian Prin- 
cess, for such a title she could have 
rightfully claimed through her royal 
blood. Charboneau received from 
Lewis and Clark for his services the 
sum of $500 and a few odd cents. 
There is no record to show that Saca- 
jawea received any compensation by 
gift or word. It is true we find the 
following in the journal: "This man 
(Charboneau) has been very service- 



464 WOMAN WHO LED THE WAY TO THE GOLDEN WEST 



able to us, and his wife particularly 
useful among' the Shoshones. - Indeed 
she has borne with a patience truly 
admirable the fatigues of so long a 
route incumbered with the charge of 
an infant, who is even now only nine- 
teen months old. She was very ob- 
servant. She had a good memory, 
remembering locations not seen since 
her childhood. In trouble she was 
full of resources, plucky and deter- 
mined. With her helpless infant she 
rode with the men, guiding us unerr- 
ingly through mountain passes and 
lonely places. Intelligent, cheerful, 
resourceful, tireless, faithful, she in- 
spired us all." 

The finding of letters written a 
hundred years ago shows that Saca- 
jawea was more keenly appreciated 
than we had been led to believe. This 
evidence was first made public by an 
article in the Century Magazine, 6 the 
letter having been written August 20, 
1806, by Clark on his voyage down 
the river after leaving Manclan. 

"Charbono: 7 

You have been a long time with me 
and have conducted yourself in such a man- 
ner as to gain my friendship. Your woman 
who accompanied you that long, dangerous 
and fatiguing rout to the Pacific Ocean 
and back diserved a greater reward for her 
attention and services on the rout than we 
had in our power to give her at the Man- 
dans." 




No further attention was paid to 
this woman, not even in the accounts 
that have been published by those who 
made the journey, until the time of 
the St: Louis Fair, called the Louisi- 
ana Purchase Exposition, in 1904; 
and later at the Lewis and Clark Ex- 
positon in 1905, at Portland, Oregon. 
Mrs. Eva Emery Dye attracted atten- 
tion to this pilot of the West in her 
book, "The Conquest," in which she 
has extolled not unduly the devotion 
of the little woman to the cause of 
Lewis and Clark on their marvelous 
trip. Mr. Bruno Louis Zimm, the 
New York sculptor, in his preparation 
for the modelling of a statue for the 
St. Louis Fair spent a year in study- 
ing the literature and ethnology in- 
volved in this subject. When the 
time came for him to procure a model 
typical of the woman of the Shoshone 
tribe he was instructed to correspond 
with Reverend John Roberts of the 
Shoshone Reservation in Wyoming 
where he had preached and worked as 
a missionary for a quarter of a cen- 
tury. This reservation is located in 
the center of the state, having been 
the home of Indians for many genera- 
tions. Mr. Roberts directed Mr. 
Zimm's attention to one of the young 
Shoshone women, Virginia Grant, 
who was at that time and is at pres- 
ent a student at the Carlisle Indian 
School. She is pronounced to be de- 
cidedly typical' of this tribe. 

6. Volume LXVIII, page 876. 

7. Captain Clark not only spelled pho- 
netically, but evidently early anticipated the 
spelling reform movement. 



DESCENDANTS OF THE INDIAN PILOT— 
The four in the back row from left to right are 
Maggie Meyers, daughter of Baptiste, the son of 
Sacajawea— Charlie Meyers, son of Maggie Meyers 
—Charlie Meyers' wife who is not a blood relative 
of Sacajawea— George Bazil (We-to-gan), son of 
Baptiste — The front row from left to right are 
Nannie Bazil, daughter of George Bazil— Fannie 
Meyers, daughter of Charles Meyers— Willie Bazil, 
son of George Bazil— Little Bessie and Oro Meyers, 
the daughter and young son of Charles Meyers 



PILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO CROSS AMERICA 465 



In the correspondence incident to 
obtaining the desired information Mr. 
Roberts in a personal interview with 
the author of this article imparted 
long-sought information which car- 
ries with it substantial evidence of its 
authenticity. After Mr. Roberts had 
been informed that the purpose of this 
photograph of Virginia Grant was to 
assist in modelling a statue of the 
woman who gave Lewis and Clark 
guidance across the mountains it 
freshened his memory to the extent 
that he remembered burying a very 
old Indian woman during the first 
years in his field of labor in Wyom- 
ing. Upon examination of his parish 
records, which he had carefully kept 
since assuming his duties with the 
Shoshone Indians, he found this nota- 
tion under date of 1884, April 9, 
"Bazil's mother, Shoshone, one 
hundred years, residence Shoshone 
Agency, cause of death, old age, place 
of burial, Burial Ground Shoshone 
Agency." Mr. Roberts on January 8, 
1906, while attending a funeral of one 
of Chief Washakie's grandsons, heard 
a great wailing as is the Shoshone 
custom, for they mourn with a great 
and very sore lamentation, and ob- 
served one of Sacajawea's grand- 
daughters standing over her grave 
"giving away to her grief in great 
wailing." This cemetery or burial 
ground is a forty-acre tract fenced in 
with a very strong and lasting fence 
of cedar posts and twisted barbed 
wire on either side of the posts and 
twisted together between posts. Only 
a slight slab marks Sacajawea's grave. 
The proper marking of this grave 
should have immediate attention while 
he who buried her can identify the ex- 



GREAT - GREAT - GRANDCHILDREN OF 
SACAJAWEA— These photographs were recently 
taken on the Shoshone Reservation during Dr. 
Hebard's investigations and they picture the des- 
cendants of the Indian Guide in native life— The 
older Indian woman on the left is Mrs. Charles 
Meyers and to the right is Eunice Bazil— The three 
little ones on the left are Fannie, Bessie and Oro 
Meyers— The boy and girl at the right are Willie 
and Nannie Bazil, children of George Bazil 



act locality. This woman was known 
in the Shoshone valley as Sacajawea 
and had two sons called Bazil and 
Baptiste, both of whom were person- 
ally known by Reverend Roberts. 
Old Indians now living testified to 
him that in her earlier life Sacajawea 
was 'Very nice looking;" short of 
stature, spare of figure, very intelli- 
gent and quick in her movements. 
Reverend Roberts stated that Saca- 
jawea in 1883 was wonderfully active 
and intelligent considering her great 
age. She walked alone and was 
bright to the last. She had no sick- 
ness but was found dead one morning 
April 9, 1884, on her "shake-down" 
of blankets and quilts in her tepee. 
In the afternoon of the same day she 
received a Christian burial. This 
woman was illiterate, but spoke 
French as well as did her two sons. 

Although Shoshones claim nephews 
as sons and will not admit any adop- 
tion, yet, for thirty-four years at least 
there had been a rumor, amounting to 
a statement of facts, that Bazil was 
not Sacajawea's own son but was a 
nephew and had been adopted. This 
is a crucial point in the case because 
it was a puzzling fact that this son 
Bazil should be older than Baptiste 
(Bat- tees as pronounced by the In- 
dian) who was the child carried on the 




466 WOMAN WHO LED THE WAY TO THE GOLDEN WEST 



mother's back during the journey to 
the coast, Baptiste being then her only 
son, hence the oldest. We must refer 
again to the Lewis and Clark Jour- 
nals, page 408, Volume I, to that sin- 
gle line — "a son of her eldest sister, a 
small boy, who was immediately 
adopted by her." Had the child been 
a baby, or papoose he would not have 
been a "small boy." These few words 
furnish convincing explanation why 
the older son was not the one Saca- 
jawea took with her and why there 
was a family tradition that Bazil was 
adopted. Bazil and Baptiste both 
told Mr. Roberts that Baptiste was the 
child that was carried to the coast. 
This isolated piece of evidence about 
the adoption and the child so adopted 
being older than her own child is not 
one generally remembered or noticed. 
As it appears in the Journal it has no 
significance and that child is never 
mentioned again so far as can be as- 
certained. 

Again, the name of "Baptiste" has 
been a stumbling block, because the 
little papoose was known in history 
for a century as "Little Touissant," 
or "Touissiant Charboneau" or "Lit- 
tle Charboneau," and so that when 
we introduce into the romantic his- 
tory an aged man with an entirely 
new and foreign name there is cer- 
tainly a demand for an explanation 
and a reconciliation of facts. If we 
will go back to the spring of 1805, 
Sunday, April 7, when Lewis and 
Clark engaged their additional men at 
the Mandan Village we find the name 
Baptiste Lapage. 8 This man at that 
time was living at the locality where 
Charboneau and Sacajawea made 
their home or headquarters. As they 
were friends and companions it is not 
improbable or unlikely that his first 
name was given the first child of the 
French Canadian interpreter. There 
is no mention of this child's name in 
all of the journals and accounts that 
have been printed about the journey. 
But in going over the private papers 

8. Lewis and Clark Journals, Volume 
I, page 190. 



of Captain Clark the letter before 
mentioned contains more valuable in- 
formation than that before cited. A 
portion reads as follows : 

"As to your little son (my boy Pomp) 
you well know my fondness for him and 
my anxiety to take and raise him as my 
own child. I once more tell you if you 
will bring your son Baptiest, I will educate 
him, etc." . . . "with anxious expecta- 
tions of seeing my little dancing boy Bap- 
tiest, I remain your friend, 

William Clark." 

This letter was written in 1806 and 
never was known to the public until 
1904, yet for thirty-five years at the 
least prior to the latter date, Saca- 
jawea's own son was known as Bap- 
tiste. Incredibility cannot attach to 
this point in the evidence, for the facts 
are substantiated by a hundred living 
witnesses as to the name by which the 
son had been called by his mother, for 
thirty or thirty-five years. Documen- 
tary evidence shows further that Cap- 
tain Clark was true to his promise and 
had little Touissant Charboneau and 
Sacajawea come to St. Louis where 
the boy was placed in a Catholic 
school, the teaching being in French, 
the language of his father. We find 
in Captain Clark's account as Indian 
Commissioner, to which office he was 
appointed by the president after his 
return from the West, items under 
date of 1820, covering expenses for 
school books, shoes and other things 
for a boy. This account appears in 
the name of Touissant Charboneau, 
doubtless our interpreter rather than 
the son. His boy was born in 1805, 
hence was fifteen years old at this 
period of his education. Baptiste and 
Bazil, we must remember, spoke Sho- 
shone, French and English. 

The descendants of Bazil scorn the 
idea of having any French blood in 
them and claim only the blue blood of 
the American Indian and there is 
strong evidence that they are right in 
their assertion. There is nothing to 
show that Sacajawea's sister, the 
mother of Bazil, ever saw a man other 
than the Indian. The descendants of 
Baptiste look like mixed blood and 



PILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO CROSS AMERICA 467 




THE RESTING PLACE OF THE BRAVE INDIAN GIRL PILOT 

Photograph taken at the grave of Sacajawea in the Shoshone Indian Agency cemetery at Wind River, 
Wyoming, for Dr. Hebard's investigations— The older girl is Eunice Bazil, great-granddaughter of Bazil, 
and she is standing at the head of the grave which is marked only by a short stick and low mound— The 
smaller girl is Bessie Meyers, great-great-granddaughter of Sacajawea, and she stands at foot of grave 



act as such, associating more with 
whites than Indians usually do. They 
have acted as guides in earlier days 
and as United States police later, in- 
termixing with whites and Mexicans. 
A son of Baptiste told Mr. Roberts 
that his father often told him that his 
grandmother had carried his father 
(Baptiste) when a babe on her back 
at the time she showed the way to 
"The first Washington" across the 
Crow Indian Country to the "Big 
Water toward the Setting Sun;" that 
Baptiste's father (Charboneau) died 
"long ago" near the site of the present 
White Rocks Ute-Agency, Utah, and 
that he had a lot of papers that were 
burnt at his funeral. 



The name Sacajawea, according to 
Reverend Roberts, who has made a 
careful study of the Shoshone lan- 
guage for the quarter of a century he 
has worked with this tribe, is derived 
from Sac — canoe or boat or raft ; ti — 
the, jawe — launcher. It is a pure 
Shoshone name. Had the word been 
spelt sac-a-dza-we-a (pronunciation 
almost identical with the former 
word), it would have meant, if a Sho- 
shone word, Sac, which one? a, the. 
dca, good, K'ca, gap. or mountain, or 
pass, "which one is the good pass-"' 
The oldest Shoshone and also Saca- 
jawea's descendants state that her 
name was "Wadze-wipe" (Lost 
Woman) , Bah-ribo, ( Water-White 



4 68 WOMAN WHO LED THE WAY TO THE GOLDEN WEST 



Alan) and Boo-e-nive, (Grass Maid- 
en). Most Shoshones have several 
names. If it be true that the name 
Sacajawea is not Shoshone, and 
should be spelled Sakakawea, or "Bird 
Woman," as is stated by some who 
have made a study of Indian lan- 
guages, and affirm the word is Hi- 
datsa, this would account for the fact 
that she was not known by that name 
among these Shoshones. 

Perhaps even more valuable than all 
of this information is the evidence 
submitted by Mr. James I. Patten, a 
resident of Wyoming*, who in a per- 
sonal interview told a similar narra- 
tive. Mr. Patten came to Wyoming 
in 1 87 1 when the one railroad in the 
then Territory of Wyoming only 
reached to Laramie, a point about 
sixty miles west of the Eastern State 
line. From this point he went to the 
Shoshone Valley by prairie schooner 
and by broncho before there was even 
a wagon road, only a trail serving as 
a guide. Mr. Patten had been sent 
into this locality by the Episcopalian 
denomination to teach and to convert 
the Indians to Christianity. His duty 
was to prepare Indians and others for 
baptism, which ritual was performed 
by the Bishop at stated intervals. He 
continued in this work until 1880. 

He first saw Sacajawea in the fall 
of 1871. She was then very old. 
She was pointed out to him as the 
squaw who had accompanied Lewis 
and Clark. Mr. Patten had read the 
Journals of Lewis and Clark before 
coming to this valley and at that time, 
1871, was wholly convinced from the 
information he gleaned that the Saca- 
jawea of Wyoming was the Saca- 
jawea of the Lewis and Clark expe- 
dition. Dr. Irwin, whose place Rev- 
erend Roberts commenced to occupy 
in 1883, talked to Mr. Patten about 
the matter and said that he had col- 
lected from her and from her son a 
good deal of material about this jour- 
ney which he intended to publish ; 
that, after carefully reading Lewis 
and Clark's Journals he was con- 
vinced that the two Sacajaweas were 



one and the same. Dr. Irwin has 
been dead many years and it is feared 
his notes have been destroyed, 
although an active search is being- 
made for them. It is difficult to tell 
the exact age of Indians, but Bazil 
and Baptiste were old men when first 
seen by Mr. Patten. He knew them 
both and talked with them about their 
mother and her trip. Both of these 
men spoke the three languages, Sho- 
shone, French and English, their de- 
gree of proficiency being in the order 
named. Bazil, when he found Mr. 
Patten was learning their dialect, took 
a great deal of interest in telling him 
of his mother and her service as a 
guide to Lewis and Clark. It is dif- 
ficult to get any information from a 
Shoshone Indian when he is conscious 
one is trying to extract facts. They 
cannot be drawn out of him ; he must 
volunteer the information. Once, 
however, get an Indian interested in 
the subject at hand and then uncon- 
sciously he will impart the desired in- 
formation. Aged Indians are very 
superstitious and exceedingly secre- 
tive, being reluctant to converse with 
white people on certain topics, more 
particularly if they refer to their fam- 
ily or tribal movements. Sacajawea 
at this time conversed with few. She 
lived in a tepee by herself, but her 
two sons looked after her very care- 
fully and tenderly, the special atten- 
tion coming from Bazil who appar- 
ently was slightly the older, although 
the two men seemed to be so near of 
an age that it was impossible to say 
which one was the older. Bazil was 
the owner of an Indian dwelling situ- 
ated near the Agency. The most 
marked characteristic of the Shoshone 
Indian is that his tribal ties are even 
stronger than his family ties. A Sho- 
shone woman will leave her husband 
and even small children to return to 
her tribe. This powerful instinct or 
trait is unquestionably the one that 
brought Sacajawea with her two sons 
down from Mandan to the new region 
selected by her tribe. 



PILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO CROSS AMERICA 469 



In 1871, when this tribe was prepar- 
ing to go forth on its annual hunt, 
Bazil brought his mother up near the 
government house and pitched her 
tepee there, saying to Mr. Patten: 
"This old aged woman is my mother 
and I want to leave her at the Agency 
when we are on our hunt." At this 
time he made a statement as to her 
age and while he did not exactly know 
what it was he thought she must be 
nearly one hundred years old; he 
stated that she went to the place of 
"much water" (the ocean) for the 
"Great Washington" (the govern- 
ment is always Washington to these 
Indians) and that the men she went 
with were the first white men who 
ever crossed the country. He did not 
then mention the names of Lewis and 
Clark until they were spoken by Dr. 
Irwin and Mr. Patten. Indians do 
not remember exact dates or names 
readily, although events are accu- 
rately reproduced. Sacajawea stated 
to both Dr. Irwin and Mr. Patten that 
she had made the voyage and she 
talked of the "Big Waters beyond the 
Shining (snowy) Mountains." Wit- 
to-gan, the son of ofd Baptiste, told 
Mr. Patten that his father had often 
told him that his mother acted as a 
pilot to "A-va-je-me-ar" (the first 
Washington). 

Once she came to the Agency when 
Mr Patten was there, at the time of 
the drawing of rations, to draw hers ; 
he told Bazil that she was too old to 
carry these provisions. "Yes," said 
Bazil, "pretty old ; pretty old." Bazil 
was particularly devoted to her and 
looked after her with great care and 
consideration. This attention is usual 
among the Shoshones who take good 
care of their old people. Baptiste was 
always attentive but had no charge of 
her as she always had her tepee nearer 
the house of Bazil. "Bazil's mother," 
— she was commonly known by this 
name — always wore the Indian cos- 
tume with blankets and moccasins and 
her hair down her back. While Bazil 
and Baptiste wore the Indian costume, 
they always wore a hat and negligee 




SURVIVAL OF AN EARLY EXPEDITION TO 
WYOMING— Captain William Clark Kennedy of 
St. Louis, Missouri, who went to Wyoming in 1S42 
and who conversed with Sacajawea's son at Fort 
Laramie— Captain Clark is named after his dis- 
tinguished uncle of the Lewis and Clark Expedition 
of 1806— He testifies that Baptiste recognized Jeffer- 
son Clark, the son of Captain Clark, from his mem- 
ory of the features of his father, the explorer 

shirt in addition to the blanket. Their 
children wear the native costume. 
Thirty-six years ago Sacajawea 
looked as if she might have been a 
pretty plump, good-looking woman oi 
medium size. The true Shoshone 
type is one of robustness and short in 
stature. Mr. Patten not only knew 
Sacajawea and her sons, but knew the 
grandchildren and prepared them tor 
baptism when they embraced our reli- 
gion, in as far as they could under- 
stand it. When the Bishop (George 
Maxwell Randall) baptized them they 
were given Christian names, the chil- 
dren "taking their father's names as 
their last name. Bazil and Baptiste 
and their descendants seemed to feel 
it a great honor that their mother had 
been allowed to accompany the "Great 
Father," which deed gave to them an 



470 WOMAN WHO LED THE WAY TO THE GOLDEN WEST 



inheritance that was akin to an aris- 
tocracy. Mr. Patten never heard of 
Sacajawea having any husband other 
than Charboneau, and she was known 
also by the name of "Lost Woman." 
Chief Washakie, (Was-a-kie, the 
lightning striker — "he kills him run- 
ning") who made the treaty at Bridger 
in 1868 with our government for the 
reservation in the center of Wyoming, 
in a conversation with Mr. Patten, 
mentioned Sacajawea as the woman 
who accompanied the white people 
who went to the Great Water. 

In order to obtain favor from the 
Indians they knew they were to en- 
counter, Lewis and Clark carried with 
them many bright trinkets and gor- 
geous presents. These were given to 
the ordinary Indians, but to the chiefs 
they presented medals. These were 
of three grades. To the chief of 
chiefs they gave a medal with the like- 
ness of the president of the United 
States (Jefferson) on one face; to 
chiefs of a secondary order a medal 
decorated with some kind of a domes- 
tic animal ; and to the third chiefs a 
medal with the imprint of a farmer 
sowing grain. The chiefs wore these 
medals suspended on a cord around 
their necks. The brothers of Saca- 
jawea each received one of these med- 
als. 9 On state occasions Bazil wore a 
medal suspended from his neck which 
he said his father (Sacajawea's hus- 
band) had given him. Charboneau 
said Lewis and Clark had given the 
medal to him. Reverend Roberts and 
Mr. Patten have both seen this medal, 
the former saying that Bazil was 
buried with this silver medal or scarf 
protector, while the latter affirming it 
was about as big as a silver dollar. 

To strengthen the foregoing state- 
ments there has been added the verbal 
information from Mr. Richard A. 
Morse, who was a government black- 
smith on the reservation from 1882 to 
1890 and had often seen Sacajawea. 
When he first saw her she was an old, 



9. Lewis and Clark Journals, Volume 
I, page 409. 



old woman, with white hair and no 
teeth, but even with this defect was 
nice-looking. For a woman of her 
age she was remarkably straight. She 
was short and heavy and was a "reg- 
ular, genuine Shoshone woman." 
People in 1882 knew of her trip and 
talked to him about her and it. He 
had seen her any number of times 
picking sagebrush and packing it on 
her back to her tepee to burn. The 
sons were very strong in their family 
relations and were short, straight and 
stout. 

In a conversation with Mr. H. E. 
Wadsworth, the United States Indian 
agent at Shoshone or Wind river, he 
stated that Sacajawea had died before 
he entered upon his duties at this 
reservation over twenty years ago, 
but she had repeatedly been spoken of 
by those who had known her as one 
under-sized, but very straight. He 
did not know her sons, but knew her 
grandchildren and great-grandchil- 
dren and great-great-grandchildren, 
all of whom were or had been at the 
agency school, and one at least at the. 
Carlisle Indian School. The grave in 
which lies all that is mortal of Saca- 
jawea is situated about sixteen miles 
northwest of Landar (the county seat 
of Fremont County), and two miles 
west of the Shoshone Indian Agency. 
The location of the cemetery is bleak, 
situated on a hill without surrounding 
trees or grass, in the center of a for- 
mer hunting-ground. Mr. Wads- 
worth corroborated the statement that 
the Indian woman was known as 
Wad-ze-wip and that Sacajawea is de- 
rived from two pure Shoshone words, 
"boat" and "to push." 

Mr. Lahoe, the government inter- 
preter for the Shoshone Reservation, 
whose mother is a Shoshone Indian, 
added interesting information to the 
effect that he had personally known 
both Bazil and Baptiste and knew 
where they were buried, having helped 
in the burial of Bazil. Baptiste is 
buried up in the mountains, his body 
having been taken there by a few In- 
dians and dropped down between, two 



PILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO CROSS AMERICA 471 



crags, about forty feet deep. After 
the body had been let down by a rope ; 
a few rocks were thrown upon him, 
one striking his head and crushing his 
brain. Bazil was also buried after the 
Indian custom. Wrapped in a sheet 
and blanket he was taken by a few In- 
dians up to Mill Creek and placed in 
a new gulch which was dug into the 
bank and allowed to cave down and 
cover him. At the time he was buried 
he had a silver medal upon his neck. 
Bazil was a powerful man, a warrior 
and one of the bravest men among 
Indians. He was also a hunter and 
trapper, Indian Doctor and Medicine 
Man. Baptiste was a guide, not as 
civilized as Bazil, having all of the In- 
dian beliefs which Bazil did not have. 
Bazil's oldest son was known as Edde- 
to-que (Ed.). His next child is Ni- 
be-chee (Ellen), followed by Ando, 
known as (Andrew Bazil), and Mag- 
gie. The last three are living and on 
the reservation. Maggie Bazil has 
nine children: Charles, Nettie, Kittie, 
Willie, Ellen, Leddie, Freddie, Roy 
and Lawrence. (This generation 
makes no claim to Indian names.) 
Baptiste had three wives who were 
sisters; his children are: Barbara, An- 
tyne, Jim and George Bazil (We-to^ 
gan). Barbara married a man by the 
name of Meyer, whose son, Charles 
Meyer, at one time attended the Car- 
lisle School and now acts in the capac- 
ity of a herder. This son has seen 
the medal around his grand-uncle's 
neck and was present at his burial. 
He has three children, all of whom 
appear in the picture. George Bazil 
Baptiste (We-to-gan) has two chil- 
dren, Willie and Annie or Nannie. 
One cannot help deploring the dis- 
appearance of the liquid Indian names 
which are fast being supplanted by 
most ordinary ones. 

Having proved Sacajawea's iden- 
tity, established beyond a question of 
a doubt her home and the location of 
her grave, explained the seeming dis- 
crepancy in the age of her children, 
and fitted the name of Baptiste to the 
little papoose journeying on his moth- 



er's back, the next step is to substan- 
tiate these statements by showing that, 
prior to 1871, the earliest date which 
we have thus far fixed as the home of 
Sacajawea in Wyoming, the son of 
Charboneau was seen and known as 
his son in the neighborhood of the 
present Shoshone Indian Reservation. 
• In 181 1, Brackinridge states that 
Sacajawea and Charboneau were seen 
on the Missouri river. Maximilian's 
writings make frequent mention of 
''Charboneau" working up and down 
the Missouri. Wje also find evidence 
that he served as an interpreter for 
Sublette and Campbell who explored 
and traded in Wyoming 1826-32. In 
1838, last mention is made of him by 
Larpenteur 10 as "old Mr. Charbo- 
neau." Sacajawea was many years 
younger than her husband and it 
would be natural if she followed her 
sons after his death. It is positively 
known that Sacajawea's Baptiste was 
with James Bridger at Fort Bridger 
(where the now abandoned fort was 
situated in the southwest corner of 
Wyoming), in 1832, acting as a guide 
and mountain explorer. He is men- 
tioned in Wyeth's Journal, in Bonne- 
ville, 1832-5, and in Fremont 1842-3, 
both of whom were in Wyoming at 
the dates indicated. The most trust- 
worthy information, however, that 
Baptiste was in Wyoming and on the 
Overland Trail which passed just 
south of the Shoshone Reservation, is 
given by Captain William Clark Ken- 
nerly,at present a residentof St. Louis. 
Mr. Kennedy imparts the following 
authentic information in a letter oi 
December, 1906. In 1842, Sir Wil- 
liam Drummond Stewart organized a 
party to hunt buffalo and other game : 
among others engaged to assist was 
one "baptiste Charboneau" who acted 
in the capacity of a driver of one of 
the carts. Mr. Kennedy, named after 
his uncle by marriage. Captain Wil- 
liam Clark of the Lewis and Clark ex- 
pedition, was one of this party. Cap- 

10. Wheeler, O. D.. The Lewis and 
Clark Trail Volume I. page 130-4. 




THE WOMAN WHO LED THE WAY TO THE GOLDEN EMPIRE 
OF5WESTERN AMERICA— Statue to SacajAwea 
and Baptiste Erected by the Women op 
Oregon at Portland — Miss 
Alice'Cooper, Sculptor 



PILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO CROSS AMERICA 



473 



tain Clark's son, Jefferson Kennedy 
Clark, a cousin of Captain Kennerly, 
was also one of this hunting party. 
This expedition, which consisted of 
eighty members, including guides, 
drivers and hunters, came into Wyom- 
ing as far north as Fort Laramie, 
which was on the old Overland Trail, 
and where there were fifty or sixty 
lodges of the Sioux Indians. This 
Baptiste, when he saw young Clark, 
at once "welcomed him as the son of 
his old guardian." Some of the Sioux 
chiefs immediately recognized Jeffer- 
son Clark from his strong resemblance 
to his father who became known to 
them on the Pacific Expedition, and 
called him at once "son of redheaded 
father," that being the name by which 
Clark was known to the Sioux In- 
dians, the color of the hair of father 
and son being identical and of a strik- 
ing hue. St. Louis was always called 
by these Indians "Redhair's town." 
Captain Kennerly is the only one of 
this party now living. In this Indian, 
Baptiste Charboneau, we find one who 
not only bears the name of Saca- 
jawea's husband, but who also has a 
given name that, until 1904, was never 
known to have been associated with 
that of Charboneau. Further, if the 
Sioux Indians in their hunts came as 
far south as Fort Laramie it would 
be possible for Sacajawea also to have 
come that distance to be with her son, 
who was familiar with the land 
around this locality. 

An analytical examination of the 
pictures, paintings and statuary cre- 
ated to represent Sacajawea has de- 
veloped the fact that there existed an 
exceeding diversified interpretation of 
the character of this Indian woman. 
If we examine the painting by Mr. 
Paxson 11 we measure her as tall, raw- 
bcned and angular. Miss Alice 
Cooper's noble and graceful statue at 
Portland, erected by the women of 
Oregon at a cost of $7,000, represents 
an ideal type of an Indian woman. 



11. Wheeler, O. D., The Trail of Lewis 
and Clark, Volume I, page 126. 



The statue made by Mr. Zimm which 
stood at the end of one of the espla- 
nades, between the Liberal Arts and 
Manufacturers' buildings at the St. 
Louis Fair not only portrayed the 
true type of a Shoshone woman, but 
also mirrors our heroine's nature. 
Accordingly with the assistance of 
this sculptor and the writings of Lewis 
and Clark we are able to grasp and 
realize to a great degree what was the 
character thus delineated and why our 
guide is entitled to be classed as noble. 
Lewis wrote on July 28, 1805: "She 
does not, however, show any distress 
at these recollections, nor any joy at 
the prospect of being restored to her 
country; for she seems to possess the 
folly or the philosophy of not suffer- 
ing her feelings to extend beyond the 
anxiety of having plenty to eat and a 
few trinkets to wear." This mood of 
Sacajawea, that most familiar to the 
explorers, seems to be a striking char- 
acteristic of the Indian. That they 
are capable of real feeling, those who 
have studied the subject the most em- 
phatically affirm. This manifested it- 
self in Sacajawea's case to such a de- 
gree that it astonished Lewis and 
Clark when she met her brother, the 
Shoshone chief, on August 17, 1805. 
These exhibitions of real feelings are 
sc seldom that they challenge the av- 
erage observer to represent them as a 
common trait of the Indian. The 
characteristic of the Indian women 
seems to have been their stoical obedi- 
ence to their condition of servitude. 
This quality was not foreign to Saca- 
jawea's people. We remember the 
calm resignation of the Shoshone 
women when Lewis surprised them 
when he came through the pass ap- 
proaching their valley. 12 No cry nor 
sound passed their lips ; they sat with 
bowed heads expecting death and 
waited for a fatal blow. That Saca- 
jawea was not devoid of this senti- 
ment the records of the journals gjive 
ample illustrations. This stoicism 



12. Lewis and Clark Journals. Volume 
I, page 387. 



474 WOMAN WHO LED THE WAY TO THE GOLDEN WEST 



was the foundation of Mr. Zimm's 
conception of the heroine and ex- 
plained to him her fortitude, her calm 
endurance and patient suffering. 
There was a certain amount of natural 
and legitimate curiosity in her nature, 
however, as borne witness to by Cap- 
tain Clark after she had pleaded to 
be allowed to accompany them from 
their inland camp to the ocean's beach. 
"The poor woman stated very ear- 
nestly that she had traveled a great 
way with us to see the great water, yet 
she had never been down to the coast 
and now that this monstrous fish was 
also to be seen, it seemed hard she 
should not be permitted to see neither 
the ocean nor whale, so reasonable a 
request could not be denied." This, 
then, is what we see in Mr. Zimm's 
statue: "a stoical, patient figure, on 
its face an expression of searching 
curiosity." The sculptor obtained a 
pure type for his model, Virginia 
Grant, who, not particularly anxious 
after her contact with civilized life to 
part her hair and have it fall down her 
back, brought the pompadour down 
reluctantly. Her dress is patterned 
after the Minnetance by whom Saca- 
jawea was so long kept in captivity. 
The papoose on Sacajawea's back is 
modelled after the child of William 
Sitting Bull, son of the great Sioux 
chief. 

Thus we have Sacajawea represent- 
ed in her true character, the patient, 
plodding type looking ever westward 
toward the goal of the expedition. 

To recapitulate in the briefest pos- 
sible terms commensurate with clear- 
ness, the preponderance of evidence 
establishes the fact that the Sacajawea 
who lived on the Wind river, or Sho- 
shone Reservation in Wyoming is the 
Indian woman Sacajawea who acted 
in the capacity of pilot, guide and in- 
terpreter to Lewis and Clark in 
1805-6. 

In the years, even the generations, 
that have become history since the 
performance of these services for 
Lewis and Clark, no one has offered 
herself in evidence as this "Lost Wo- 



man;" there is no record of any per- 
son endeavoring on the behalf of Sac- 
ajawea to advance the claim of any 
other Indian woman for this enviable 
position; repeated and continual 
efforts have been made by a host of 
interested and enthusiastic investiga- 
tors to obtain a clew which would ulti- 
mately lead to this identity and yet no 
one, impostor or otherwise, has made 
a claim for this recognition, excepting 
in the case at hand of this heroine of 
the Shoshone Valley. • 

If our Sacajawea is the Sacajawea, 
why did she fail to herald the truth 
which her third and fourth genera- 
tions now relate with pride? Was it 
a matter over which an Indian would 
be anxious to proclaim that she was 
instrumental in leading into the In- 
dians' territory the first white men 
who, with their civilization, eventually 
would occupy and possess the hunting 
grounds and force the red man to 
other fields? Even if the act were 
one of extreme bravery and worthy of 
praise, would not the perpetrator for 
this reason be silent before her tribe, 
only dreaming of the past, occasion- 
ally reciting the incidents of the deed 
to her children and thus by word of 
mouth transmitting a mighty inheri- 
tance to her children's children and 
only upon interrogation imparting the 
facts to the white man? Sacajawea 
never volunteered information on the 
subject as all of the evidence distinctly 
exhibits. Again, the white man 
would be equally tardy in admitting 
that it was only through the efforts of 
a red woman that the expedition was 
a possibility. Thus viewed from 
either side we have good and suffi- 
cient reason for silence. 

Captain Clark, with his erratic re- 
gard for phonetic spelling wrote the 
name Sacajawea and Sarcargarwea, 
never Sakagawea or Sakakawea. 
The author of the "Conquest" at the 
time of the unveiling of the statue at 
Portland, in 1906, learned from a per- 
sonal interview with Judge W. R. 
Shannon of California, whose father 
was one of the Lewis and Clark party, 



PILOT OF FIRST WHITE MEN TO CROSS AMERICA 475 



that the Wyoming pronunciation of 
the word agrees exactly with that of 
the Sacajawea his father many, many 
times had pronounced when telling 
about the trip. He strongly and im- 
movably asserted that the name should 
be Saca//4^ea, and was so persistent 
in his statements, which certainly 
bore authenticity, that this pronuncia- 
tion was finally accepted by the Port- 
land people. 

The finding of the letter from Cap- 
tain Clark to Charboneau written 
almost immediately after their separa- 
tion, a century after it was written, 
furnishes the strongest link in the 
chain of evidence. Here for the first 
time we can associate the name of 
Sacajawea's son of the reservation 
with that of the child carried on her 
back to the coast; again, this "Bap- 
tiste" was in St. Louis as Sacajawea's 
son in 1820; this same Baptiste was 
seen and known as Charboneau's son 
Baptiste in Wyoming where he was 
with James Bridger and acting as a 
guide and explorer. Wyeth and Bon- 
neville in 1832-5, and Fremont in 
1842-3 corroborates this statement. 

The strongest direct testimony, 
however, is that given by Captain 
Kennedy who saw "Baptiste Char- 
boneau" at Fort Laramie in 1842. 

The recognition at once of Captain 
Kennedy's cousin by "Baptiste Char- 
boneau" as being the son of his guar- 
dian, Captain Clark, must be carefully 
considered; the Sioux chiefs greeting 
young Clark as the son of their "Red 
Hair Chief" must not go unnoticed; 
the fact that these Indians had been 
hundreds of miles from Fort Laramie 
when they encountered Lewis and 
Clark must be accepted. If these In- 
dians could have wandered so far 
South on their hunts it would not 
have made it impossible for Saca- 
jawea to have also come that distance, 
either then, before, or afterwards; 
and further, the fact that Sacajawea, 
being much younger than her hus- 
band, would after his death desire to 
make her home with her son. This 
all must be taken into consideration 



and form a bulwark of evidence which 
it is difficult to successfully assault. 

That the newly discovered Saca- 
jawea had an older son than Baptiste, 
this in place of refuting the claim to 
be established has only strengthened 
the case in controversy. 

The statements presented by Dr. 
Irwin who knew Sacajawea on the 
reservation in the sixties and at that 
time believed the two Sacajaweas to 
be the same, is strong testimony, for 
not only was Dr. ttwin a man of edu- 
cation, but one of unquestioned integ- 
rity. This was at a period when the 
expedition did not particularly engage 
the attention of the public ; it was too 
long from the time of the journey and 
too far from the period when interest 
had become renewed (incident to the 
expositions to celebrate the expedi- 
tion). Dr. Irwin was isolated from 
the outside world and drew these con- 
clusions unaided except from the 
reading of the Lewis and Clark Jour- 
nals before coming to Wyoming and 
the direct evidence obtained from 
Sacajawea by him. Mr. Patten not 
only corroborates this statement, 
which was also given by Reverend 
Roberts, but he himself had come to 
this same conclusion in 1872. 

These three men, Irwin, Patten and 
Roberts, must, through the important 
positions they occupied, be classed as 
intelligent, accurate, trustworthy and 
capable of arriving at results without 
jumping at hasty conclusions, of 
which an ordinary traveler might be 
accused. They all three lived among 
these Shoshones for years, working 
with them in the endeavor for their 
betterment spiritually, mentally and 
domestically. 

The last arguments, not the most 
conclusive however, are that there are 
scores of inhabitants of Wyoming, 
living or having lived in this beautiful 
and fertile valley who have not only 
heard Sacajawea tell of her mountain. 
plain and coast adventures, but her 
sons have recited the story as told by 
the mother. 



THE DARK RIVER 

BY 

ELIZABETH H. JOCELYN CLEAVELAND 

Mrs. Cleavbland is Eighty-Three Years of Age and the Daughter of the Distinguished Portrait- 
Painter, Nathaniel Jocelyn. 



WHEREVER we be, 
On the land or sea, 
A river is rolling restlessly ; 
It furrows the plain, 
And it sweeps the main, 
Then flows to the mountain, back again. 
And dark as night 
Is the withering blight 
That follows its track on left and right ; 
For thousands down to its borders stray, 
And thousands are taking their weary way, 
Whose feet will slide 
By the river's side, 
And carry them down for aye. 

And if on its bosom once they sail, 

None ever return to tell the tale 

Of the opening grave, 

Far under the wave, 

That swallowed their bark so frail. 

Full oft we hear 

Of this river drear, 

It is rolling far, and it's rolling near ; 

In the distant land by the Crimean sea, 

It hath swayed its waters heavily ; 

Nor calms its ride as it westward comes 

To take its course through our quiet homes. 

We see it not in its onward way, 
And yet on its banks we careless stray ; 
We look on the landscape bright and fair 
Nor think of the river running there 
By its gloomy shore we rise and rest, 
For a mist hangs over the river's breast ; 
We love and hope, and we fondly dream 
Close, ever close, to the swelling stream. 

And not till we miss from our hearth and 

home 
One who has just in its wave gone down — 
Not till we call, but call in vain, 
Wishing the wanderer back again, 
Does the shadowy mist from the stream 

arise, 
And show us where the dark river lies. 

And thus has it opened to our view, 
Just where't has ever been gliding through ; 
We can hear it now, as it gurgles by, 
We can see who are going down to die ; 
For the stream is sounding its sullen roar, 
And it runneth swift by our cottage door. 

And far on its waters, cold and dim, 
A child is sinking — we mourn for him, 
We can see the light on his wavy hair, 
And his pale young brow, as he's floating 

there ; 
Floating alone, 
And now he's gone ; 

476 



But yet in the wave where the boy went 
down, 

Another one stands, 

With her aged hands, 

Unlinking herself the circling bands 

That would hinder her way o'er the heav- 
ing track, 

And still to the shore would hold her back. 

They are loosened now, and she fearless 

goes 
Far out where the little one sunk and rose, 
But her limbs are faint and are growing 

chill, 
She cannot baffle the flood at will, 
For fourscore years are upon the brow 
Of her who is crossing the river now. 

"The tide is swift, and it runneth high," 
She says as she marks it with her eye, 
"And the way is dark, but I see the gleam, 
Of the fields that lie beyond the stream, 
And I fear it not — I come, I come ; 
The river is deep, but 'twill carry me 
home." 

And see, as the waters rise and sink, 
A strong man comes to the river's brink, 
Nor heedeth the loving arms on shore, 
That are clinging fast — they can cling no 

more, 

For the stream is washing his wavering 

feet, 
And its cold embrace he must yielding 

meet; 
For it lifts him up in its arms so wide, 
And hurries him over the darksome tide. 

Nor back to shore will they come again ; 
We shall watch the waters all in vain 
For the child that left us so young and fair ; 
For the aged saint with her silver hair ; 
Or the stalwart man in his power and 

pride, 
Who helpless sank by the river-side. 

And the mist will gather around the stream, 
Again on its banks will we sit and dream, 
And heedless be, as we were before, 
Through close as then to the dangerous 

shore ; 
For wherever we be, 
On land or sea, 
A river is rolling restlessly, 
That draws to its bosom the great and 

small, 
It has gathered some— it will gather all, 
Then bury itself in the unknown sea, 
In the measureless depths of eternity. 



AN AMERICAN'S EXPERIENCE IN THE 

BRITISH ARMY 




ANCIENT JARVIS MANUSCRIPT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION- 
MOST IMPORTANT DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE OF ITS KIND IN 
EXISTENCE— ACCURATE TRANSCRIPT FROM RECENt/lY DISCOVERED 
JOURNAL OF COLONEL STEPHEN JARVIS OF DANBURY, CONNECTICUT 

Original Manuscript Now in Possession of 

Honorable CHARLES M. JARVIS 

New Britain, Connecticut 



THERE are many interesting 
anecdotes told of the Ameri- 
cans who, while devoted to 
their country, were opposed 
to the Declaration of Independence, 
and believed that this country could 
not exist without the protection of 
the British Crown. It was the first 
great political problem in America, 
and divided many families. The Jar- 
vis family in Connecticut differed in 
their opinions but their sense of jus- 
tice and loyalty to kin as well as coun- 
try was such that they did not allow 
it to disrupt their domestic harmony. 
Colonel Stephen Jarvis, whose re- 
markable life story has recently been 
discovered in manuscript, and is be- 
ing presented in these pages, disa- 
greed with some of his relatives as 
to the holiness of the American Rev- 
olution. After seven years' service 
in the King's army, which he here 
describes, he preferred not to remain 
in the new Republic, the practica- 
bility of which he questioned, and 
took up his residence in Canada. 
The colonel frequently visited his 
relatives in Connecticut and good- 
naturedly taunted them on being 
"rebels." While the guest of his 
cousin, Noah Jarvis, in Norwalk, he 
arose early one morning and began 
his good-natured banter. 



"Colonel," interrupted Noah, who 
was almost an idolater of Washing- 
ton, "do you ever take a morning 
'bitter'?" 

"No," replied the colonel, "not 
as a regular thing, but on this par- 
ticular occasion I shall be gratified 
to join my esteemed cousin in a 
friendly libation." 

Noah led him into the parlor. 
Hanging between the windows, in 
the place of honor on the wall, ele- 
gantly framed and in large, bold 
letters was the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. Pointing his finger at it 
he chuckled: 

"There, my royal cousin, I think 
is a dram bitter enough for you!" 

The colonel looked at it and then 
retorted : ' ' You rebel!" 

Colonel Jarvis' manuscript, as 
stated in the introductory to the 
first installment, is the remarkable 
story of an American in the British 
ranks during the American Revolu- 
tion and is probably the most im- 
portant documentary evidence of its 
kind in existence. The first part 
was presented in the preceding issue 
of the Connecticut Magazine and 
covered the first years of the Revo- 
lution. The great story is con- 
cluded in these pages. 

477 



478 AN AMERICAN'S EXPERIENCE IN THE BRITISH ARMY 



WE proceeded as far as the 
Combabia River. This was 
a foraging party to pro- 
cure rice, etc., for the hos- 
pitals, and after completing the object 
intended we commenced our march 
back and we halted at Colonel Haines' 
Plantation the night after he was 
brought home and buried in his gar- 
den. I saw his grave. In the afternoon 
of the next day we left his plantation, 
and as we had got intelligence that 
General Marion was collecting a body 
of Troops to give us annoyance on our 
route, the order of march was changed, 
the Infantry and Artillery in front, and 
the Cavalry in the rear. We marched 
in this order until we came to a long 
swamp, a mile or so from Parker's 
Ferry, when we heard some few shots 
in front, and Major Fraser ordered the 
Cavalry to advance, and seeing some 
Troops at a long distance off, and 
supposing them to be the enemy, 
charged over this long causeway and 
fell into an ambuscade, laid by the en- 
emy, and we received the most gall- 
ing fire ever Troops experienced. 
We only saw the flash of the pieces 
the enemy was so complete hid from 
our view, and we had only to push 
forward men and horses falling be- 
fore and behind. We lost one hun- 
dred twenty-five killed and a great 
many wounded, and the enemy re- 
tired without the loss of a man. All 
our Artillery were killed or wounded 
before they could bring their guns to 
bear upon the enemy — we halted at 
Parker's Ferry that night, dropped 
our wounded, and the next morning 
collected our dead and buried them, 
and then proceeded on our route until 
we reached Dorchester without any 
molestation from the enemy. 

The day after our arrival at 
Dorchester, Major Fraser went to 
Charlestown to make a report of 
our sad disaster, and he returned 
at midnight with the news of the 
battle at he Eretan Springs, and 
we were ordered immediately to 
mount and march. We passed 



Monks' Corner during the day, and 
after marching all night came up with 
the Army, where they had made a 
halt after hurrying their dead at the 
Eretans. The Army retired as far as 
Monks' Corner for some time send- 
ing out patrols far beyond the Ere- 
tans. The Americans, after the Brit- 
ish retired from the field of battle, 
came and buried their dead and then 
retired to invest one other outpost, 
but our people had abandoned it, and 
joined the Army, which became so 
reduced that we were obliged to re- 
treat, and in moving from Monks' 
Corner and crossing Goose Creek we 
took the route to Dorchester, and en- 
camped at Sir James Wright's Planta- 
tion, a few miles this side of Dorches- 
ter. We had a few Militia quartered 
in Dorchester. We had hardly taken 
up our ground before some of our 
Militia from Dorchester came run- 
ning into Camp, some of them much 
wounded. A large body of the en- 
emy had charged into Dorchester and 
surprised the Militia and retired 
again some miles from Dorchester. 
The Cavalry was ordered to march, 
and we proceeded to Dorchester. I 
was ordered with two Dragoons and 
a few Militia forward in order to 
decoy the enemy, and bring them on, 
whilst Major Fraser, with the Cav- 
alry well disposed for an attack, kept 
some distance in my rear. The Amer- 
icans, who were ignorant of our 
Army being in that neighborhood, 
had the same design with myself, and 
made several feint charges, and then 
retired until they had drawn me a 
sufficient distance to make a succes- 
ful charge. They had a body of In- 
fantry in their rear. They at last 
charged me in earnest. I retreated 
and made the signal to Major Fraser. 
He advanced and met the enemy, who 
pulled up their horses within a very 
short distance, when Major Fraser 
gave the word and we dashed in 
among them, and slashing work we 
made great havoc amongst them, cut- 
ting them down and taking many 



MANUSCRIPT OF COLONEL JARVIS OF CONNECTICUT 479 



prisoners — an Officer in his retreat 
took a foot-path that foot-passengers 
use in that hot country, and there is 
a row of trees between that and the 
main road. I pursued this Officer 
and had got so near as to touch his 
horse with the point of my sword. I 
saw their Infantry with trailed arms 
endeavoring to flank us. I wheeled 
about and called to Major Fraser, 
giving him this information, who or- 
dered the Troops to retire, which we 
did with the loss of only one man, he, 
poor fellow, was hung the next morn- 
ing as a deserter from . their Army. 
As we had no Infantry to support us, 
we were obliged to retire, which we 
did with a good many prisoners — how 
many we killed is uncertain — cer- 
tainly several. 

The next day the Army retired 
below the Quarter House, and this 
was our outpost. In a short time 
after this a Captain Armstrong of 
the American Army, took a Cap- 
tain Keen of ours with his whole 
Patrol. This gave him a degree 
of temerity, and caused him to 
fall into our hands. He one day 
drove in our Sentinels at our out 
piquet. Major Coffin, who had been 
attached to our Regiment, with his 
mounted Infantry of the York Volun- 
teers, was on this day our Command- 
ing Officer — we pursued the enemy 
for some time on the Dorchester road, 
but not falling in. with them, we 
crossed the country over the road 
leading to Goose Creek. The Troops 
commanded by Captain Campbell was 
in the rear, and observing some 
Troops following our track, and 
dressed in dark jackets, like those of 
the York Volunteers, I rode forward 
and asked Major Coffin if he had de- 
tached any of his Troops from the 
squadron. He replied, "No." Then 
Sir it is the enemy, and they are close 
by in our rear. We wheeled about 
and this brought Captain Campbell's 
Troop in front of the squadron. The 
enemy formed and for a few seconds 
seemed disposed to give battle, but 



soon wheeled and fled. We pursued 
them in full charge ; we had them be- 
tween us and Charlestown, on a fine 
level road that would admit of about 
eight horses abreast. We charged the 
best horse foremost, and I soon led 
the charge, no horse could run with 
mine ; In the distance of about a mile 
the Commanding Officer of the enemy 
(Armstrong) horse plunging into a 
stone in the middle of the road fell 
and threw his rider over his head. I 
had hold of him in an instant, he 
asked quarters; I gave it him, and 
asked his name. He said, "Arm- 
strong."' Give me your hand Cap- 
tain Armstrong, I'll protect you, and 
took him back to the rear. Some of 
our men made a blow at him, and one 
came near taking off his scalp. I 
drew my pistol and said, "If you 
touch the prisoner I'll blow your 
brains out." I took him and deliv- 
ered him to the Officer of the rear 
guard, and reported him to Major 
Coffin, and then again pursued the 
enemy, and soon gained the head of 
our Troops. By this time the enemy 
had taken the woods and endeavored 
to gain the road to Dorchester, sep- 
arating themselves as much as possi- 
ble from each other. I saw two 
Dragoons at some distance in front, 
and I said to Captain Campbell, 
"Now, Sir, if your horse can run with 
mine, and he holds his speed, we will 
take those two fellows." and we set 
off in full speed, and I soon left him 
in the rear, and did not halt until I 
had taken one of the two. The others 
made their escape, and here we gave 
up the chase, and returned to Camp 
with our prisoners. I think alto- 
gether eight, and one was killed by 
an Officer, whose name was Walker 
of the New York Volunteers, after he 
had been made prisoner by one of our 
Regiment, and gave in charge to his 
servant. We proceeded to our sta- 
tion and took Captain Armstrong to 
our mess for refreshment — by the 
time we had arrived at our quarters. 
the enemy had escaped had reached 



4 8o AN AMERICAN'S EXPERIENCE IN (THE BRITISH ARMY 



their encampment, for at this time the 
Armies were not a great distance 
apart, and the American Officers in 
making their report to their Com- 
manding Officer, represented that 
Captain Armstrong, when he fell into 
our hands was treated in the most 
cruel manner, and described the Offi- 
cer so very distinctly that Captain 
Keen of ours, then a prisoner and 
dining at the table, knew it was me 
who they had described and who said, 
"he was sure there must be some mis- 
take as he knew the Officer they had 
described was too much of a soldier 
and a man of honor to be guilty of so 
base a transaction." They still per- 
sisted that they saw it, and vouched 
for the truth of their assertion. The 
result was that a flag of truce was dis- 
patched immediately to enquire of 
Captain Armstrong himself the truth 
of their assertion, and this flag and a 
letter to Captain Armstrong was 
handed to him before we had dined, 
and as he read the contents smiled, 
which induced us, or some of us to 
ask if he was so soon to be ex- 
changed. "Not such good luck, but 
as it is in some measure concerning 
the officer who took me prisoner, I 
will read the communication," which 
was similar as above stated, and to 
which he sent the following answer, 
which he read before he closed his 
letter. "Sir, it has become my mis- 
fortune this day to become a prisoner 
to the British arms, and I am indebted 
to the Officer who made me prisoner 
for my life, and I am not a little as- 
tonished that those gentlemen should 
have presumed to have given you any 
correct information, as they were so 
far out of the line of their duty as to 
know anything of the circumstance." 
In a short time there was an exchange 
between Captain Keen and Captain 
-Armstrong and they returned each to 
their respective Armies. Captain 
Keen's account of the matter after 
Captain Armstrong's letter was read 
in the American Camp, I shall forbear 
to mention, and I regret being obliged 



to say so much of myself in relating 
this transaction. The next time our 
Regiment was engaged, Captain 
Campbell was killed, and it was said 
purposely threw away his life in this 
action. I was not with the Regiment. 
I was detached on James Island with 
a Troop of Dragoons, under the com- 
mand of Major Craig. (Afterwards 
Sir James Craig.) 

After I again joined the Regi- 
ment, we had another brush with 
the Americans at Monks' Corner, 
where we got completely defeated. 
It was an attempt to surprise a 
party at this post, but they got 
intelligence of our approach, and gave 
us a complete drubbing. We lost one 
Captain killed, one Captain, two Sub- 
alterns and several men wounded, 
without injuring a single man of the 
enemy. They had so completely for- 
tified themselves that having no In- 
fantry with us we could not approach 
them and had to receive their fire 
without being able to return it, and 
we returned to our encampment not 
very well satisfied with our defeat, 
altho no disgrace to either Officer or 
soldier. 

About this time a Colonel Thomp- 
son (afterwards Count Rumford) 
arrived from England on his way to 
join his Regiment at New York. He 
was ordered to take command of the 
whole Cavalry, and we had one seveie 
brush with the enemy under his com- 
mand. We surprised a party in the 
evening, killed and took a good many 
prisoners, and the next morning fell 
in with another large body of the en J 
emy, which we defeated, and drove 
many of them into the Santee, where 
both men and horses were drowned. 
We returned to Camp with (I think) 
upwards of seventy prisoners. I do 
not again recollect of being engaged 
with the enemy during the war. We 
did indeed after make excursions into 
the country for the purpose of plun- 
dering the plantations of those rich 
planters, who, after Charlestown fell 
into our hands, had received their 



MANUSCRIPT OF COLONEL JARVIS OF CONNECTICUT 481 



Oath of Allegiance, and again had 
joined the American Army. 

Our Regiment had been now nearly 
a year on actual service without re- 
ceiving any pay, and those of Captain 
Campbell's Troop had not received all 
their bounty, and consequently it fell 
to my lot to make out the Abstract of 
the Troop, receive the money and set- 
tle with the men, some of which were 
much in my debt for necessaries 
found them, as Captain Campbell in 
his lifetime imposed that duty on me. 
Major Fraser, who was a knowing 
chap, was sensible that from death 
and other casualties, there would be a 
good deal of pukings (an Army 
phrase) and he was resolved to take 
that himself, and had given orders to 
Paymaster Hatton to pay Officers 
commanding Troops agreeable to 
their present strength only. Hatton 
and myself were on the best footing 
and he gave me this information, con- 
trary to the directions he had received 
from Major Fraser. I only request- 
ed of Hatton to let me know when he 
went to the pay office for the money, 
and not to go when I was on duty, so 
as not to be able to attend him imme- 
diately on his return with the money. 
This he did, and immediately on his 
arrival, and before the Major got in- 
telligence of it I had my Abstract 
ready and as Commanding Officer 
and Paymaster of the Troop demand- 
ed the amount of the whole Abstract, 
and as he knew it was my right, paid 
me the whole amount, which I took 
and secured in my trunk. I soon had 
a visit from the Major, but as he 
found I was as old a soldier as him- 
self, and knew how far I could resist 
a claim that would not expose me to 
Military control, he left me to my re- 
pose and contented himself in duping 
the rest of the Officers in what was 
their right, and robbing them of about 
£800. We were not so good friends 
after, altho he did not show any great 
resentment. 

I should be glad that I could throw 
a vail over the rest of my Military ca- 



reer, but justice demands that I 
should give a minute detail of all my 
future transactions. Know then, that 
I fell into all kinds of dissipation, 
gambling the most prominent, and I 
continued in that dissipated course of 
life as long as my money lasted, which 
amounted to upwards of three hun- 
dred guineas. I was left at the close 
of the war as destitute of money as 
when I entered the Army, except my 
half pay, at the reduction of the Regi- 
ment in 1783. Towards the end of 
1782 the South Carolina, the North 
Carolina and Georgia Regiments were 
ordered to Saint Augustine in East 
Florida to garrison that place and to 
release a Battalion of the 60th Regi- 
ment, and soon after our arrival I, as 
the eldest subaltern of our Regiment, 
and as our Regiment was first for a 
Command, I was ordered by General 
McArthur to take possession of a 
small fort twenty miles from St. 
Augustine, and to defend it to the last 
moment if I should be attacked by 
the Spaniards, as was expected at that 
time. I took three pieces of ord- 
nance with me, with Artillery men 
sufficient to man them, with the assist- 
ance of the soldiers of the Regiment, 
which amounted to twenty-five rank 
and file, two officers, who were pris- 
oners on parole, a Lieutenant Corn- 
well of our Regiment, and a Lieuten- 
ant Campbell (afterwards Fort Major 
at Niagara) went with me as compan- 
ions. I found some difficulty in 
mounting my cannon for the want of 
spars, and finding two old masts on 
the shore, I made use of them, and 
mounted my cannon, and finding they 
were private property I returned them 
to the place I found them, and re- 
mained satisfied that I had done noth- 
ing wrong. The two gentlemen re- 
mained with me for a fortnight, and 
we spend the time very agreeably un- 
til one morning in our sporting Lieu- 
tenant Campbell received a wound 
from a fish called Simgarie, some- 
thing like a turtle, except a long tail. 
the end of which is barbed, and you 



482 AN AMERICAN'S EXPERIENCE IN THE BRITISH ARMY 



often find many of these at low water. 
Mr Campbell placed his foot on one 
of them, when he received a wound in 
the ankle bone from a stroke of this 
fish, and the barb remained in his an- 
kle, by which he was a long time con- 
fined. 

I remained at this post for a 
month, when I was relieved and 
joined my Regiment, at St. Augus- 
tine, where the morning after my 
arrival I had a visit from the Sheriff 
in an action of damages for taking the 
spars as above related. The Owner, 
however, did not think proper to pur- 
sue his action and I heard nothing of 
it afterwards. During the rest of my 
stay in this garrison our duty was 
light, and balls, plays and gallanting 
the ladies took up the greatest part 
of my time, for I had to live very eco- 
nomically to refund the money I had 
spent belonging to the soldiers in 
gambling. This I succeeded in do- 
ing, but it left me moneyless at the 
close of the war. In the month of 
April, 1783, peace was declared, at 
St. Augustine, and I obtained a leave 
of absence and sailed for New York, 
where I arrived on the 9th of May, 
and made application to Commander- 
in-Chief (now Lord Dorchester) to 
visit my friends in Danbury, and to 
fulfill my engagement with Miss 
Glover, which had been unavoidably 
prevented for the last seven years. 
His Lordship refused me leave until 
I could obtain permission from the 
American government, as some of our 
Officers had gone into the country, 
and had been very injuriously treated. 
I, therefore, wrote to my Father, who 
made application, and obtained a per- 
mit for me, which was signed by all 
the respectable inhabitants of Dan- 
bury, and one of my Brothers came to 
New York for the purpose of accom- 
panying me back. Our meeting was 
such as you may conceive between 
Brothers who had been separated for 
so many years. We left New York 
and arrived at my Father's on the 
20th of April, 1783. It is impossible 



to describe my feelings on again em- 
bracing those who had always been 
so dear to me. Immediately on my 
arrival, my Father sent for Miss 
Glover, who happened to be in town. 
I shall leave the reader to judge of 
the extacy and the joy that filled our 
breasts. Immediately preparations 
were set on foot for our marriage. 
We were to have been united at the 
altar of an Episcopal Church, by a 
clergyman of that Church, an Uncle 
of my Mother's, but in this we were 
disappointed, for the next day all our 
happiness was marred. The day 
after my arrival an old servant of my 
Father's, who in my youth had la- 
bored in the fields with me (he was a 
warmhearted Irishman) his name was 
Wilson; he came to inform me that 
a body of men were coming to mob 
me, and urged me to be on my guard. 
I treated this information lightly, but 
soon after an American soldier re- 
quested to see me and gave the same 
account. This alarmed me a little, 
and I began to think of the best mode 
of defending myself. At this mo- 
ment another person announced him- 
self as the Brother of a Lieutenant 
Hunt of our Army, and wished me to 
convey a letter to his Brother of my 
return to New York. Nothing could 
be more pleasing to me; Lieutenant 
Hunt was a particular friend of mine. 
We had fought in the same field to- 
gether, and we had spent many pleas- 
ant hours with each other. I was all 
politeness to this stranger, shook him 
cordially by the hand, asked him to 
take a glass of wine (we had dined). 
He then asked me if I did not remem- 
ber him. I answered in the negative. 
He said that he had been my prisoner ; 
I asked him where. He said at 
Pound Ridge at such a time and place. 
I replied, yes, I remember, I came up 
at a critical moment. "Yes, you no 
doubt saved my life, but your men 
had robbed him of his baggage, and I 
expect you to pay me for it." Oh, 
your most obedient, I find your rela- 
tionship to my friend Lieutenant Hunt 



MANUSCRIPT OF COLONEL JARVIS OF CONNECTICUT 483 



(which you say is your name) 
amounts only to the price of your 
baggage. Good-bye to you Sir, I am 
much engaged, you will excuse me, 
and left the room, and retired to mine 
above stairs, and began to prepare 
for action. Whilst I was engaged 
with Hunt, my Father had walked 
out into the street. It was a day of 
muster day with the Militia, who were 
just dismissed. My Father soon re- 
turned much agitated, and said, "Son, 
they are really coming and God knows 
what will be the result." I then de- 
sired every person to leave the room. 
Miss Glover, good-bye, I can die — in 
no place more honorably than this — 
you shall see that I can die bravely; 
I have lived honorably and I will die 
gloriously; remember me to my 
Brother Officers. I thrust them all 
out of the room and shut the door. 
In a moment the house was filled 
with armed men, who demanded to see 
me. They said, "they not intend in- 
jurying me," but I must "show my- 
self." This was joy to my family, and 
one of my sisters ran to my room (now 
Mrs. Hitchcock) desiring me to come 
down. I desired her to retire and 
leave me — during this bustle and con- 
fusion my Brother had informed a 
Colonel Jamison (he had a squadron 
of Dragoons under his command) of 
the perilous situation in which I was 
placed, but in the meantime I had 
complied with the request of my 
family and went down amongst the 
assembled mob, some of which spoke 
in mild and peacable language ; others 
in a very threatening and hostile man- 
ner. I however showed a determined 
and resolute spirit and replied to their 
demands, that from their declaration 
I had placed myself in their hands, 
and that I was now in their power, 
and if they presumed to injure me 
that a tenfold retaliation would be 
made on some of their friends who 
were then in New York enjoying the 
protection of the British Army, and 
pursueing their private business 
agreeable to the Treaty of Peace, and 



under the Treaty I demanded the 
same protection from them. By this 
time Colonel Jamison had sent a Sar- 
geant and twelve Dragoons with or- 
ders to protect me from every insult. 
This circumstance rather checked 
their hostile disposition, and the au- 
thority arriving, I was under no ap- 
prehension of immediate danger, yet 
nothing would satisfy them but an 
immediate departure from the town, 
and if I remained during the night I 
must abide the consequence.. The 
greatest part of the rabble left the 
house, yet there was several who 
seemed determined to watch my 
movements, as if determined to do me 
some injury. It was at last proposed 
to my Father that the best mode to 
quell the mob would be to have our 
marriage take place that evening, and 
after some urgency with Miss Glover, 
she at last consented. A clergyman 
was sent for, we retired to a room 
with a select party of our friends, and 
we were united, after which the mob 
dispersed and had left us (with our 
guard of honor) to our night's repose. 
In the morning however I was again 
disturbed by a visit from the Sheriff. 
Hunt had procured a warrant against 
me for the price of his portmanteau, 
and the Sheriff had made a forcible 
entry into my bedchamber. I met 
him with such a determined and 
threatening attitude that in his retreat 
he tumbled from the head of the 
staircase to the bottom. He then se- 
lected a posse — and surrounded the 
house. My guard had after daylight, 
returned to their quarters, but were 
ordered again to return but they 
again assumed their station inside the 
house at a proper time for rising. I 
made my appearance at the window of 
my bedchamber, spoke to the persons 
outside, who seemed to look rather ill- 
natured. I threw them a dollar, de- 
sired they would get something to 
drink the Bride's health, which they 
did, and before they had finished the 
bottle I had won them all to my side, 
"I was a d — d cleaver fellow ; I had 



484 AN AMERICAN'S EXPERIENCE IN THE BRITISH ARMY 



got one of the best of women for a 
wife in the world; that I was deserv- 
ing of her, and that they would de- 
fend us as long as they had a drop of 
blood in their veins." Mr. Sheriff 
seeing this, retired and left me in 
peace, and we sat comfortably down 
to our breakfast; soon, however, the 
mob began to collect in the lower part 
of the street, and it was advisable that 
I should leave the place. I, therefore, 
exchanged my uniform coat for one 
of my Brother's, stepped out of the 
back door, crossed the field, where 
my Brother met me with a horse, 
which I mounted and rode out of 
town, and proceeded to the house 
where I had parted from Miss Glover 
seven years before, and where she 
joined me the next day. I remained 
here but a short time, and then re- 
turned to New York, and made my 
report in writing to his Aid-de-Camp. 
Soon after this a party of friends 
from Stamford, and a few in New 
York, agreed to meet on one of the 
Islands between those places and 
spend the day. It consisted of ladies 
and gentlemen from both places, and 
myself among the number. We were 
conveyed in one of our whale boats 
commanded by a Captain Hubbell ; 
we met our friends, and after spend- 
ing the day, we were prevailed on to 
go to Stamford for the night, assuring 
us that we should not be molested, 
but in the morning a mob collected, 
fell upon our boat's crew, beat them 
unmercifully, and threatened us also, 
and particularly Mr. William Jarvis 
(late Secretary of Upper Canada) 
who was a native of that place. As 
I was a stranger to them I took the 
task of appeasing their wrath, and to 
allow us to go off peaceably, as it was 
the fault of the people of the place 
that we had visited them, and particu- 
larly as the ladies were much alarmed, 
and one of them in fits. Our crew had 
fell down to the mouth of the harbor 
and we were obliged to walk, and in 
many places to carry the ladies in our 
arms, sometimes in mud and water up 



to our knees. Soon after we had left 
the town, they found out that my 
name was Jarvis also, and Cousin to 
the other Jarvis, and they swore ven- 
geance at me and set off after us. 
We saw them coming; we placed the 
ladies on a dry piece of ground, and 
prepared for battle. There were five 
gentlemen of us. Captain Hubbell, 
two British Officers besides my 
Cousin and myself. We drew up in 
battle array and waited the attack. 
They came within about one hundred 
yards, when their hearts failed them 
and they retired. We gained our 
boat and after being out all night 
reached New York the next morning 
at sunrise, but we took care not to let 
this be known at Headquarters. 

In a few weeks after this my 
wife joined me, and I got quar- 
ters in a house at Brushwick, 
where we remained for about three 
weeks. I applied for my rations, 
but as that was contrary to the 
established rules of the Army, and 
not receiving any letters from the 
Paymaster of the Regiment as to how 
I should draw on him for my pay, I 
made up my mind to join my Regi- 
ment. My wife wished me to take 
her with me, but I had witnessed too 
much distress of other Officer's wives, 
and however painful it was to again 
be separated, I positively refused. I 
wrote to my Father, who came down 
to New York and took her home un- 
der his care, and I embarked for St. 
Augustine. Had I remained one 
week longer I might have saved my- 
self the trouble and expense of a very 
long and boisterous voyage, as a gen- 
tleman arrived at New York with my 
despatches necessary for every pur- 
pose which was contemplated on my 
leaving the Regiment. After a pas- 
sage of five weeks, and the whole time 
a gale of wind — I had only to encoun- 
ter the danger of the sea — I was the 
only passenger on board. The Mas- 
ter was a very pleasant fellow and the 
ship was well found, and we weath- 
ered the gale, and at last got safe on 



MANUSCRIPT OF COLONEL JARVIS OF CONNECTICUT 485 



shore, and when I landed the fleet 
was in sight to take the Troops on 
board, as by the Treaty of Peace, St. 
Augustine was to be given up to the 
Spaniards. Every preparation was 
now making for our departure, and 
about the beginning of October we 
sailed for Halifax in Nova Scotia, 
where we arrived after a passage of 
fifteen days; boisterous weather the 
whole passage. Here the Regiment 
was disbanded and their place of des- 
tination for the Regiment was Coun- 
try Harbour, to the Eastward of Hal- 
ifax, somewhere in the Girt of Canso. 
Here I took leave of a set of as brave 
fellows as ever existed, which I had 
led in many hard fought battles, and 
who were as much attached to me as 
children to their Father. So much so 
when I left them they carried me in 
their arms to the vessel in which I 
took my passage for New York. 

I arrived at Sandy Hook the day 
the British Army left New York. The 
question with me was, shall I, or shall 
I not proceed; or shall I go back to 
Halifax? At last I determined to 
proceed ; I must go some time and the 
sooner the better. So I proceeded to 
the City and made my appearance at 
General Washington's Headquarters, 
and reported myself to General Ham- 
ilton. I was directed to call the next 
morning at nine o'clock. I then be- 
gan to look out for some of my old 
acquaintances, but none could I find. 
All were gone. I at last however fell 
in with two ladies of my acquaintance, 
one of them a relation, and after I 
had engaged quarters for the night, I 
went and spent the evening with them, 
and returned to the lodging house, 
where I found a whole room of mer- 
chants and other persons from the 
country. I took a chair and sat down 
amongst them. They were comment- 
ing on the late war, the conduct of 
their several Generals, and frequently 
referred to me. I gave my opinion 
candidly, which by their reply did not 
accord with their sentiments. I soon 
called for a servant to light me to bed, 



and in leaving the room I said, "Gen- 
tlemen, I believe you have mistaken 
my character, I am a British Officer 
instead of an American ! ! Good- 
night," and left the room and retired 
to my chamber; there were two beds 
and I made choice of one, and went to 
bed. I had not fallen asleep, when 
the door opened and two men in earn- 
est conversation entered, one saying 
to the other, "d — n the fellow, how he 
twiged us; who the devil thought 
him a British Office^ ; how he got into 
all our secrets." "Hush !" said the 
other, pointing to my uniform at the 
head of my bed. They blew out the 
candle and went to bed in the dark — 
never spoke again to my hearing dur- 
ing the night, and in the morning left 
the room before I was awake — I 
never saw them after. The next 
morning at the hour stated I made my 
appearance, and was introduced to 
the Great General Washington. He 
asked me many questions and re- 
turned mine with great civility. I 
asked him for a passport to go into 
the country. This he refused, having 
the day before given up his command, 
but gave me advice how to proceed — 
I made my bow and retired. 

After a day or two residence in Xew 
York, where I was saluted by the sol- 
diers as some General Officer of theirs, 
and supplying myself with a stock of 
tea and sugar for the winter. I left 
New York and proceeded into the 
country, and at Reading in Connecti- 
cut I found my wife, who had been on 
a visit at my Brother's for some time. 
I found her "as women wish to be 
who love their Lord." After a short 
stay, we went to Danbury. where I 
took up my quarters for the winter. 
Early in the spring I was again threat- 
ened. I took horse and rode to Mid- 
dletown to see my Uncle, the late 
Bishop of Connecticut, where T re- 
mained for a few days and then re- 
turned, but kept myself rather con- 
fined. I paid a visit with my Mother 
to a Brother of hers, a Clergyman of 
the Presbyterian persuasion. Here 



486 AN AMERICAN'S EXPERIENCE IN THE BRITISH ARMY 



we stayed for some time and then 
returned. I was discovered return- 
ing to my Father's and in the evening 
I got an order sent me in writing to 
depart or abide the consequence. A 
few days afterwards a Cousin, also a 
British Officer, came to pay a visit at 
my Father's and he was imprudent to 
appear in his full uniform. We 
walked out to see a Sister of mine, 
and after dinner he took his depart- 
ure. That night my Father's house 
was attacked, and forcibly entered. 
I rose from my bed, got my drawers 
and one stocking on, when I heard the 
front door give way. I took my pis- 
tols and took my stand in the middle 
of the floor, determined to kill the first 
man that should approach us. My 
Father begged of me to flee. I had 
no time to lose. I flew from one 
room to another, found all the win- 
dows guarded. They had entered 
the house. They met my Father, 
knocked him down, flew to my bed- 
room, turned my wife out of bed, and 
much injured her. I had no place 
left but the cellar for safety ; to this I 
fled. My Father recovered his feet, 
and ran into the Street, he one way 
and my Sister another, calling out 
Murder ! ! Soon the town was 
alarmed and relief obtained. The 
Magistrates and others assembled, 
and after remaining some time in the 
cellar, the mob dispersed, and I was 
relieved from my unpleasant situation. 
My Mother and Wife suffered much 
in defending the cellar door before 
relief arrived. They were black and 
blue from the blows they received. I 
dressed myself and went to a friend's 
house and went to bed. I was much 
indebted to a Major Lawrence for my 
safety. He came armed, brought 
some others with him, and he had the 
influence to draw off the mob, and 
afterwards would not go to his house 
until he found where I had retired to, 
and having heard where I had spent 
the evening, he repaired to the house 
and found me in a comfortable repose 
— he then left me. I remained there 



the whole day, and the next night 
slept at a neighbor's house a few 
doors from my Father, and the evening 
following moved out of town, and 
took lodgings once more at the place 
where I fled to the year before, and 
here I remained until after my wife 
was confined with her first child, now 
Mrs. Phillips. It was several months 
before my wife recovered in con- 
sequence of the injury sustained by 
the mob. She came very near losing 
her life during her illness. 

I used frequently to ride over to my 
Father's in the night and ride back the 
next evening after dark, and one even- 
ing returning I had an opportunity of 
revenging myself on one of those fel- 
lows who had, during the war, abused 
my Father. I rode alongside of him 
and with a good hunting whip lashed 
him every step to his door, and then 
rode on. He never knew who was 
the person, neither did I mention it 
until twenty years after, when I paid 
a visit to Danbury, and passing 
through the street saw him and men- 
tioned the circumstance to my 
Brother. As soon as my wife had so 
far recovered as to be removed, I 
took her to my Father's house, where 
I left her and set off for Long Island. 
Landed at Cold Spring, where I wait- 
ed for some days for the arrival of a 
vessel from New York for St. John, 
New Brunswick, on board of which I 
took passage. We put in to Annapo- 
lis to land a Mr. Young and his fam- 
ily; stayed two days and then sailed 
over to St. John, where the Loyalists 
had already thickly hutted themselves, 
and here I met with many of my old 
acquaintances which I had left at 
Charlestown. When I left there for 
St. Augustine, and here again I met 
the Officers of the Queen's Rangers, 
who were about to take up their land 
above Fredericton, eighty miles up the 
St. John River, to which place I re- 
paired the first opportunity, which 
was by a boat belonging to Captain 
Whillock, of the Rangers, who had 
taken up his residence at Gage Town, 



MANUSCRIPT OF COLONEL JARVIS OF CONNECTICUT 487 



thirty miles below Fredericton, from 
this I travelled by land most of the 
way in company with a Mr. Simmons 
from Staten Island. On our arrival 
at Fredericton we put up at a small 
Inn, kept by one Betts, and in the 
evening two officers came in and re- 
mained until a late hour. Mr. Sim- 
mons and myself ordered supper and 
something to drink. We had some 
moose stake which we found very pal- 
atable, and went to bed. The next 
morning the lanlord presented us 
with a bill, charging us with the sup- 
per for the two others, besides all that 
was drunk, and gave a reason that we 
had ordered supper and called for 
spirits, etc. which was drunk. We 
paid the bill and left his house; be- 
fore leaving St. John a Lieutenant 
Hoyt, one of my old Carolina ac- 
quaintances, had given me the keys 
to his house, and desired me to take 
possession, and remain there until his 
arrival. I did so, and in a day or two 
he arrived; with him I stayed until I 
left Fredericton. I then set about 
procuring a town lot, and engaged a 
person to build me a house, and have 
it ready against the next spring. I 
then returned to St. John where I re- 
mained for some time, and whilst 
there assisted my relation Mr. Jarvis 
(who had a hardware store) until my 
departure. In the meantime, I drew 
for the first time my half-pay bill, 
which I got cashed, allowing a dis- 
count, of I think, nine per cent. As 
this was the first period, the mer- 
chants were loth to pay cash for half- 
pay bills. 

Mr. Jarvis and his Brother Sam- 
uel had a vessel going to New 
York, and after purchasing a few 
quintals of codfish I embarked on 
board of this vessel and sailed, and in 
passing through Long Island the ves- 
sel came to anchor, and landed me 
and my baggage at Stamford. We 
had made a short stay at Rhode Island 
on our way. I landed early in the 
morning, and after breakfast hired a 
horse and set off to find my wife. I 



had got in a short distance of my 
Brother's when my horse fell and 
broke his shoulder blade. I took off 
my saddle and bridle after turning 
him into a field by the permission of 
the Owner; took my saddle on my 
back until I could procure another 
horse, then rode to my Brother's, 
changed horses with him and rode on 
to Newtown, where I had the happi- 
ness of finding both wife and daugh- 
ter in good health. After visiting our 
friends at Newtow^i, and paying a 
short visit at Danbury, I took up my 
winter quarters at my Brother's in 
Reading. Here I was very politely 
visited by all the most respectable peo- 
ple on the place, and amused myself 
by riding about the country during 
the winter when I could leave home. 
In the Autumn both myself, wife and 
young infant were nearly blind with 
inflammation in our eyes for a long 
time, which made our situation ex- 
ceedingly unpleasant, having no ser- 
vants to attend us. In this manner 
we worried through the winter, and 
when the spring commenced began to 
make preparations for removing to 
New Brunswick, and about the 1st of 
May embarked on board a vessel 
called the Sholdram, with several 
other families for the same place. 
Some of the passengers made it very 
unpleasant, but as this is not very in- 
teresting to the reader, I shall avoid 
mentioning them, and confine myself 
to such matters as concern myself and 
family. O the 15th of June, 1785. I 
landed at Fredericton with a wife. 
one child and a guinea only in my 
pocket, with one year's half-pay to 
draw for, and with this I had pro- 
vided for our future existence. Gov- 
ernment allowed the soldiers and 
refugees three years' rations, and 
even with the bounty many families 
suffered greatly for the want of pro- 
visions, and had not the forests 
abounded with moose, many families 
would have perished. I took with 
me from St. John a small assortment 
of goods advanced me by my friend 



488 AN AMERICAN'S EXPERIENCE IN THE BRITISH ARMY 



Mr. Jarvis, with which I commenced 
business, and with this small supply 
I arrived at Fredericton, but found 
that the timber of which my house 
was to have been built was still grow- 
ing. This put us to great inconven- 
ience, and I was obliged to hire a 
small hovel, for which I gave ten 
pounds rent, but here we found it 
impossible to remain, for the proprie- 
tor had during the proceeding winter 
made a ceiling of slabs and bark over- 
laid with plaster of mortar or clay, 
and which he had disturbed in the 
spring so that every wind that blew 
our floor was covered with dirt. In 
this situation we were obliged to live 
for several weeks before I could pos- 
sibly find another place to shelter us 
from the heat. The only difference 
in the two houses was that we could 
eat our food without quite so much 
dirt as in our first habitation. I com- 
menced building, and in October we 
got into our new house, and thought 
ourselves as happy as princes. 

Nothing of any particular interest 
happened for many years. I went on 
a progressive way, building and add- 
ing to my convenience. I was of an 
ambitious disposition and fond of Mil- 
itary life, and held during the time I 
remained in the Providence, from the 
year 1785 until the year 1809, the fol- 
lowing commissions in the Militia, 
viz., Captain, Major, Major of Bri- 
gade, Deputy Adjutant General, and 
Lieutenant Colonel, independent of 
the office of Postmaster, and for six- 
teen years the great part of the sum- 
mer was employed in disciplining the 
Militia of the county, without any 
other remuneration than the thanks 
of the Governor, with great promises, 
but his leaving the Province all those 
expectations failed, and altho I made 
a good deal of money and acquired 
some considerable property, I left the 
Province with the loss of about 
£3,000, and only brought to Upper 
Canada a little upwards of Seven 
Hundred Pounds, with a family of a 
wife and six children. About the 



year 1807 an action took place be- 
tween one of our ships of war and the 
American ship Chesapeake, and it ap- 
peared to me that war would ensue 
between the two Governments, and I 
offered my services in case the Militia 
should be called into actual service, 
which offer was thankfully accepted, 
but when it was found necessary to 
embody the Militia, the command was 
given to another person. This so far 
excited my resentment, that I immedi- 
ately made up my mind to quit the 
Province, and made a visit to Upper 
Canada. I was well received by the 
Governor and such promises held out 
to me that I returned to New Bruns- 
wick and commenced closing my ac- 
counts and settling my affairs in order 
for removal the next spring. It was 
with some difficulty that I could pre- 
vail upon my family to consent to 
emigrate, but after some negotiations 
between the Secretary of the Province 
and myself, at the directions of the 
Lieutenant Governor (Gore) they at 
last consented and we left Fredericton 
on the 30th of June, 1809. 

We traversed the waters of the St. 
John in birch canoes, lying on the 
beach where there were no inhabitants, 
much disturbed with gnats and mos- 
quitoes at night, and crossing the 
portage from the waters of St. John to 
the St. Lawrence, thirty-six miles, 
most up to our knees, and black flies 
to annoy us. We at last encountered 
all our difficulties, and reached Quebec 
all in good health, except one daugh- 
ter who had become the wife of Major 
Maule of the 104 Regiment, whom I 
had left behind; after remaining a 
week, we proceeded to Montreal 
where we remained one week longer, 
providing ourselves with such neces- 
saries as would be necessary for com- 
mencing housekeeping. We again set 
off in a battcase for Kingston. We 
were fourteen days on our passage to 
Kingston. I applied to the Quarter- 
Master General and was ordered a pas- 
sage in one of his Majesty's armed 
vessels, and arrived at New York on 



MANUSCRIPT OF COLONEL JARVIS OF CONNECTICUT 489 



the 28th of August, and took posses- 
sion of a house which had already been 
purchased for me, and began to make 
ourselves comfortable. I engaged a 
public office at £100 per annum until I 
could look about, and get a location 
of land, for myself 1200 acres, and for 
my son, the only one of age, 400, on 
which he began to improve. The pur- 
chase of my house and furniture and 
the payment of fees for our land had 
exhausted all my ready money, and I 
had only my £100 and my half-pay for 
the support of my family until the 
Americans declared war against the 
British Government and invaded Can- 
ada. 

There was a young man by the 
name of Thomas (I dined with him in 
New York in August 1830) who had 
been at York for two or three years as 
a merchant, and who wished to accept 
of General Brock's proclamation and 
return to the States. I was recom- 
mended to him as a fit person to take 
charge of his property, for which he 
was to allow me £125 out of the pro- 
ceeds, and with which and the other 
commission business I was enabled to 
support my family comfortably dur- 
ing the war. I was again appointed 
Adjutant General of the Militia, and 
was employed as such until York was 
taken by the enemy. My two sons 
were also in the service, one a volun- 
teer in the 49th and the other at the 
head of the Waggon Department. 
The volunteer was taken prisoner at 
the battle of Queenstown, where Gen- 
ial Brock fell. My son was ex- 
changed in a few days and soon after 
obtained his commission in the 8th 
Regiment, in which he served during 
the war. Went home with the Regi- 
ment and was reduced to half-pay. 
He was afterwards placed on full pay 
as a Lieutenant in the 104th Regi- 
ment, which he joined at Quebec, and 
again reduced to half-pay. He is 
now a lawyer and settled at Cornwall. 
After York was taken and myself a 
prisoner, I was dismissed from my 
Military duty and applied myself to 



business as a Commission Broker, and 
in this I succeeded very well, and had 
I continued in that business only I 
should have done very well, but find- 
ing myself in possession of £500 in 
money, I was advised to go to Mon- 
treal and open correspondence and 
commence business on my own ac- 
count, and if the war had continued I 
should have done well. I had ob- 
tained a credit for any amount that I 
should order. The/ Peace of 181 5 left 
a very large supply/ of goods on hand, 
and the depreciation was of such ex- 
tent that I was obliged to sell my 
house and all my real property to get 
out of debt, and at the close of war I 
was reduced to my half-pay only for 
the support of my large family. At 
the departure of Governor Gore from 
the Province, Colonel Smith, an old 
friend of mine came to the adminis- 
tration of the Government, and the 
Registry of the Home District becom- 
ing vacant, he gave me the commis- 
sion. This augmented my income to 
£150 per year, and my youngest son 
got into the Secretary's Office at £100 
and afterwards at £150 per annum, 
which added together a little more 
than £300 per annum. He purchased 
a town lot and built a comfortable 
house and we lived together until the 
year 1825, when his health became 
very alarming, and it became neces- 
sary that he should change a mode of 
life. I, therefore, consented to re- 
sign my office in his favor, but this 
was objected to, and he afterwards 
made a proposal to the Sheriff to ex- 
change the Sheriffry for the Registry, 
which was acceeded to by the Gov- 
ernor. 

I resigned mv office, and my son 
is the High Sheriff. My Daugh- 
ter has lately married to a worthy 
Clergyman with a large famiy. Mv 
youngest Daughter is now with her 
Sister Maule in Franco. Her 
Brother, the Sheriff, allows her the 
same yearly that she had from my- 
self. He is also married and very 
comfortably settled. I am reduced to 



49o AN AMERICAN'S EXPERIENCE IN THE BRITISH ARMY 



half-pay, and now spend my time 
moving about from one child's house 
to another. Am blessed so far with a 
strong constitution and good health, 
and I hope making preparations for 
another and better world. 

There my fair friend, I have given 
you a rough sketch of an eventful life, 
and in doing so I have confiend my- 
self to such matter as immediately 
concerns myself. I might relate 
many circumstances which were very 
interesting to myself, but in which 



you would take no interest, and I fear 
your patience will be exhausted before 
you get through these pages. Such 
as they are, they are much at your ser- 
vice, with this information that they 
are confined to your own family, and 
as it is wrote without glasses, and 
considering my advanced age, you 
will pardon all its defects, 

and accept of my sincere regards, 
I remain your 
sincere friend, 

S. Jarvis. 



A VIOLIN'S SONG 

BY 
KATHERINE GILMAN GROU 

Hartford, Connecticut 



Upon the .day soft fell the twilight shade, 

When mem'ry's depths make tender, mute appeal 

To kindred soul, that one and only one 
Bidding the heart its holy founts reveal. 

As face on face she pressed the old violin, 

While slender bow caressed the waiting strings, 

Time, space, e'en self forgot in melody 
That rose to Heav'n as if on angel wings. 

They sang of hope, that balm of human heart; 

Of joy, of faith, the peace from duty done; 
Of sorrow ; then changed the harrowing theme 

As gold iDloom turns to greet the morning sun. 

The soft notes yearned; they told the tale of love; 

Of conquered love deep hid by master will. 
The song rose higher; now quaver followed chord; 

The spirit spoke; the heart but felt the thrill. 

One tenor string snapped, o'erf raught with human weal ; 

Passive the bow, its sweetest strain scarce done, 
While o'er the soul soft stole a sense of peace, 

Its tale part told with low descending sun. 



Cbe nettletons in America 

EARLY IMMIGRATIONS TO THE NEW WORLD-FOUNDING AN 
INFLUENTIAL FAMILY ON THE WESTERN CONTINENT- 
SETTLEMENTS IN CONNECTICUT RELATING ESPECIALLY TO 
SAMUEL NETTLETON OF BRANFORD AND HIS DESCENDANTS 

COMPILED BY 

DONALD LINES JACOBUS 

New Haven, Connecticut 



FIRST GENERATION 

Samuel Nettleton 

i. Samuel Nettleton, an immigrant ancestor, was one of the men who bought 
(Totoket), Branford, for a settlement. They came to occupy their purchase early in 
1644. Most of these settlers were from Wethersfield. Samuel Nettleton died in 
Fairfield, Connecticut, in 1655 or 1656. (See Branford Records for inventory of 

estate.) His wife's name was Maria . She died in Branford, October 29, 1658. 

Their children were as follows: 

SECOND GENERATION 
Children : 

2. i. John, born probably in England; died March 18, 1691. 

3. ii. Martha, born probably in England; m. John Uffoote (Ufford). 
iii. Mary, born probably in England. 

4. iv. Isabel, born probably in England ; m. George Chatfield. 
v^ Hannah, born probably in England; m. Thomas Smith. 

5. vi. Sarah, born probably in Milford ; m. Thomas Miller, 
vii. Lettice, born probably in Milford. 

6. viii. Samuel, born probably in Milford ; m. Martha Baldwin. 
ix. Elizabeth, born June 13, 1708. 

Samuel Nettleton was one of the men from Wethersfield who. in 1644, purchased 
the lands of Totoket and began a settlement there the same year. It appears that three 
years later he bought for his wife a pair of shoes, which shoes proved to be quite objec- 
tionable to the Governor and other folks. This curious commentary on the times is set 
forth on the Colonial Records of the General Court thus : 

"Samuel Nettleton of Totoket doth testify upon oath taken before the Governor the 
4th day of Nov. 1647. that he bought a pair of shoes of Goodman Meges of New Haven, 
russed, closed in the inside at the side seams, for his wife, she put them on. on the Lord's 
day and the next third day morning they were ripped the soales being good, neither 
shranke nor hornie that I could pereceive, and he also testified that for and in considera- 
tion of satisfaction from Goodman Meges he expecteth a new pare." A committee was 
appointed to whom some of the shoes sold by Goodman Meges were given for examina- 
tion with orders from the court to take those shoes aside and viewe them well and if 
there be cause to ripe some of them that they may give unto the court according to 
their best light the cause of this damage, they did so and returned this answer: — We 
apprehend this — that the leather is very bad, not tanned nor fit to be sold for serviceable 
leather, but it wrongs the country and we find he workmanship bad also, first, there is 
not sufficent stuffe put in the thread, and instead of hemp it is flax, and the stitches are 
too large and the threds not drawne home, and there wants wax on the thred. the aule is 
to bige for the thred. The Court proceeded to sentence, and ordered Goodman Meges 
to pay 10s. as a fine to the jurisdiction with satisfaction to every particular person as 
damage shall be required and proved. Others had testified to the badness of shoes 
bought of Goodman Meges. 
2. John 2 Nettleton (Samuel 1 ), born probably in England. Son of Samuel ami Maria 

Nettleton. Married Martha Hull of Hillingsworth, May 29, 1669. He died 

Mar. 18, 1691. 

4 1 



7- 


i. 


8. 


ii. 




iii. 


9- 


iv. 




v. 




vi. 



492 DESCENDANTS OF SAMUEL NETTLETON OF BRANFORD 

Children: THIRD GENERATION 

John, born Jan. 19, 1670-1 ; died Feb. 13, 1715. 
Joseph, born Jan. 19, 1670-1 ; died Oct. 20, 1767; m. Hannah Barker, dau. of 

Wm. and Ruth (Parker). 
Samuel, born Mar. 8, 1672; died Sept. 19, 1693. 
George, born 

Martha, born Apr. 15, 1675. 
Josiah, born Jan. 13, 1677. 

For record of the above see Killingworth Nettleton. 
Put in appendix in order to preserve numbering 

SECOND GENERATION 

3. Martha 8 Nettleton (of Samuel 1 ), born probably in England, daughter of Samuel 
and Maria Nettleton. Married John son of Thomas and Isabel Uffoote of Mil- 
ford, Mar. 25, 1657. 

Children: THIRD GENERATION 

Thomas, born Aug. 20, 1657 ; died 1683. 
Martha, born Aug. 31, 1659. 
Mary, born June 20, 1661. 
John, born Jan. 3, 1665. 
John 2nd, born Jan. 21, 1667. 
Samuel, born June 21, 1670; died 1746. 
Elizabeth, unm., born Feb. 19, 1672, died 1699. 
Lydia, born Oct. 21, 1677. 

SECOND GENERATION 

4. Isabel 5 Nettleton (of Samuel 1 ), born probably in England, daughter of Samuel and 
Maria Nettleton. Married George Chatfield, of Guilford, Mar. 19, 1659. 

Children : 

John, born Apr. 8, 1661. 
George, born Aug. 18, 1668. 
Mercy, born Apr. 26, 167 1. 

5. Sarah 7 Nettleton (of Samuel 1 ) born probably in Milford, daughter of Samuel and 

Maria Nettleton. Married Thomas Miller of Middletown, Conn., June 6, 1665 ; 

died Mar. 20, 1728. He was born in Birmingham, Eng., 1610; died Aug. 11, 1680. 

Children: THIRD GENERATION 

Thomas, born May 6, 1666. 

Samuel, born Apr. 1, 1668; died Apr. 11, 1738. 

Joseph, born Aug. 21, 1670; died 1717. 

Benjamin, born July 20, 1672. 

John, born Mar. 10, 1674; died May 3, 1745. 

Margaret, born Sept. 1, 1676. 

Sarah, born Jan. 7, 1678. 

Mehitable, born Mar. 28, 1680. 

MILFORD 
Nettleton 
Samuel Nettleton, s. of Samuel, m. Martha Baldwin, d. of . 

1. Elizabeth, b. Oct. 6, 1686, d. y. prob. 

2. John, b. Sep. 18, 1689, m. Sarah Bryan, d. of Richard and Sarah prob. 

4. Nathan, b. Jan. 21, 1693-4, m - Susanna Plum, d. of Joseph, Jan. 14, 1724, and 

died 1746 (Plum). 

5. Martha, b. Oct. 28, 1697, m. Freegift Goggshall (Coggeshall J. 14.3). 

6. Joseph, b. Feb. 16, 1700, d. Jan. 31, 1724-5. 

7. Theophilus, b. June 1, 1702, d. May 6, 1713. 

8. Sylvanus, b. Oct., 1704, m. Mary Whitmore, d. of Josiah, Apr. 24, 1729, and d. 

1780, (Whitmore). 

9. Elizabeth, b. June 6, bapt. June 13, 1708, m. John Merwin, s. of John, Dec. 

2, 1730, (Merwin). 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL DATA^gs 

SECOND GENERATION 

6. Samuel, Nettleton (of Samuel 1 ), born probably in Milford, Conn. Son of Samuel 
and Maria Nettleton. Married Martha, daughter of Richard Baldwin of Mil- 
ford, Feb. 8, 1681. She was born Apr. 1, 1663. 

Children: THIRD GENERATION 

i. Elizabeth, born Oct. 6, 1686. 

10. ii. John, born Sept . 18, 1689. died Mar., 1767. 
iii. Samuel, born Dec. 16, 1691. 

11. iv. Nathan, born Jan. 21, 1693-4. 

12. v. Martha, born Oct. 28, 1697. 

vi. Joseph, born Feb. 16, 1700; died Jan. 31, 1725. 
vii. Theophilus, born June 1, 1702; died May 6, 1713. 

13. viii. Silvanus, born Oct. 13, 1704; died 1780. 
ix. Elizabeth, born June 13, 1708. 

KILLINGWORTH / 

John Nettleton, s. of John, b. Jan. 19, 1670-1 ; m. Jar/. 21, 1691-2, Sarah 
Woodmansie, d. of Sarah, wid. and relect of John; d. Dec. 10, 1723. 

1. Martha, b. Dec. 1, 1692, m. William Barber, Nov. 15, 1711. 

2. John, b. Jan. 29, 1694, m. (1) Mary Brookes, Dec. 26, 1720; (2) Sarah Carter, 

Apr. 8, 1725; (3) Sarah Ruttey, Dec. 29, 1729. 

3. Sarah, b. Aug. 23, 1697, m. John Carter, Sep. 10, 1719. 

4. Mary, b. June 22, 1701, m. Josiah Baldwin, Dec. 14, 1729; d. July 18, 1752. 

5. Elizabeth, b. July 1, 1703, m. Samuel Carter Mar. 19, 1722. 

6. Thankful, b. Mar. 27, 1705; (Mar. 29, 1706), m. Elnathan Hurd, Dec. 4, 1724. 

7. Josiah, b. July 21, 1709, m. Sarah Dorris July 12, 1733; she d. Feb. 25, 1804, 

ae. 91. 

8. Samuel, b. Mar. 2, 1713, m. Dinah Healy, Mar. 25, 1737. 

9. Abigail, b. Mar. 2, 1713, m. Joseph Carter, May 25, 1732. 
John, s. of John, d. Dec. 10, 1723. 

John, d. Mar. 2, 171 1-5, 4 m. 22 d. 
Bathsheba, w. of Sam'l, d. Dec. 22, 1747. 

7. John 3 Nettleton, born in Killingworth, Conn., Jan. 19, 1670. Son of John and 

Martha (Hull) Nettleton. Married Sarah Woodman, Jan. 21, 1692; died Feb. 13, 
1715. She died Dec. 10, 1723. 
Children : 

Martha, born Dec 1, 1692. 

14. John, born Jan. 29, 1694. 
Sarah, born Aug. 23, 1697. 
Lucy, born 1699. 

Mary, born June 22, 1701. 
Elizabeth, born July 1, 1703. 
Thankful, born Mar. 29, 1706. 

15. Josiah, born July 21, 1709. 

16. Samuel, Twins, born Mar. 12, 1713. 
Abigail, 

8. Joseph Nettleton, s. of John and Martha (Hull), b. 167 1 ; died Oct. 20, 1767; m. heb. 

18, 1712, Hannah Bushnell, d. of ; d. Nov. 26, 1753; m- (2) June 19, 1759. Sarah 

Pike. ^ • , , t o 

1. Joseph, b. Dec. 17, 1713; m. Hannah Kelsey, Oct. 21, 1736, and d. June 8. 1797- 

2. Jeremiah, b. Apr. 2, 1718, m. Deborah. 

3. Aaron, born Mar., 1721 ; d. Jan. 9, 1759- 

4. John, born Dec. 11, 1753. 

9. George Nettleton of Killingworth m. Rebeckah. 

17. Samuel 1 (eldest), m. (1) Bathshiba Clark, Nov. 3, 1743; (2) Ami Gnswold, 

Feb. 14, 1748. 

18. Daniel, 2 m. Mary Hazelton, Dec. 30, 1736. 
George 3 . 

• Tamson, m. (Daniel) Merrels (June 28, 1726). . 

Lucy, b. (1699?), m. (Nathaniel) Chittenden, Jan. 6, 1725. (p. 25. Chittenden 

George" Nettleton of Killingworth, Sep. 29, 1745. wife Rebeckah, eldest son 
Samuel; heirs of my 2ond son Daniel; youngest son George; daughters, 
Tamson Merrels, Lucy Chittenden. 

John Nettleton, s. of Samuel, b. Sep. 18. 1689; d. Mar.. 170;; m Sarah Bryan, 
d. of Richard and Sarah. 



494 DESCENDANTS OF SAMUEL NETTLETON OF BRANFORD 

1. John, b. Dec. 14, 1718, received land in New Milford. 

2. Theophilus, b. Jan. 8, 1721 ; received land in New Milford. 

3. Sarah, b. Apr. 28, 1723, m. Thomas Buckingham, s. of Thomas. 

4. Joseph, b. Sep. 19, 1725, not ment. in will of 1766. 

5. Mary, b. Sep. 1, 1728, not ment. in will of 1766. 

6. Isaac, b. Apr. 26, 1730, m. Sarah Smith, d. Daniel. 

7. Nathan, b. May 4, 1734, m. Sibyl Buckingham, d. Nathaniel, Nov. 3, 1757. 

THIRD GENERATION 
10. John 11 Nettleton (of Samuel? Samuel 1 ), born in Milford, Conn., Sept. 18, 1689. Son 
of Samuel and Martha (Baldwin) Nettleton. Married Sarah, daughter of Richard 
and Sarah Piatt Bryan; d. March, 1767. 

WILL— JOHN NETTLETON 

In the name of God Everlasting, Amen. I John Nettleton of the town of Milford, 
in the County of New Haven in his Majesty's Colony of Connecticut in New England, 
being through the goodness of Almighty God of sound mind and memory and in reason- 
able health do make and ordain this my last will and testament as followeth, I impro- 
mise, I give and bequeath my soul to Almighty God, My Creator, through Jesus Christ 
my Lord and Redeemer and my body to the earth, therein to be interred at the discre- 
tion of my Executors. 

Item — My will is that all my just debts and funeral charges be first paid out of my 
estate, and as for my worldly goods and estate which God in his goodness hath bestowed 
on me I give and bequeath and dispose in the following way and manner. 

Item — I give and bequeath to my two sons John Nettleton and Theophilus Nettleton 
besides what I have already given them by deeds, all my land that I have in the town- 
ship of New Milford to be equally divided between them, to them and their heirs and 
assigns forever. 

Item — I give and bequeath to my son Isaac Nettleton and to his heirs and assigns 
forever, my dwelling house and barn and all my home lot land adjoining thereto, except- 
ing ten acres to Nathan where my house now standeth as is hereafter expressed and all 
my land which I bought of Nathaniel Buckingham and Thomas Buckingham containing 
fifteen acres lying on the high plains, and two acres of Salt meadow in the great mead- 
ows, which I bought of James Beard in the sequestered lands in the town of Milford, and 
a Yoke of oxen and the one half part of all my husbandry tools. 

Item — I give and bequeath to my son Nathan Nettleton and to his heirs forever my 
new house and ten acres of land adjoining thereto, which is called Sanfords lot and forty 
five acres of land at Walnut Tree Hill called Arnolds lot, and all my land at the Walnut 
tree that was laid out to my honored father Samuel Nettleton and one piece of Salt 
meadow on the great meadow which I had of Samuel Beard and the one half part of all 
my husbandry tools. 

Item — I give and dispose unto my daughter Sarah Buckingham the sum of forty 
pounds more and besides what I have already given her to be paid to her by my Execu- 
tors out of my household goods so far as they shall go except my wearing apparel, the 
remainder out of my cattle, to her and her heirs forever. 

Item — All the rest, residue and remainder of my estate real or personal, movable or 
immovable whatsoever, I give, dispose and bequeath unto my five children John, Theophi- 
lus, Isaac, and Nathan Nettleton and Sarah Buckingham and their heirs forever, equally 
to be divided between them, viz. to each of them the one fifth part thereof. 

Item — My will is and I do hereby nominate and appoint my two sons Isaac and 
Nathan Nettleton to be the only and sole Executors to this my last will and testament and 
do hereby revoke, and set aside all and every other will and testament heretofore made by 
me and do establish this and no other to be my last will and testament. In witness 
whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this day. 

John Nettleton, 

Apr. 8, 1760. 
Richard Bryan, 
Richard Bryan, Jr., 
David Woodruff. 

Probated, Mar. 1767. 

Children : FOURTH GENERATION 

19. i. John 4 , born Dec. 14, 1718. 

ii. Theophilus, born Jan. 8, 1721. 

iii. Sarah, born Apr. 28, 1723. 

iv. Joseph, born Sept. 19, 1725. Not mentioned in will of John Nettleton 1760. 

v. Mary, born Sept. 1, 1728 probably deceased. 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL DATAigs 

20. vi. Isaac, born Apr. 26, 1730. Have full record. 

21. vii. Nathan, born May 4, 1734. Have full record. 

Nathan Nettleton, s. of Samuel, born Dec. 16, 1692; d. 1746; m. Jan. 14, 1724, 
Susanna Plumb, d. Joseph. 

1. Ann, b. May 9, 1731, m. Woodruff of Litchfield. 

2. Martha, b. Jan. 19, 1735, m. (1) Justus Baldwin, s. Joseph, Nov. 26, 1771 ; (2) 

Samuel Merwin, Jr., of New Milford, (L. R., Vol. xv.) 
Susanna, b. Oct. 23, 1737. 
4. Susanna, 3rd, b. Oct., 1744; m. (1) Isaac Gunn, s. Sam'l (L. R.), 1773 (2) 
Stephen Gunn (2 wife) (L. R.), 1784; d. 1821. 
Susan (Miss Crocker), b. Oct. 28, 1744. 

3. Nathan, b. Oct. 24, 1742, does not ge. with his sisters. 

1. Susanna, b. Apr. 26, 1726, d. y. 

2. Benoni, b. June 12, 1729, d. June 17, 1729. 

THIRD GENERATION / 

11. Nathan 19 Nettleton (of Samuel, 2 Samuel 1 ), born in Milford, Cpnn., Jan. 21, 1693 or 

4. Son of Samuel and Martha (Baldwin) Nettleton. Married Susanna Plumb, Jan. 
14, 1724 or 5. 

Children: FOURTH GENERATION 

i. Susanna, 4 born Apr. 26, 1726, died young. 

ii. Benoni, born June 12, 1729, died June 17, 1729. 

iii. Ann, born May 9, 1731. 

iv. Martha, born Jan. 19, 1735. 

v. Susanna, born Oct. 23, 1737. 

vi. Nathan, b. Oct. 24, 1742. 

vii. Susan, born Oct. 28, 1744. 

THIRD GENERATION 

12. Martha 20 Nettleton (of Samuel, 2 Samuel 1 ), born in Milford, Conn., Oct. 28, 1697, 
daughter of Samuel and Martha (Baldwin) Nettleton. Married Freegift Coggswell 
Jan. 28, 1725 or 6. He was born in Rhode Isltnd, 1689 ; died in Milford, Conn., Aug. 

5, 1767, in his 78th year. Was a sea captain. 

Children: FOURTH GENERATION 

Elizabeth, born Jan. 28, 1727. 
Martha, born June 25, 1730; m. (1) Perez Fitch; (2) Abraham Davenport; 

(3) Dr. Mead. 
William, born Nov. 9, 1732. 

Sylvanus Nettleton, s. of Samuel, b. Oct., 1704; d. 1780; m. Apr. 24, 1729, 
Mary Whitmore, dau. of Josiah. 

1. Samuel, b. Dec. 18, 1729, m. Abigail Burwell, d. Samuel, and d. 1803. 

2. Mary, b. Oct. 5, 1732, m. Samuel Beach, s. Thos., and d. June 12, 1789. in 

Woodbridge. 

3. Thaddeus, born Oct. 24, 1734, m. Hannah Camp, dau. Caleb, (L. R., Vol. xv.), 

and d. Apr., 1808. 

4. Josiah, b. May 21, 1738, m. (1) Agnes Gunn, d. Abel, Nov., 1761 ; (2) Free- 

love Lum of Derby, July, 1776; set in Derby. 

5. Elizabeth, b. Feb. 4, 1740, m. Piatt. 

6. Joseph, b. Mar. 1, 1741, m. Mary Burwell, d. of Samuel. 

7. Amey or Anney, b. June 28, 1743, m. Merwin. 

8. Ben a j ah, born July 20, 1746, d. Nov. 24, 1746 T. S. 

THIRD GENERATION 

13. Silvanus 23 Nettleton (of Samuel 2 Samuel 1 ), born in Milford, Conn., Oct. 13. 1704. 
Son of Samuel and Martha (Baldwin) Nettleton. Married Mary Whitmore. Apr. 29, 
1729, died 1780. 

Children: FOURTH GENERATION 

22. i. Samuel, born Dec. 18, 1729, died Sept. 28, 1803. 
ii. Mary, born Oct. 5, 1732. 

23. iii. Thaddeus, born Oct. 24, 1734; died Apr., 1809. 

24. iv. Josiah, born May 21, 1738. 

v. Elizabeth, born Feb. 4, 1740. 

25. vi. Joseph, born Mar. 1, 1741. 
vii. Amy, born June 28, 1743. 

viii. Benajah, born July 20, 1746; died Nov. 25, 1746. 



496 DESCENDANTS OF SAMUEL NETTLETON OF BRANFORD 

14 John 8 Nettleton, born in Killingworth, Conn., Jan. 29, 1694. Son of John and Sarah 
(Woodman) Nettleton. Married Mary Brookes, Dec. 26, 1720. She died Nov. 26, 
1723. Married 2nd, Sarah Carter, Apr. 8, 1725. She died May 14, 1727. Married 
3d, Sarah Rutley, Dec. 29, 1729. 

Children by 1st marriage: 

John, born Nov. 17, 1721 ; died Dec. 27, 1723. 

Note. — No children and no record of death. Left property to brothers, Josiah and 
Samuel. 

Josiah Nettleton, s. of John and Sarah Woodmanse, b. July 21, 1709; m. 
July 12, 1733, Sarrah Dorris ; d. Feb. 23, 1804, se. 91. 

1. Sarah, b. Apr. 28, 1734, m. Samuel Evarts, Aug. 19, 1761. 

2. Josiah, b. Dec. 6, 1735. 

3. Mary, b. Nov. 21, 1737; m. Ebenezer Wilcox, May 2, 1782. 

4. Priscilla, b. Nov. 7, 1740; m. Eliakim Redfield, Jan. 1, 1766. 

5. Martha, b. May 19, 1743. 

6. Jerusha, born Apr. 9, 1746; m. Jekiel Evarts, Dec. 11, 1771. 

7. Elizabeth, b. Sep. 20, 1748. 

8. Isaiah, m. Jemima Nettleton, Oct. 19, 1760, d. of Joseph and Hannah Kelsey. 

15. Josiah 3 Nettleton, born in Killingworth, Conn., July 21, 1709. Son of John and 

Sarah (Woodman) Nettleton. Married Sarah Dorris, July 12, 1733. She died Feb. 
25, 1804, a S e( i 91- 

Children : 

Sarah, 4 born Apr. 28, 1734. 
Josiah, born Dec. 6, 1735. 
Mary, born Nov. 21, 1737. 
Priscilla, born Nov. 7, 1740. 
Martha, born May 19, 1743. 
Jerusha, born Apr. 9, 1746. 
Elizabeth, born Sept. 20, 1748. 
26. Isaiah. 

16. Samuel Nettleton, s. of John, b. Mar. 12, 1713 K. ; d. Sep. 23, 1796; m. Mar. 25, 
1737, Dinah Healy; d. Feb. 28, 1792. 

1. John, b. Sep. 10, 1737. 

2. Asabel, b. Feb. 8, 1740. 

3. Mercy, b. June 11, 1741. 

4. Lucy, b. Aug. 16, 1743 ; d. Mar. 13, 1816. 

27. 5. Samuel, b. Aug. 25, 1745, m. (?) Amy Kelsey, Feb. 28, 1781. 

6. Dinah, b. Apr. 18, 1747, m. Elisha Kelsey, Dec. 29, 1785. 

7. Bani, b. Feb. 9, 1749. 

28. 8. Daniel, b. Aug. 27, 1751, m. Damaris Stevens, Nov. 21, 1777. 

9. Josiah, b. Apr. 26, 1754. 

10. George, b. June 10, 1756. 

11. Tamsa, b. July 11, 1759, m. Gaylord Coan. 

17. Samuel Nettleton, s. of George and Rebecca, d. Feb. 6, 1790; m. (1) Nov. 3, 1743, 
Bathsheba Clark, d. of ; d. Dec. 22, 1747 m. (2) Feb. 14, 1748, Ann Griswold. 

1. Bathsheba, b. June 4, 1743 ; d. Feb. 27, 1836, unm. 

29. 2. Abner, b. Feb. 12, 1746, m. Asenath Davis. 

3. Ruth, b. Dec. 8, 1747. 

2 w ■ 

4. Samuel, b. June 17, 1750. 

5. Ann, b. June 7, 1752. 

6. Elizabeth, b. Mar. 31 or May 9, 1754. 

30. 7. William, b. Sep. 28, 1755, m. Zillah Parmalee, Dec. 3, 1776; rem. to Woodbury. 

8. Josiah, b. Sep. 28, 1755, or May 29, 1754, m. Hannah Shipman, Sep. 25, 1780, 

and d. in Woodbury, Oct. 24, 1830; she d. in W., Nov. 24, 1836, ae. 77; rem. 
to Woodbury. 

9. Sarah, b. Apr. 9, 1758; d. July 7, 1838, unm. 

18. Daniel Nettleton, s. of George and Rebecca, m. Dec. 30, 1736, Mary Hazelton. 

1. Amos, b. June 22, 1737. 

2. Daniel, b. Jan. 9, 1740. 

3. Tamson, b. Feb. 13, 1742. 
4 Roswell, b. July 17, 1744. 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL DATA 497 

FOURTH GENERATION 

19. John 26 Nettleton (of John,* Samuel, 2 Samuel 1 ), born Dec. 14, 1718, in Milford Conn 

Son of John and Sarah (Bryan) Nettleton. Married Susanna Richards, daughter 
of Lieut. Thomas, Apr. 2, 1750. Died Nov. 12, 1787. 

Children: FIFTH GENERATION 

31. i. John, born Jan. 18, 175 1. 

32. ii. Sarah, born July 24, 1753. 
iii. Susanna, born Jan. 27, 1756. 
iv. Freelove, born Dec. 19, 1757. 
v. Elizabeth, born May 27, 1760. 
vi. Mary, born Jan. 30, 1764. 

vii. Joseph, born Nov. 1, 1766. 

20. Isaac 4 Nettelton, born in Milford, Conn., Apr. 26, 1730. Son of John and Sarah 

(Bryan) Nettleton. Married Sarah Smith, daughter of Daniel and Sarah (John- 
son) Smith, July 2, 1760. She was born Oct. 22, 1740. / 
Children : ' 

33. Sarah, born Sept. 25, 1761 ; died June 28, 1793. 
Isaac, born Aug. 13, 1762; died Sept. 26, 1774. 
David, born May 30, 1766; died Sept. 24, 1774. 
Hezekiah, born June 1, 1768; died Sept. 27, 1774. 
Susanna, born Feb. 4, 1770; died Sept. 15, 1774. 

34. Amos, born Nov. 1, 1771 ; died Apr. 13, 1835. 
Daniel, born May 16, 1773; died Oct. 7, 1774. 
Susanna, born July 22, 1775. 

35. Isaac, born Jan. 14, 1777. 

36. David, born Nov. 21, 1778; died May 31, 1843. 

37. Comfort, born Oct. 28, 17 — ; died May, 1843. 
For record of above children, see Isaac Nettleton. 

21. Nathan 4 Nettelton, born in Milford, Conn., May 4, 1734. Son of John and Sarah 

(Bryan) Nettleton. Married Nov. 3, 1757, Sibyl Buckingham, daughter of Nathaniel 
and Sarah (Smith) Buckingham. Died 1782. She was born Sept. 13, 1737. 
Children : 

38. Nathan 5 , born Feb. 10, 1759. 

39. Eli, born Apr. 9, 1761 ; died July 29, 1801. 

40. John, born Oct. 9, 1765; died Aug. 8, 1842. 
Sibyl. 

FOURTH GENERATION 

22. Samuel 4 Nettleton (Silvanus, 3 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 ) , born in Milford, Conn., Dec. 18, 
1729. Son of Silvanus and Mary (Whitmore) Nettleton. Married Abigail Burwell. 
Died Sept. 28, 1803. She was born 1731. Died Jan. 17, 1771. 

Children: FIFTH GENERATION 

i. Martha, 6 born July 25, 1755; m. John Powell; d. May 13. 1832. 
ii. Abigail, born 1760; m. Theophilus Smith; died May II, 1789. 
iii. Nathan, born July 2, 1763; m. (1) Susanna Plumb; (2) wid. Eunice Minor 
of Woodbury; no ch. ; died Oct. 15, 1854. 
41. iv. Daniel, born Apr. 9, 1766; died Jan. 21, 1829. 

FOURTH GENERATION 

23 Thaddeus 4 Nettleton (Silvanus, 5 Samuel, 2 Samuel 1 ), born in Milford, Conn., Oct. 24, 
1734 Son of Silvanus and Mary (Whitmore) Nettleton. Married Hannah Camp. 
He died Apr. 1809. She was born Jan. 20, 1738. Died May 9, 1797- 
Children of Thaddeus and Hannah (Camp) Nettleton: 
i. Caleb, born 1757. 
ii. Hannah, born 1758. 
iii. Elijah, born 1762. 
iv. Benajah, born 1765. 
v. David. 
vi. Naomi. 
vii. Anne. 
viii. Levi, born 1775- 
ix. Thaddeus, born 1777. 



498 DESCENDANTS OF SAMUEL NETTLETON OF BRANFORD 



FOURTH GENERATION 

24. Josiah 4 Nettleton (Silvanus 3 Samuel, 2 Samuel 1 ), born in Milford, Conn., May 21, 

1738. Son of Silvanus and Mary (Whitmore) Nettleton. Married Agnes Gunn, 
daughter of Abel and Hannah (Harger) Gunn, Nov., 1761. She died Jan. 23, 1774. 
He married 2nd, Freelove Lum, July 18, 1776. 

FIFTH GENERATION 
Children by 1st marriage: 
i. Agnes, born Sept. 24, 1763. 
ii. Enos Gunn, born Sept. 9, 1767. 

Children by 2nd marriage : 

iii. Eunice, born July 19, 1777 ; died July 9, 1783. 

iv. Josiah, born May 6, 1779. 

v. Freelove, born May 6, 1779; died Feb. 5, 1864. 

vi. Sarah, born July 3, 1781. 

vii. Mary Ann, born Dec. 26, 1782. 

FOURTH GENERATION 

25. Joseph* Nettleton (Silvanus, 3 Samuel, 2 Samuel 1 ), born in Milford, Conn., Mar. 1, 

1741. Son of Silvanus and Mary (Whitmore) Nettleton. Married Mary Burwell, 
sister of Abigail. They resided in Watertown. 

Children : 

i. Mary, born Nov. 1, 1772. 
ii. Abigail, born Sept. 11, 1774. 

(To be continued) 



NOTE REGARDING THE HAWKINS FAMILY IN AMERICA 



ANSWERS 

Answer to query in the Con- 
necticut Magazine, 1898, page 
225, as to "Hawkins-Twitchell," 
signed "A. I. H." 

Clariniah Hawkins was the 
eldest child of Samuel and Sarah 
(Smith) Hawkins, born Oct. 19, 
T 759- She married Feb. 26, 
1776, Benjamin Twitchell, son 
of John and Anna (Hager) 
Twitchell. Their children were: 

Robert, born 1777. 

John, born 1779. 

Esther, born 1781. 

Lucina, born 1783, who mar- 
ried Coridee (or Susannah, some 
records say). 

Grace, born 1785. 

Ruth Ann, born 1790. 

Hannah, born 1792. 

Benjamin Starr, born 1798. 

Besides 1 Clariniah, Samuel 
Hawkins and wife Sarah had 
2 Edward, born 1760, a soldier of 
the Revolution; 3 Esther, born 
1764, who married Oct. 24, 
1784 (second wife), Dr. Abel 



Bronson, of Waterbury, Conn, 
a soldier of the Revolution; 
4 Robert, born 1765 ; 5 Jonas, 
born 1768; 6 Samuel, born 1770; 
7 Sarah, born 1773 ; 8 Grace, born 
1775, who married Oct. 6, 1799 
(second wife), Richard Hol- 
brook, of Derby, Conn. Grace 
died Feb. 26, 1812; 9 Hannah, 
born 1777; her child baptized 
May 19, 1782. 

It is shown by deeds recorded, that 
Samuel and Sarah (Smith) Hawkins 
sold lands in Derby, Ct, Oct. 9, 
1783, which Sarah had inherited by 
will of her mother, Grace (Riggs) 
Smith, and that they were at the time 
residents of Spencertown, Columbia 
Co., N. Y. Diligent effort has been 
made to trace this Samuel Hawkins 
line, without success, and it is hoped 
the enquirer A. I. H. will communi- 
cate with Miss Emily J. Hawkins of 
Buffalo, N. Y., who is engaged in 
compiling a history of the Hawkins 
family from John Hawkins of Brain- 
tree, Essex, Eng., who died in 1633. 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN HISTORICAL DATA 

AND 

STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT 
Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 



This department is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries should be as 
precise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his personal attention to questions 
free of charge. Extended investigations will be made by him for a reasonable compensation. Persons having old 
family records, diaries or documents yielding genealogical information are requested to communicate with him with 
reference to printing them. Readers are earnestly requested to co-operate with the editor in answering queries, many 
of which can only be answered by recourse to original records. Querists are requested t<j> write clearly all names of 
persons and places so that they cannot be misunderstood. Queries will be inserted in tme order in which they are 
received. All matters relating to this department must be sent to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, marked 
Genealogical Department. Give full name and post-office address.— Editor 



PERPLEXING PROBLEMS OF THE GENEALOGISTS 



QUESTIONS 



236 



(a.) Ford-Nott Capt. Wm. Ford of 
Farmington died Aug. 30, 1763, in 
forty-fifth year of his age. His 
widow, Thankful, married Chas. Nott 
of Wethersfield April 28, 1777. Would 
like the ancestry of Wm. Ford and his 
wife, Thankful, 
(b.) Capt. Joseph Woodford of Farm- 
ington married in 1699 Lydia Smith, 
daughter of Joseph Smith and Jo- 
anna ( ). Would like the ancestry 

of Joseph and his wife. 

(c.) Robert Chapman 3 of East Haddam, 
b. April 19, 1675; d. 1760; married 

Mary ( ). Would like name and 

ancestry of Mary. 

(d.) Hoskins. Jonah Gillett of Wind- 
sor married Elizabeth Hoskins Feb. 
26, 1704. Would like ancestry of 
Elizabeth Hoskins. 

(e.) Tennant. Asa Randall of Colches- 
ter, b. 1751, married Mary Tennant. 
Would like the ancestry of Mary Ten- 
nant. 

(f.) Brown. George Brown of New 
London and Colchester married Eliza- 
beth Welles April 12, 1730. Would 
like the ancestry of George Brown. 

(g.) Long. John Whittlesey of Say- 
brook married Hannah Long May 19, 
1693. Would like the ancestry of 
Hannah Long. 

(h.) Jones. Thomas Jones, Jr., of Say- 
brook, b. 1700, married Temperance 
( ). Would like name and ances- 
try of Temperance. 

(i.) Clark. Abijah Flagg married Sarah 
Clark of Cheshire July 4. 1754- 
Would like ancestry of Sarah Clark. 



(j.) Norton. Capt. Thomas Seymour 
of Hartford, b. 1668, married Mary 
Norton. Would like ancestry of Mary 
Norton. 

(k.) Fitch. John Stoughton of Wind- 
sor married Sarah Fitch in 1689. 
Would like ancestry of Sarah Fitch. 

(E. B. P.),. Hartford, Conn. 

237. (a.) Griswold. In your magazine, 
Vol. XL, No. 2, page 331, I find the 
marriage of my great-grandfather, 
Jonathan Griswold, to Sarah Osborn, 
both of Amity (now Woodbridge), 
Conn. I would like to know his fath- 
er's first name. I think his father 
lived at Lyme, Conn. Also who to 
trace from Edward or Mathew Gris- 
wold, the first who settled in Con- 
necticut. 

(b.) Osborn. Wanted, ancestors of 
Sarah Osborn, who married Jonathan 
Griswold of Amity, Conn. I have 
been told she lived in New York city 
with an uncle, as she was an orphan. 
(A. E. F.), Hartford. Conn. 

238. Stevens. Wanted the ancestry of 
Martin Stevens who married Ther.a 
Terrell (in Waterbury, I think), and 
Leverett Stevens (Stephens) who 
married Esther Macumber. 

(E. W. H.), New Haven, Conn. 

239. Bigelow. Can you describe for me 
the Bigelow coat-of-anns and its ori- 
gin? Also trace the name of Bigelow, 
of which there are several lines. The 
oldest ancestor by that name whom 1 
know is William Bigelow, of Barry, 
Mass., who married Clarissa Miller. 
Can you give me necessary informa- 
tion as to how to trace back the line- 

(H. W. B.). Hartford. Conn. 



5oo 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



240. Taylor. Wanted, any information of 
Gideon or Timothy Taylor. I can 
trace only Gideon, probably son of 
Gideon, born May, 1788, the youngest 
of a family of thirteen. Others were 
Elizabeth, m. Hubbell, Stepney, Weth- 
ersfield. Levi said to have gone to 
Vermont. John, who lived in Bran- 
ford, probably m. a Tyler. The place 
of birth of any desired. 

(E. W. B.), Bridgeport, Conn. 

241. Whiton. My great-grandfather, James 
Whiton, married in Windsor, Conn., 
Dec. 12, 1776, Sarah Loomis. She 
was born April 13, 1759, and died May 
27, 1781. It is my great-grandfather 
that I want to find out about. After 
his first young wife died he married 
again and had quite a large family, 
however, the three children that Sarah 
Loomis had are all that I care about. 
I would like to trace the Whitons. 

(Mrs. L. W. M.), Taunton, Mass. 

242. Denison. Who was the father and 
who the paternal grandfather of 
George Denison, a soldier of the Rev- 
olutionary War? He enlisted tylarch 
17, 1782, and served nine months un- 
der Capt. Wm. Richards and Col. 
Sherman. He enlisted at Stonington, 
Conn., and is supposed to have been 
born there about 1746. He settled in 
Brookfield, Madison Co., N. Y., and 
has a very large number of descend- 
ants in central New York. 

(A. C. W.), Ithaca, N. Y. 

243. (a.) Bennet or Bennit. Mary Booth, 
widow of Ephraim, married April 12, 
1692, Thomas 2 Bennit, Stratford, 
Conn, records ; wanted Mary's parents' 
names and proof of the same, also 
residence. 

(b.) Barlow. Micah Barlow of Wood- 
stock, Conn., married Betsey (?). 

Had children, Darius, born March 11, 
1780; Reuben; Betsey, who married 
a Johnson; wanted the date of Micah 
and Betsey's marriage. And the 
names of the parents of both parties 
with as much of their ancestry as pos- 
sible. Very desirous of above to com- 
plete records. 

(c.) Ford. Chloe Ford, born in Hamp- 
ton, Conn., Nov. 25, 1794; married 
March 28, 1819, Darius Barlow of 
Woodstock, Conn., and she died there 
July 4, 1862; wanted the names of her 
parents and all possible of her ances- 
try. The Ford Genealogy may have 
data; cannot find copy in New York, 
Brooklyn, or Newark, N. J. 

(d.) Crofut or Crowfoot. Phebe Crofut 
married Nov. 10, 1740, Daniel 3 , * 
Beardsley of Stratford, Conn. Wanted 
her parents' names, residence and an- 
cestry far as possible. 



(e.) Hubbell. Peter 8 (Richard 2 , *) mar- 
ried (1) Katherine Wheeler, who died 
March 16, 1742, and before Nov., 1746, 

he married (2) Sarah (?). 

Wanted the names and residence of 
her parents and proof. Peter resided 
at Newtown, Conn. 

(T. E.B.), New York city. 

244. Adams. Information wanted con- 
cerning Amos Adams. He was born 
about 1783, in Dutchess county, N. Y., 
it is believed. He married Polly Rust 
and removed from Dutchess county to 
Cazenovia, N. Y., about 1832; died 
there in 1872. Who were his parents 
and ancestors? 

(F. O. P.), Syracuse, N. Y. 

245. (a.) Sturges. Mary Sturges, who 
married Capt. David Waterbury, Jr., 
Jan._ 11, 1721, was the daughter of 
Christopher and Mary Sturges. Can 
anyone give the maiden name of 
Christopher Sturges' wife, Mary, and 
any information about her, together 
with the dates of birth of her chil- 
dren? Christopher Sturges, of Fair- 
field, is said to have been the son of 
Joseph and Sarah (Beers) Sturges. 
Can anyone prove this and show 
parentage of Christopher Sturges' 
parents ? 

(b.) Smith. Sarah Smith, who, I think, 
was a widow Hoyt or Haight, married 
Feb. 17, 1714, Thos. June, b. July 23, 

1690, son of Peter and Sarah ( ) 

June. Can anyone furnish further 
data about Sarah Smith and about 
Peter and Sarah June? 

(c.) Mead. Henry Mead, b. about 1733, 
and son of Elnathan and Sarah 
(Lyon) Mead, of Greenwich, Conn., is 
said to have married Elizabeth Denton 
and later Mary Wood. However this 
may be, he is known to have married 
also a Knapp, Hoyt, or a Dayton, and 
he had a daughter, Charlotte Mead, 
who married April 13, 1793, Josiah 
Carpenter, of Harrison's Purchase, 
Westchester County, N. Y. Charlotte 
Mead was born April 1, 1774. Can 
anyone elucidate this Mead parentage 
of Charlotte (Mead) Carpenter 
(Lyon) ? Does anyone know who 
John Lyon, of Rye, married? 

(W. A. M.), New York. 

246. Coley. I am extremely anxious to 
learn from what town in England a 
Puritan ancestor, Mr. Samuel More- 
house Coley, emigrated in 1630, or 
thereabouts, to this country — Milford, 
Conn., I think. 

(S. E. C), New York. 

ANSWERS 

147. (d.) Bradford. In answer to A. B. G., 
in January, February and March, 1906, 
will say that in the "History of Mont- 



PROBLEMS OF GENEALOGISTS 



501 



ville" Joseph Bradford married Ann, 
daughter of Rev. James Fitch and 
Priscilla Mason. She died in Leb- 
anon, Oct. 17, 1715. He afterwards 
married Mary (Sherwood) Fitch, 
widow of Captain Daniel Fitch. 

(C. A. B.), New Britain, Conn. 

212. (b.) Buell. Mrs. B. H. H. : In 
the Genealogical Department of The 
Connecticut Magazine I find that 
you are desirous of data regard- 
ing the ancestors (William, John 
and Samuel) of the Buell family. 
I have a few dates taken from 
old records that might possibly 
be of use to you. If you will write 
me just what you are in need of I will 
gladly help you if in my power. 
(Mrs. Lem. S. Tracy), 

East Hampton, Conn. 

132. Bates. E. B. C. asks for ancestry of 
Guernsey Bates, of Durham, Conn., 
son of James Bates, Jr., and Anne 
(Guernsey) Bates. If E. B. C. will 
communicate with me I shall be glad 
to send the complete line of descent. 
And I shall be much obliged if E. B. 
C. can give me the parentage of 
Rhoda, wife of Capt. Ebenezer Guern- 
sey, and mother of Anne Guernsey, 
above mentioned. 

(Dallett Fuguet), Upper Montclair, N. J. 

200. Bradford. Who was Widow Wiswall 
who married Wm. Bradford, son of 
Governor Bradford? I think there 
would be a record of her family in 
the "Hartford Historical Library," 
and if there is no record of Joseph 
Bradford's children in the Bradford 
records of that library, one may be 
found in the "History of Old Wind- 
sor, Connecticut." There are two 
volumes. In 2nd Vol. I think that his- 
tory may also be found in the Hart- 
ford Library. Joseph B. married an 
Annie Fitch, mother of Anne Brad- 
ford. There was a large family of not 
less than nine sons and daughters, and 
I think ten or eleven. 

(Mrs. W. W. C), Hartford, Conn. 

211. (a.) Collins. I have a good deal of 
genealogical data pertaining to both 
Collins and Buell families. "Parson's 
Hall Family History," the "Kelley 
Family History" and the "Dunlevy 
Family History" will give an account 
of both families. Timothy (Rev.) 
Collins of Litchfield, Conn., was born 
in Guilford, April 13, 1699, and was 
the third son of John Collins, Jr., of 
Guilford, by his wife, Ann, eldest 
daughter of John Leete and grand- 
daughter of Gov. Wm. Leete. He 
was at Yale College, 1718, d. 1777. 
John Collins and Ann Leete were 
married July 25, 1691, and their 



daughter, Avis, and Peter Buel were 
m. Dec. 18, 1734. Lewis Collins 
came in 1630 in the Massachusetts 
Bay Colony, but I have been un- 
able to find any trace of him. John 
and Deacon Edward Collins of - 

bridge were brothers, the sons of Na- 
thaniel, a graduate of Cambridge 
University, England. The family 
name of our John is the same as those 
of Deacon Edward's, and they seem 
to have gone to the same towns, Mid- 
dletown, New Haven, etc. My idea 
is that John Collins, Jr., was never in 
Boston, but went/ to Connecticut from 
Charlestown or (Jambridge. A branch 
of the family settled at Brimfield and 
an ancient letter states that a record 
was preserved in this family. There 
was a John Collins in Boston, whose 
son went to Saybrooke and later to 
Branford, but our John Collins was 
established there before the date of 
this John Collins, who seems to have 
been a shoemaker. John Collins of 
Branford and Guilford married a 
Trowbridge, then Mary Kingsworth, 
a daughter of "Goodman" Stevens, 
and for a third, Dorcas Tainter, and 
died 1704. 

(C. C. C), Cincinnati, O. 

227. Hill. Mr. Edwin A. Hill, Room 348, 
Patent Office, Washington, D. C, may 
be able to help "U. H., Jr., Peek- 
skill, N. Y.," in his search for infor- 
mation concerning his ancestors 
named mil. 
(Mrs. C. E. Williams), Groton, Conn. 

212. (b.) Buell. William Buell, born at 
Chesterton, Huntingdonshire, Eng- 
land, about 1610, came to Dorchester, 
Mass., thence to Windsor, Conn., 
about 1635-6, and died Nov. 23. 1681. 
His widow, Mrs. Mary Buell, died 
Sept. 2, 1684. Residence, Killing- 
worth, Conn. 

SECOND GENERATION 
Samuel Buell, born Sept. 2, 1641, in 
Windsor, married Nov. 13 or 18, 1662, 
Deborah, daughter of Edward or Mat- 
thew Griswold of Windsor. Samuel 
Buell died July II, 1720, and Mrs. 
Deborah Buell d. Feb. 7, 1719. Resi- 
dence, Killingworth, Conn. Several 
children. 

THIRD GENERATION 
John Buell, b. Feb. 17, 1671, married 
Nov. 20, 1695. Mary Loomis. b. March 
20, 1672, daughter of Thomas Loomis 
of Windsor. She d. in Nov., 1768, 
and John Buell d. April 9, 1746. Resi- 
dence, Litchfield, Conn. Several chil- 
dren. 

FOURTH GENERATION 
Peter Buell, b. May 22, 17 10. married 
Dec. 18, 1734. Avis Collins, b. April 1. 



5° 2 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



1714, daughter of Rev. Timothy Col- 
lins and Elizabeth Hyde. She d. in 
Litchfield, Conn., Nov. 1, 1754. Peter 
Buell d. May 10, 1784. 

(J. H. B.), Plainfield, Conn. 

201. (i.) Caulkins. John Caulkins mar- 
ried before 1659, in New London, 
Conn., Sarah, daughter of Robert 
Royce. John Caulkins was born in 
England and came with his father and 
mother to America at the age of four; 
he was, therefore, born 1634. He died 
in New London, Conn., Jan. 8, 1703 ; 
his wife, Sarah, died at the same place 
in May, 171 1. 

Robert Royce was of Boston, Mass., 
1631, and moved to New London, 
Conn., 1657. 

(Mrs. H. E. S.), Plainfield, Conn. 

146. Hawkins. In looking over the back 
numbers of the Connecticut Maga- 
zine, in the Bridgeport Public Library, 
I have come across the following: 
"Hawkins. Clarissa Hawkins m. Feb. 
26, 1776, Benjamin Twitchel of Ox- 
ford, Conn, (it is thought). Desired, 
her early family history, dates of birth 
and death and where each occurred. 
Also names of her father and mother 
with dates of their birth, marriage 
and death." This is in a bound vol- 
ume of "The Connecticut Quarterly," 
Volume IV; Jan. to Dec, 1898; 
Question 146; query C; signed A. J. 
H. ; page 225 ; genealogical depart- 
ment. 

1 have a little information along this 
line of Hawkins. 

(H. T. S.), Fairfield, Conn. 
ail. (a.) Collins. John Collins m'd Su- 
sannah in Eng. ; came over in 1638. 
Returned to Eng. 1649. 
John Collins, Jr., m'd Mary Kingston, 1 
Mary Trowbridge. 2 
John Collins, b. 1644. 
John Collins, d. 1704 Branford. 3 ch. 

2 wives. 

John Collins (3rd), m'd Ann Leete 
July 23, 1691, Lebanon, Conn. 
John Collins, b. 1665, B'fd, (12 ch.). 
John Collins, d. Jan. 24, 1751, Litch- 
field. 

Avis Collins, m'd Peter Buell, Dec. 26, 
1706. 

Avis Collins' sister to Timothy Col- 
lins. 

(Mrs. B. H.), Watertown, Conn. 
192. Bartholomew. Jonathan, son of Jos- 
eph, son of Andrew, son of William, 
was born in Wallingford, Nov. 5, 
1750, as given by the town records. 
One descendant says it was the 6th of 
May, 1 75 1, and the U. S. Pension 
Dept. has it 3rd and 23rd of Feb., 
1755. He married in Wallingford 
Anna Cook, who was born Oct. 5, 



175 1, and died Jan. 13th, 1836, aged 

84. He died Jan. 28th, 1846, "aged 

. about 96 years." He enlisted in Dec, 

1775, and was employed about New 
York city and Long Island in building 
forts. In May, 1776, he was detailed 
for hospital service, particularly to 
care for Lieutenant Hart, who was ill 
of camp fever, with which he was 
afterward attacked, and was removed 
on the evacuation of the city with the 
retreat of the army to Kingsbridge. 
He recovered sufficiently to participate 
in the Battle of White Plains in Oct., 

1776. In the spring of 1777 he was 
engaged in guard duty on the Con- 
necticut coast, but later joined Col. 
Enos' regiment and marched up the 
North River to repel Gen. Burgoyne's 
advance. Later returning to Horse- 
neck, Conn. The next year he sub- 
stituted in place of Stephen Hall, who 
had been drafted for coast-guard duty. 
His father, Joseph, born in Branford, 
May 6, 1721, married Jan. 13, 1741-2 
Mary Sexton and died on Oct. 27th, 
1781. Held commission from the 
General Court to command all those 
subject to military duty in the town 
of Wallingford, where he owned a 
large farm.. 

In State Reports of Rev. service : 
Conn. State Troops, 1776, Capt. Brun- 
nel's Co. of Wallingford; Jonathan 
Bartholomew, private. 
Abraham Foote's Co., Col. Andrew 
Ward's Regiment; Jonathan Bartholo- 
mew, private. 

In 1832 — among pensioners of New 
Haven County: 

In 1840, Jonathan Bartholomew of 
Wallingford, "aged 85," had a pen- 
sion. 

(A. M. B.), Bristol, Conn. 
211. (a.) Collins. Rev. Timothy Collins 
was my great-great-grandfather; he 
was the son of John Collins and Ann 
Leete, granddaughter of Gov. William 
Leete, a colonial governor and also 
governor of Connecticut seven times, 
after the two colonies of New Haven 
and Connecticut were united. Avis 
Collins, who married Peter Buel of 
Litchfield, Conn., was his sister. I do 
not know the date of their marriage, 
but supposed it could be obtained from 
some member of General Wm. Buel 
Franklin's family, who was with his 
brother, Admiral Franklin, in direct 
descent from Avis Collins; her niece, 
Lorraine Collins, married Gov. Oliver 
Wolcott, whose son, the 2nd Gov. Oli- 
ver, was" in Washington's Cabinet. 
The late Gov. Rogers of Massachu- 
setts was also in direct line from her. 
(Mrs. J. F. K.), Waverly, Ga. 



PROBLEMS OF GENEALOGISTS 



503 



203. (d.) Pratt. I have two documents re- 
lating to the settlement of the estate of 
Andrew Sill, of Lyme, Silltown — one 
given by Mary, his second wife; the 
other by his sons, Andrew, Samuel, 
Uriah and Ezra, children by his first 
marriage. There was also a sister 
Phebe, but her name is not signed to 
the document, which was given April 
19, 1789. 

These documents prove two things : 
First, that the Mather Genealogy is 
wrong in stating that of the above- 
named children, only Andrew was by 
the first wife, Phebe Mather, as Char- 
ity Pratt, b. 1756 or 7, daughter of the 
widow, Mary Pratt, whom he mar- 
ried for his second wife; married 
Andrew Sill's youngest son, Ezra Sill, 

b. 1753- 

This widow, Mary Pratt, was the 
mother of Jeremiah, Edward, Fanny 
Temperance, who m. Theodore Smith; 
Charity, who m. Ezra Sill, and Han- 
nah. I have been searching long and 
in vain for their Pratt ancestry. 

(F. M. C), Hornell, N. Y. 
201. (c.) Ross. The story of Betsey Ross, 
as told me by a great-granddaughter, 
Miss Sarah Markley Wilson, assist- 
ant superintendent of Independence 
Hall, runs thus: Elizabeth Griscom 
was the seventh daughter of Samuel 
and Rebecca (James) Griscom, born 
in Philadelphia, Jan. 1, 1752. Samuel 
Griscom was a carpenter and builder. 
He had the contract for the building 
of the State House, now known as In- 
dependence Hall. His home was at 4th 
and Arch Sts. Elizabeth Griscom 
m. John Ross, son of the Rev. Amos 
Ross, rector of Trinity Church. He 
was the son of Rev. George Ross of 
New Castle, Del. John Ross died 
from the injuries received from an ex- 
plosion of gun powder received whilst 
guarding some stores of Continental 
ammunition on one of the wharfs. 
He was buried in Christ Church Bury- 
ing Ground at 5th and Arch Sts., Jan. 
21, 1777. On their marriage, less than 
two years before his death, they had 
become members of Christ Church. 
John Ross was an upholsterer; his 
home and business was on Arch St. in 
the house now known as the Flag 
House. It was to this house that the 
committee appointed by the Continen- 
tal Congress repaired to lay before 
Mrs. Ross their needs, she having con- 
tinued in her late husband's business. 
Of this committee was Col. George 
Ross, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, and an uncle of the late 
John Ross. 



Betsey Ross married in June 15, 1777, 
(in "Gloria Dei" as old Smeeder 
Church is called) to Capt. Joseph Ash- 
burn. There were two children born 
of this marriage — the first had been 
childless— Zilla, b. Sept. 15, 1779, who 
died young, and Eliza, b. Feb. 25, 1731. 
She married Captain Isaac Silliman; 
she had several children; she died 
1833. Miss Wilson tells me this line 
of descendants has become extinct. 
Capt. Ashburn was captured on board 
the privateer "Luzerne," was taken to 
Mill Prison, Plymouth, England, 
where he found kn old friend from 
Philadelphia, Johjn Claypoole,. Cap- 
tain Ashburn became ill of a prison 
fever. He was carefully nursed by 
his friend, Mr. Claypoole; he died on 
March 3, 1782; to John Claypoole 
were entrusted the last messages to 
his wife; on his being exchanged for 
a British prisoner, he returned to his 
home; to him was entrusted the tale 
of the death of Capt. Ashburn. John 
Claypoole, who was a suitor for the 
hand of Mrs. Ross, whilst engaged to 
Joseph Ashburn, renewed his ac- 
quaintance and as an accepted suitor 
led to the altar on May 6th, 1763. the 
widow of his old friend. They be- 
came members of the Free Quaker 
Church, whose edifice at 5th and 
Arch St. was erected the year they 
were married, and on their death were 
buried in the Free Quaker Cemetery, 
5th St., below Walnut. John Clay- 
poole, who was the son of William 
and Elizabeth (Hall) was born at 
Mt. Holly, N. J., Aug. 15, 1752; he 
died Aug. 3, 1817; she died June 30, 
1839. There were five Claypoole chil- 
dren, four of whom lived to grow up. 
marry and bore families. Clarissa 
Sidney Claypoole, the eldest, married 
Jacob Wilson; she was left a widow 
with several small children; at the 
time of Mr. Wilson's death they re- 
sided in Baltimore; she returned to 
Philadelphia and tok up the work of 
flag making — the government con- 
tract was held in the family more than 
sixty years. Thus I have told in a 
rambling way something of Betsey 
Ross, her romances and the story of 
her flag making. The Claypoole 
Genealogy tells the story in about the 
same way. Miss Wilson gave it to 
me as her notes were taken from the 
story told therein by her cousin. 
George Caul v. who has recently died 

(V. E. C), Philadelphia. Pa. 
Skinner. Deborah Skinner, b. July 22, 
1701, bapt July JO. 170J. in. July 14. 
1720. William Pitts, of Boston, m. u ,N > 
John Tasker, d. Julv i-\ 1768; was the 



5°4 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



daughter of Dea. Richard Skinner, b. 
about 1666, m. Nov. 30, 1682, Alice, 
dau. of William and Mary Woods ; 
she d. Apr. 13, 1723, aged 56; he d. 
Mar. 9, 1726-7, aged 61, of Marble- 
head. See the Driver Family; Mar- 
blehead Records and Abraham How- 



ard's Descendants. Mary Skinner, 
who married Judah Williams, belongs 
to the tribe of Thomas of Maiden, 
which is running in the Genealogical 
Exchange. 

(Mrs. N. R. R), Buffalo, N. Y. 



183. Perhaps it may be of interest to 
inquirer 183 to know that in 
Woodbury there are the follow- 
ing documents: 

WARRANTY DEEDS 

John Stone to Ensign John 
Stream, Mar 8, 1681. 

John Plum to Ensign John 
Stream, Mar. 2J, 1681. 

Nicholas Smith to Ensign 
John S., Feb. 10, 1680. 

Charles Deale to same, May 
9, 1681. 

April 3, 1683, Johne Fowler 
deeded l /\. of island in the Great 
River (Housatonic), to same all 
above exected before Robert 
Treat. Also the original distri- 
bution of Ensign John Stream's 
estate. Daniel Terrill was one 
of the distributers. 

(E. S. B.), Woodbury, Conn. 

183. Clark-Coley. In reply to a query 

regarding the wife of John 

Clark of Saybrook and Milford 

will say: "The wife of John 



Clarke was Mary Coley, daugh- 
ter of John." 

(E. A. C), Pittsfield, Mass. 
182. (b.) Birdseye-Hawley. In the 
Connecticut Magazine I saw 
this inquiry: "Katherine Birds- 
eye, married 1646 Joseph Haw- 
ley; died June 15, 1692. Was 
she a daughter of John, the emi- 
grant and sister of Reverend 
Nathan Birdseye ?" Reverend 
Nathan, my great-great grand- 
father, had but two sisters, 
Dinah, who died at the age of 
six, and Hannah, born Aug. 12, 
1 7 10. Reverend Nathan was 
the great grandson of Deacon 
John Birdseye and Philippa 
Smith, the emigrant, who came 
to America in 1636. Tradition 
says his brother Edward came 
with him and it was his daugh- 
ter Katherine who married Jos- 
eph Hawley, the first of that 
name in Stratford. 
(M. E. B. R.), Bridgeport, Conn. 



CONSOLATION 

BY 

HENRY SHERMAN SMART 



'Twas twilight, and methought I saw a star 
Which led me into heaven's celestial light : — 

A boundless realm of joy, where, from afar, 
Angelic harpers sang, all robed in white : 

Take hope, ye weary ones, whose life's o'ercast 
With doubt and fear ; blest Immortality 

Shall waft thy mortal pilgrimage at last 
Into the haven of Eternity. 



HARTFORD DEPT. STORES 

ire Unsurpassed in the Excellence and Variety of their 
Wares by any Establishments in New England 



HARTFORD'S GREAT SHOPPING CENTER 

BROWN, THOMSON & CO. 

LARGEST STORE, LARGEST STOCK IN THE STATE 



SAGE, ALLEN & CO., 

Specialists in Ladies' and Children's Ap- 
parel, Millinery, Laces, Silks, Dress 
Goods, Linens, Gloves, Hosiery, 
Corsets and Underwear 

MAIN AND KINSLEY STREETS 



C. S. HILLS <& CO. 

THE 

"Hartford Silk Store" 



HARTFORD JEWELERS 

ersmiths Carry Unexcelled Stocks of Precious 
Gems, Watches and Silverware 



C. H, Case & Co, 

Established 1868. 

[ AM0ND5, WATCHES AND JEWELRY, 

;51 T^KIN STREBT, HRRTFORD, CONN. 
TELEPHONE 2618. 



D. H. BLINIV 

JEWELER 

SO ASYLUM ST., HARTFORD. 

old and Gold Filled Watches 

A. Specialty 

High Grade Watch Repairing. 



HANSEL, SLOAN & CO. 

Precious Stones, Rich Jeuielry, Silverware, 

Clocks, Bronzes, Porcelains, Etc. 
18 Asylum Street, Hartford, Conn. 



PHILIP H. STEVENS 

JEWELER 
12 Asylum Street, Hartford, Conn. 



HARTFORD ARCHITECTS 

Have Planned Many of the Finest Business Structures, 
Public Buildings and Residences in New England 



3AYLEY& GOODRICH 
Catlin Bldg. Cor. Main and Asylum 

architects of the Hotel Garde, Highland Court, 
Jniversalist Building, The Howard, etc., in Hart- 
ord and numerous buildings and residences 
hroughout New England. 



George Zun ned 

ARCHITECT 

| HARTFORD TRUST CO. BIDO. ROOM 39 
HARTFORD, CONN. 



Please mention "The Connecticut Magazine" when patronizing: our advertisers 



HARTFORD BUSINESS HOUSES 

Enterprising and Reliable. Their Energy and Square 
Dealing Brings Trade from all parts of Connecticut 




Pictures 
framed 



IN GOOD TASTE 
AT SHORT NOTICE 



SAJVUJELr B. DOINCHIAIN 

Importer of Finest Grade 
ORIENTAL RUGS 

AND 

PRECIOUS STONES 

Manufacturer of the Si'ltan Rug Fastener 
75 PEARL ST., HARTFORD. Telephone 1086 





ffiER 



DESIGNER J|^ ENGRAVER 
ILLUSTRATOR l AD -WRITER 
177 ASYLUM ST. HARTFORD, CONN. 




Do you follow the GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT in 

THE HARTFORD TIMES? 

It is a feature that is valued by thousands of 
Connecticut families. 

THE TIMES Is Connecticut's Representative Newspaper. 

Daily, $8 a year. Address THE TIMES, 

Semi-Weekly. $1 a year. Hartford, Ct. 



GEMMILL, BURNHAM & CO., In< 

MERCHANT TAILORS 

Manufacturers and Retailers of 

FINE READY MADE CLOTHING 

Full Dress, Prince Albert and Tuxedo 

Suits for Rent 

64—66—68 Asylum Street, Hartford, Con 



0O O 
C QAL 



.^MAKEScy 



Frayer and Foste 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

COAL 

446 ASYLUM STREE1 
HARTFORD, CONN. 



The Return of the Gibson Girl 

A new series of "Gibson Heads" is now offered by Tl 
New York Sunday World. These drawings are from tl 
pen of the world-famed artist, Charles Gibson. The pi 
tures are in India black, on a buff background, upon a 
paper, and each is ready for framing. The first "Gibsc 
Girl" art supplement will be given next Sunday. Get tl 
set. Order from newsdealer in advance. 



Nearly Everybody in Hartford reads 

Ijpic ||i!^ning pas 

Modern, Popular-Priced and Independent. 



HARTFORD DENTISTS 

Are Skilled in their Profession. Have your Dentistry 

done in Hartford 



GEO. F?. BARRETT, D. D. S. 

DENTIST 

Room 80, Sage-Allen Building, 
902 Main Street . . . Hartford 



C. CLAYTON WARD, D. D. S. 

HARTFORD, CONN. 
Room 75, Brown-Thomson Bldg. 



DR. J. F. WRIGHT, 

DENTIST 

904 Main Street, 
Ballerstein Building, Hartford, Conn. 



DR. L. G. CHAPMAN 
DENTIST 

Room 30 Ballerstein Building 
Q04 Main Street 



Elevator 



'Phone 



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HARTFORD DENTISTS— Continued 



HAVE YOU ANY MOUTH BREATHERS IN YOUR FAMILY ? 




This deformity of the upper jaw on the 
right was a result of this habit. The habit is 
caused by obstructions in the nose or throat. 
or both. To prevent it consult a throat and 
nose specialist to the end that the child may 
breathe in the only proper way. i. e., through 
the nose. But, if it has not been prevented, 
the condition can be corrected, as the cut on 
the left will show; as they are both from re- 
productions in plaster of the same jaw. The 
one on the right was taken in November. 
1904, and the other in July. 1006. For f ui ther 
information in regard to this work call on 
DR. ELMER B. ABBEY, 

Rm. 77, Sage-Allen Bldg., Hartford, Conn. 

Tie will be glad to show the models here 
illustrated, as well as numerous others that 
will surely interest you. 



ten 



HARTFORD INSURANCE REPRESENTATIVES 

Place Contracts with the Strongest and most Con- 
servatively Managed Insurance Companies in America 



FRANK G. BURINHAiW 

Cife ana Accident Insurance 



General Agent 
State Mutual Life Assurance Co. 
of Worcester, Mass. 



Room 50 
Sage- Allen Bldg. 
Telephone 262 



CHARLES MERRIMAN, 
Fire Insurance Agency 

65 Pearl Street, Hartford, Conn. 

Telephone 280 



HELP UPBUILD HARTFORD 



Make it the Business Hub of Connecticut; the Shopping 
Centre of the State; the Concentration Point of Connecti- 
cut's Business Interests. 



Let the people outside of Hartford know you are doing 
business in Hartford. 



Establish your name all over the state as an enterprising 
Hartford Business Firm. 



YOU CAN DO IT IN THESE PAGES 



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HARTFORD REALTY DEALERS 

Handle extensive propositions in all parts of Connecticut. Place 

your interests in their hands. Investments in Hartford 

Real Estate pay big dividends 




Hon. J. M. BRADY. 



WE ARE SPECIALISTS IN OUR LINES. 

Our Lines are Real Estate and Fire Insurance. 

Lrrge deals a specialty. Property interest in 
Real Estate and Fire Insurance handled to any 
amount anywhere in the United States. 

Tie J. I. Brafly Realty 

Rl, 58 anil 58-A, Hills Block, 

847 MAIN STREET, HARTFORD, CONN. 




Mr. E. F. O'BRIEN. 



E_ C. HALLIDAY 
RE AX ESTATE 

Hartford and Greater New York Real Estate a 
. — Specialty 



Room 71, Sage- Allen Bldg., Hartford 



F, G, WHITMORE & SON 

REAL ESTATE 

49 Pearl Street, Hartford 



TOO LATE FOR CLASSIFICATION 




THE 

NEW HOTEL ALBERT 

Eleventh St. & University PI., New York City 
One Block West of Broadway 

The only absolutely modern fireproof transient 
hotel below Twenty-second Street. Location central, 
yet quiet. 400 rooms, 200 with bath, from $1.00 per day 
upwards. 

Excellent restaurant and cafe attached 
Moderate prices 

Send two cent stamp for Illustrated Guide and Map 
of New York City 



Wl LLIAMS 




Trade Mark 



We 



Sell and 

Make to 

Order, 

Alter and 



Furs 



Etc. 



{ Repair 

STORAGE FOR 

Furs, Clothing, Ru 

Insured against Moth, Fire and 

ALFRED C. J. WILLIAMS 

Formerly of Pratt Street 
Now 38 ALLYN ST. HARTFORD, CONN. 



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Connecticut Industries 



With an Invested Capital of $373,283,580, Giving 

Employment to 181,529 Mechanics, Paying 

them Annually in Wages $87,942,628 

Connecticut last year Produced 

Goods valued at $369,082,091 



CONNECTICUT supplies the 
world with a greater variety 
of products than any other 
equal area 'on the face of the 
globe. It has a greater capital in- 
vested in propositions created solely 
for sound manufacturing purposes 
than any other commonwealth of the 
same approximate wealth. It em- 
ploys more men and women, pays 
them more wages, and gives them 
healthier occupations and working 
facilities than any other state of the 
same population. With the most ; 
modern machinery, plants of scientific 
sanitary construction, honest material, 
skilled mechanics, and men of the 
highest integrity in control of the fi- 
nances, manufacturing in Connecticut 
is on the highest plane and is a model 
for all other commonwealths. 

The dividends on the investments 
in stock companies operating their 
plants under the protection of the 
Connecticut laws, are as sound as any 
vested interests in the financial world. 
In this connection it is interesting to 
note the recent records of money in- 
vested in stocks and bonds in indus- 
trials, steam railroads, public utilities 
and mines in the United States, as it 
is probable much of the surplus Con- 
necticut capital finds its way into 
these four channels : 

In the four divisions of steam rail- 
roads, public utilities, industrials and 
mines, $36,248,668,000 of capitaliza- 
tion is represented, of which over 
92 per cent, more than $33,500,- 
000,000, is embraced within the bor- 
ders of the United States. 

As this covers only corporations 
which have stocks and bonds out- 
standing, to a more or less degree in 
the hands of the public, it is fair to 



assume that if all the small businesses 
which are carried on in corporate 
form as close corporations were added 
to the total, the aggregate would be 
several billions higher. The figures 
given do not include banking capital, 
which, if added, would probably bring 
the total for the United Stat 
more than $40,000,000,000. 

In steam railroads there is a total 
of 256,301 miles, of which 22_\<>i ; is 
in the United States. The total capi- 
talization represented for this divi- 
sion in the United States is $13,908,- 
456,000. 

The figures which are of most 
striking interest to the public are the 
astounding totals showing the amount 
of capital invested in the various pub- 
lic utility corporations of the United 
States. No less than $8,129,536,000 
is represented in this particular field. 
In the electric traction field the t 
reach no less than $4422,764,000, 
which is nearly one-third the par 
value of steam railroad capitalization. 
The government estimate i^\ capitali- 
zation in this field only a few months 
ago was about $3,3 OO. In 

the gas and electric light field the 
"Manual" reports a total of 
620,000, which is also considerably 
higher than any figures heretofore 
officially furnished. The repdxl 
over S323.ooo.oro as still invested in 
water supply companies shows that 
there is still in active oper 
water supply industry in this country 
which is not yet in the hands oi mu- 
nicipalities. 

The figures on the telephone field 
bring out the fact that the Bell system 
still predominates in a pro- 

nounced way among invest 
Nearly $I,000,000,000 in capita" 



LEADING INDUSTRIES IIN HARTFORD 

Hartford has a combined capital of $28,358,583-11,179 mechanics last year received wages of $6,562,236 and from 
materials valued at $11,587,130; produced $25,973,651 in finished product— Hartford covers 11,520 acres; its grand list 
exceeds $65,000,000 and population 90,000— Hartford has exceptionally strong transportation facilities by steamboat 
from New York; from all railroad points via N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., and a network of electric railways to subur- 
ban communities. 



ATLANTIC SCREW WORKS 

85 CHARTER OAK AVENUE 

David Tilton, Prop. Established 1879 

Wood Screws of Every Description 

Our specialties are brass and bronze metal 

screws — Flat, Round and Oval Heads. 



AUSTIN ORGAN COMPANY 

John T. Austin, Pres. John Spencer Camp, Vice-Pres. 
L. R. Cheney, Sec. and Treas. 



Builders of 
Electric and 
Tubular 



HIGH GRADE 
PIPE ORGANS 



AETNA STAMP WORKS 

25 Asylum Street 
Hartford, Conn. 
Manufacturers of 
RUBBER STAMPS, SEAL PRESSES, 
STENCILS, BAGGAGE CHECKS, Etc. 
Patentees of Seal Presses and Rubber Stamp 
Making Machinery. Expert workers in our 
line— Best equipped office in Connecticut. 



THE J. B. BURR & COMPANY, Incorporated 
Edgar B. Burr, Pres. H. S. King, Sec. and Treas. 

336 ASYLUM STREET 

Sole Manufacturers of 
Patent Eureka Pad and Cover 

Manufacturing and Insurance Printing 
a specialty 



COLT'S PATENT FIRE-ARMS MFG. CO. 

Chartered 1855. Capital $1,000,000 
L. C. Grover, Pres. Wi, C. Skinner, Vice-Pres., 
P. C. Nichols, 2d Vice-Pres., FA Schirmer, Treas., 
A. L. Ulrich, Sec, W. B Williams, Jr., Asst. Treas. 
Colt Revolvers, Colt Automatic Pistols, Colt Automatic 
Machine Guns, Catling Guns, Gun Mounts and Carriages 
Colt Revolvers adopted by U. S. Army and Navy, Foreign Gov- 
ernments, State National Guards, Municipal Police Departments 



THE STANDARD COMPANY 

Incorporated 

Successors to 

THE BARBER INK CO. J. S. BIRDEN & CO. 

Standard Inks and Mucilage, Am- Tickles, Horse Radish, Olives, Vine- 

monia, Blueing, Witch Hazel, gar, Mustard, Celery Salad, Wor- 

White Paste. cestershire 8auce, Catsup. 

Capital City Pickle House : Packers of Sweet, Mixed, Chow 
Chow, Gherkin, Onion and Piccalilli Pickles, Pepper Relish. 



POPE MANUFACTURING COMPANY 
Capital $22,500,000 

Albsbt A. Pope. Pres , Albert L. Pope, 1st Vice-Pres., C. E. 

Walker, 2d Vice-Pres., Wilbur Walker, Sec, 

George Pope, Treas. 

POPE AUTOMOBILES 

POPEBICTCLES POPE MOTOR CYCLES 



THE ASA S. COOK COMPANY 

Established 1858. Incorporated 1896 

Asa S. Cook, Pres and Treas. John F. Cook, Sec. and 
Mgr. M. F. Cook, Asst. Treas. 

Manufacturers of 

WOOD SCREW MACHINERY 



ELECTRIC VEHICLE COMPANY 

Incorporated 1897. Authorized Capital $20,000,000 

Milton J Budlong. Pres. W. G. Henderson, Treas. 

H. W Ktte. Sec. 

COLUMBIA AUTOMOBILES 

ELECTRIC VEHICLES, GASOLINE VEHICLES 

Delivery Wagons, Trucks, Ambulances, Patrol Wagons, 

Busses, Broughams, Victorias, Phaetons, Runabouts 



THE 



WHITLOCK COIL PIPE 
Factory: Elmwood 



CO. 



C. E. Beach, Pres. E. G. Clark, Vice-Pres. 

Arthur S. Htde, Treas. and Mgr. 

High Pressure Power Plant Piping, Pipe Coils, Feed Water 

Heaters, Condensers, Automobile Coolers, Plumbers' 

Supplies. Engineers, Pipe Benders, Brass Founders 

and Finishers, Sheet and Metal Workers 



ELECTRIC 



SWITCHES 



H A RT aNd H EGCMAN 



HARTFORD, 



CONN. 



THE HART MANUFACTURING CO. 

Established 1898. Gerald W. Hart, Pres. 

Manufacturers of 

" Diamond H" Electric Switches 

Branch Offices: New York, Boston, Chicago, Denver, 
San Francisco, Toronto, Can., London, Eng. 



WILLIAM OLDS & CO. 
GENERAL CONTRACTORS 

Stair Builders, Store and Office Fixtures and General Mill 
Work 

GET OUR ESTIMATES 

in Commerce Street, Hartford, Conn. 

Telephone 2019-4 




L. E. RHODES 

32 Union Place. Telephone 

Seven-Inch Shapers 

Special Machinery 
Experimental Work 

Dies and Tools 
Inventions Developed 



-reading Industries of Hartford — continued 



THE HENRY & WRIGHT MFG. CO. 

Capital $80,000 

Robert G. Henry, Pres. Joseph H. Kino, Vice-Pres. 
D. M. Wright, Sec. and Treas. 

Makers of Ball Bearing Drill Presses 



JEWELL BELTING COMPANY 

Established 1848. Capital $800,000 

Pliny Jewel, Pres. Lyman B. Jewell, Vice-Pres. Charles E/Newton, 

Treas. Charles L. Tolles, Sec. 

Tanners of Pure Oak Bark Leather, Lace Leather, Polishing 

Leathers.Metal lie Tipped Belt Lacings.Round Belting, BeltHooks 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF GEM BELTING 
Dealers in Hides and Skins 



THE NATIONAL MACHINE CO. 

Established 1890. Capital $5,000 

Chas. E. Billings, Pres. Silas Chapin, Jr., Vice-Pres. 

S. E. W. Bronson, Treas. and Gen. Mgr. 

W. F. Loomis, Sec. F. H. Palmer, Asst. Sec. 

Printing, Embossing, Cutting and Creasing Presses 

Machine Tools and Special Machinery 

111 to 135 SHELDON STREET, Hartford, Conn. 



THE LEGATE MFG. CO., INC. 

66 Market St. Hartford, Conn. 

MANUFACTURING SILVERSMITHS 

wholesalers and retailers in 

Rogers' Silver-Plated Ware and Sterling Silver 

repairing and reflating op all kinds. 

At the Old Wm. Roger's Salesrooms. 



tion is reported in the telephone in- 
vestment statistics, and of this $611,- 
694,000 is represented by stocks and 
bonds in the hands of the public, 
which have been issued by the Bell 
parent company and its thirty-eight 
operating subsidiaries. Telegraph 
and cable companies are represented 
by $296,904,000 of capitalization. 

The industrial division covers what 
are commonly known as the indus- 
trial trusts, and reports a total capital- 
ization of over $10,000,000,000, of 
which more than $9,800,000,000 is in 
the United States. This capitaliza- 



SIMEON L. & GEORGE H. ROGERS CO. 
Capital $250,000 

SONS OF THE PIONEEIi BOGEBfl RBI 

G. L. Hallenbeck, Pres. and Treas. B. F. -age, Sec. 

C. P. Cooley, Vice-Pres. 

Factories: Hartford and Wallingford. 

HIGHEST GRADE SILVER-PLATED WAKE 



HARTFORD MACHINE SCREW CO. 
Chartered 1876 

Manufacturers of MACHINE SCREWS and all manner of 
Turned Special Parts from Every Kind of Material 

Also Builders of AUTOMATIC SCREW MACHINERY 



UNDERWOOD TYPEWRITER COMPANY 

Capital $3,500,000. Organized 1S96 

John T. Underwood, Pres DeWitt Bergen, Sec. and 
Treas. 

TYPEWRITERS 
Factory: Hartford, Conn. Main Office: 241 Broadway, New York 



BRISTOL 



TURNER & DEEGAN 

Established 1894 

Manufacturers of Bit Braces. Breast Drills, 

Screw Drivers, Etc. 

BRISTOL, CONN. 

Salesroom, 84 Warren Street. New York 



tion represents industrial undertak- 
ings and enterprises of every conceiv- 
able nature which are operated under 
the corporate form and which have 
stocks or bonds outstanding in the 
hands of the public. More than 1,500 
distinct corporations arc included. 

In the mining division eight hun- 
dred and eighty different companies, 
including over $2,500,000,000 of cap- 
italization, are represented, covering 
gold, copper, lead, zinc ami all other 
mines. There is one meerschaum 
mine described, one sapphire mine 
and one rubv mine. 



Leading Industries of New London 



THE BRAINERD & ARMSTRONG CO. 

New London, Conn. 

Capital and Surplus - - $1,000,000 

President B. A. Armstrong 

Manufacturers of 

Embroidery Silks; Spool Sewing Silks; Machine and Buttonhole 

Twists; Silk and Satin Tailors" Linings; High Grade 

Dress Silks and Satins 



THE D. E. VVHITON MACHINE CO. 

RSTABLI&HBD 1856 

190 Howard St. Nnv LONDON, CONN 

GEAK CUTTING AND CENTERING MAI B - 

AXM DBIU US I.athk i'ma> 

IKON KOINPKKS 

ChUCkS for UM on Foot Lathes a >;< 
Send for iflostrated Catalogue. 



UBADIINa INDUSTRIES IN NEW BRITAIN 

New Britain has a coiibined capital of about $15,000,000, producing manufactured goods valued at over $13,000,000 
employing about 9,000 at annual wages exceeding $4,000,000— New Britain holds distinction for patenting more 
inventions per capita than any other city in the world— Its population is about 35,000 and its annual list about 
$22,000,000 



AMERICAN HOSIERY COMPANY 

Organized 1868. Capital $300,000 

E. H. Davison, President 

G. S. Talcott, Treasurer 

High Grade Underwear and Hosiery 



P. AND F. CORBIN 

Established 1854. Capital $500,000 

Philip Corbin, President. Charles H. Parsons, First 

Vice-President. Charles E. Whetmore, Second 

Vice-President and Treasurer. Edward L. Prior, 

Assistant Treasurer. Albert N. Abbe, Secretary. 

Charles B. Parsons, Asst. Sec. 

BUILDERS AND CABINET HARDWARE 



CORBIN CABINET LOCK CO. 

Incorporated 1882. Capital $200,000 

P. Corbin, President. C. H. Baldwin, Vice-President. 
W. H. Booth, Secretary. G. L. Corbin, Asst. Sec. 
C. H. Baldwin, Treasurer. 
Cabinet Locks, Padlocks, Trunk Locks, Suit Case Locks, 
Keys and Blanks. Special Hardware, Hou=e Letter Box- 
es, Rural Mail Boxes, Apartment House Letter Boxes, 
Post Office Equipments. 



CORBIN MOTOR VEHICLE CORP. 

Incorporated 1904. Capital $200,000 

H. S. Hart, President. M. S. Hart, Vice- 

Pres. and Treas. Paul P. Wilcox, Asst. 

Treas. and Sec. 

AUTOMOBILES AND GARAGE 



CORBIN SCREW CORPORATION 

Incorporated 1903 Capital $400,000 

Charles Glovep, Pres. Clarence A. Earl, Vice-Pres. 

Theodore E. Smith, Treas. 

William J. Surre, Sec. 

Wood, Machine, Cap and Set Screws, Stove, Tire, Sink and 

Machine Bolts, Special Screws of every description. Steel 

and Brass Jark Chain, Steel and Brass Escutcheon Pins, and 

The Corbin Duplex Coaster Brake. 



LANDERS, FRARY & CLARK 
Organized 1853. Capital, $1,000,000 

Charles F. Smith, Pres. George M. Landers, Sec. and 
Treas. Frederick A. Searle, Asst. Treas. 

James N. Stanley, Asst. Sec. 

Table Cutlery, Household Hardware, and 
Plumbers' Brass Goods. 



RUSSELL & ERWIN MFG. CO. 

Incorporated 1S51. Capital $1,000,000 
Howard S. Hart, Pres. Benjamin A. Haw- 
ley, Vice-Pres. Isaac D. Russell, Treas. 
J. H. Van Newkirk, Asst. Treas. 
Theodore E. Smith, Sec. 

BUILDERS' HARDWARE 



SKINNER CHUCK COMPANY 

Incorporated 1887. Capital $75,000 

D. N. Camp, Pres. 

D. O. Rogers, Vice-Pre s. and Treas. 

E. J. Skinner, Sec. 

CHUCKS 



STANLEY RULE AND LEVEL COMPANY 

Organized 1853. Capital $1,500,000 

Charles E. Mitchell, Pres., Alix W. Stanley, Vice-Pres. 
and Sec, Charles B. Stanley, Treas. 

CARPENTERS' TOOLS 



THE STANLEY WORKS 

Incorporated 1852. Capital $1,500,000 

Wm H. Hart, Pres. George P. Hart, 1st Vice-Pres. 

E. A. Moore, 2nd Vice-Pres. L. H. Pease, Sec. 

and Treas. H. B. Humason, Asst. Sec. 

Wrought Bronze and Steel Ball Bearing Hinges, Wrought 

Steel Butts, Hinges, Door Bolts, Shelf Brackets, Builders' 

and Shelf Hardware,— Cold Rolled Steel. 



TRAUT & HINE 

Incorporated 1880 



MFG. COMPANY 

Capital $200,000 

G. w. 



J. A. Traut, Pres. A. C. Sternberg, Vice-Pres. 
Traut, Treas. H. C. Hine, Sec. 

Metal Trimmings for Suspenders and Garters 
Snap Fasteners, and Upholsterers' Nails. 



NORTH & JUDD MFG. COMPANY 

Organized 1861. Capital $200,000 
George M. Landers, Pres. H. C. Noble, 
Vice-Pres. and Treas. E. M. Wight- 
man, Sec. 

HARNESS HARDWARE 



Lr^a ding 


Ind ust 


D. E. LOEWE & 


COMPANY 


Established 1879. Capital 


, ABOUT $100,000 


Members, D. E. Loewe. 


Martin Fuchs 


SOFT FUR HATS 


Rear River Street, 


Danbury, Conn. 



in Danbury 



BEAVER BROOK PAPER MILL 

McArthur Bros. 

Established 1867. Capital $50,000 

George MoArthur, Supt. and Treas. 

WRAPPING, HARDWARE AND MANILLA PAPERS 

Beaver Brook District, Danbury, Conn. 



LrEADIINQ INDUSTRIES IIN MERIDEN 

Meriden has a combined capital of about $17,000,000, producing manufactured goods valuer! at over $15.00(3,000, em- 
ploying about 8,000, with annual wages of about $4,000,000— Meriden has a grand list of about $22 (.00,000 and its 
population is estimated at about 3c,000— Meriden is the home of (he great silver-plate indnstr 



HELMSCHMIED MANUFACTURING CO. 

(Incorporated) 

Carl V. Helmschmied, Pres. andTreas., P. T. Saleski, Sec. 

"BELLE WARE" 

Hand-Decorated Wedding and Holiday Novelties in Glass and 
China. 

"COLONIAL" ART GLASS 

In Vases, Jardinieres, Shades, Globes and Metal Bound Novelties. 



INTERNATIONAL SILVER COMPANY, Successor to 

Meriden Britannia Company and Others 

SILVERSMITHS 

Makers of Every Description of SILVERWARK and a Choice Line of 

American RICH CUT GLASS 

Salesrooms: State and Adams Sts., Chicago; 9-15 Maiden Lane, 215 Fiftjj 

Ave., New York Citv; Hamilton and Toronto, Canada, and at 

Various Factories. 

General Office: MERIDEN, CONN. 



THE H. WALES LINES COMPANY 

Meriden, Conn. 

BUILDERS 

WHOLESALE DEALERS 

In Building Materials 



THE MERIDEN GRAVURE CO. 

PHOTO -GELATINE PRINTERS 

Meriden, Conn. 

Catalogue*, Book and Magazine Inserts, Bird's-Eye 

Views of Manufacturing Plants. 
Correspondence on any illustrating proposition invited. 




MERIDEN MACHINE 

TOOL CO. 

Incorporated 1889 

Makers of FormingLathes 
and Special Machinery for 
Economical Manufactur- 
ing. Die3 of every De- 
scription. Machine Tools. 



THE CURTISS-WAY COMPANY 

PRINTERS, 

ELECTROTYPERS, ENGRAVERS 

Manufacturers of 
BLANK BOOKS, CALENDARS AND CALENDAR PADS 

163-169 Pratt St , Meriden, Conn. 



MILLER BROS. CUTLERY CO. 

Established [869 

C. L. Rockwell, Pres. C. F. \i<>< kwbll, Treas. and 

Gen. Mgr. II. A. Stevkn- B 

POCKET CUTLERY, STEEL PENS Axii INK ERASERS 

New York Office : 309 Bkoauwat. 



EDWARD WlLLER & COMPANY 

Organized 1844 

Edward Miller, Pres. Edward Millkr. Jr., Bee. and 
Treas. Benj. C. Kennard, Asst. Treas. 

Gas and Electric Portables, Gas. Kerosene, Electric and Com- 
bination Fixtures of every Descripiion 

Lamp Burners and Trimminzs, Bicycle Lmiterns, Ker«.«ene He»ter«, Bronre 
Die ami Mould Castiugs a Specialty, Brass Foundry. 




I Print My Own 



Cards, circulars, etc., with a $5 
Press. Small new - 
$18. Money saved. Money mak- 
ing business anywhere. Type 
setting easy by the printed in- 
structions st-nt. Write to factory 
for illustrated catalog of 
tvpe. paper, etc. The P: 
Meriden, Conn 



MANNING BOWMAN & COMPANY 

Capital $150,000 
George E. Savaor, Prea and T: 
Albert L. Stktsoh, ^ec 
Tea and Toffee Pots, Chafing Dishes, M 
Percolators, Bath Room Furnish' g 
Dishes. Hotel Ware, etc. 
Nickel and Bllyer-Plated Ware. 

MERIDEN. CONN. 



SOUTHINGTON 



CLARK BROS. BOLT COMPANY 
Establishes 16581 Capital |100 
H. II. Clark, Pres. C. H. Ci lbs, 
B. s. Todd, S« I 
Washers. Rivets, Nuts. Can .hine 

Bolts, Plow Bolts. Everything in the Bolt 
and Nut line 
MTLLDA1 E "N^ 



Leading Industries of Middletown 



THE OMO MANUFACTURING COMPANY 
H. H. Francis, President 

DRESS OPV^ SHIELD 



ODORLESS 
Impervious— Hygienic— Guaranteed 
MIDDLETOWN 



CONN. 



A 


RAW 


A N 


A M I 


L 


- 




I. E. 


Palmer, Prop 






MIDDI 


- 


- 










Mannfaeton 






HAMMOCKS ANn 


MOSQUITO nm 






CANOPIS 


S ASP <. 


JOTTOH FABRICS 




New 


York Office 




- 



l^EADIINQ INDUSTRIES IN WINSTED 

Winsted in the township of Winchester has a combined capital of about $3,000,000, producing manufactured goods 
valued at over $3,000,000, employing about 2,000, with yearly wages of about $800,000— Winsted has a grand list of 
about $5,000,000 and a population estimated at 11,000— It is one of the most thrifty manufacturing centers of its size 
in the state. 



BROWN MACHINE COMPANY 

Machinists and Tool Makers 

Builders of Light Power and Foot Presses, Wood 

Turning and Polishing Lathes, Drill Lathes 

and Presses and Cutlery Machinery 

All Kinds of Light Machinery and Tools Built to Order 

205 Walnut Street, Winsted, Conn. 



GEO. DUDLEY & SON COMPANY 

Established 1831 

Manufacturers of 

BARK SHEEP, SKIVERS and FLESHES 

For Law and Blank-Book Binding 

WINSTED, CONN. 




BEAUTY'S BATH 

Free: This dainty book- 
let, containing valuable 
articles on bathing and 
massage, also describing 
the wonderful VITA Hol- 
low Toothed Eubber 
Brushes. Everyone who 
values health or beauty should send. A postal will do It. If 
a Horse Lover ask for booklet HORSE SENSE, it's free. Send 
now and get the spring edition. 
THE FLEXIBLE RUBBER GOODS CO., WINSTED, CONN. 



Wm. l. GILBERT CLOCK CO. 

Established 1807. Capital $500,000 

J. G. Woodruff. Pres. and Treas. Geo. B. Owen, Vice- 
Pres. and Gen. Mgr. E. S. Brown, Secy. 

ALL GRADES OF CLOCKS 
Finished in all styles. Candelabras, Vases in Nouveau 
design, Side Urns, Ink Wells,Thermometers, Jewel Boxes, 
Mirrors, Plateaus, Mantel Ornaments, Bronze Figures 



WHERE IS YOUR PRINTING DONE ? 

Secure Quotations to-day from 

■the Press of the g§ g 

CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE 

Hartford — New Haven 



GOODWIN & KINTZ COMPANY 

Manufacturers of 

Electroliers, Electric Portables, Gas and Electric 
Newels and Appliances, Clocks, Metal Fancy Goods 
and Sheet Metal Work. Automobile Supplies, Etc. 

Winsted, Conn. 



THE STRONG MANUFACTURING CO. 

Organized 1866 

Capital and Surplus $200,000 

David Strong, Pres. H. L. Roberts, Sec. and Treas. 

Fred. C. Strong, Vice-Pres. L. C. Strong, Asst. 

Sec. L C. Colt, Agent and Asst. Treas. 

UNDERTAKER'S GOODS— PAPER BOXES 



WINSTED HOSIERY COMPANY 

Organized 1882. Capital $300,000 

David Strong, Pres. E. B. Gatlord, Treas. 

MEN'S FINE UNDERWEAR and HALF HOSE 



Manufacturer's Catalogues 

COMPILED 

ILLUSTRATED 

PRINTED 

FROM THE PRESS 
OF THE 

CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE 

Hartford — New Haven 



Leading Industries in Watertoury 



THE WATERBURY FARREL FOUNDRY 
AND MACHINE CO. 

Established 1851 

Designers and Builders of Sheet Metal Working Machinery 

and Automatic Machinery 



THE ROWBOTTOM MACHINE CO. 

Established 1902. Capital $10,000. 
George Rowbottom, Pres. 

Hugh A. Pendlebury, Sec. and Treas. 
Special Automatic Machinery of any description. 

WATEIIVILLE ST., WATERBURY, CONN. 



LEADING INDUSTRIES IIN COINIXECTICUT 



THE H. C. HART MANUFACTURING CO. 

Established 1857. Capital $25,000 

H. C. Hart, Pres. Ernest M. Hart, Treas. 
Willis O. Hart, Sec. 

Cutlery and Hardware, Near Rubber, Near Celluoid and Near 

Bone, used in place of Pure Rubber, Pure Bone, Pure 

Celluoid, in Handles for Cutlery, Etc. 

TJNIONVILLE, CONN. 



COE BRASS MANUFACTURING CO. 

Established 1863. Capital $1,500,000 

Charles F. Brooker, Pres. James A. Doughty, Vice-Pres. 

E. T. Cos, Treas. E. J. Steele, Secy. 

G. H. Turner, Asst. Secy. 

Brass and Copper in Sheets, Wire, Bolts, Tubes, Shells, 

also German Silver in all forms 

TORRINGTON, CONN. 



THE SMITH & WINCHESTER MFG. CO. 

Established 1828. Capital $50,000 

Guilford Smith. Pres. and Treas. C. E. Orman, Vice-Pres. 

W P. Barstow, Sec. and Mgr- 

Paper Mill Machinery, Paper Cutters, Paper Bag 
Making Machinery 

SOUTH WINDHAM, CONN. 



WINDSOR SILK COMPANY 

Established 1897 

SPOOL SILKS 

Windsor Locks, Conn. 



BECKWITH CARD COMPANY 

Established 1870. Private Individual Ownership 

Card Clothing and Hand Stripping Cards for 

Cotton and Woolen Mills 

SCHOOL STREET, STAFFORD SPRINGS, CONN. 



THE CONNECTICUT COMPUTING 
MACHINE CO. 

Established 1905. Capital $600,000 

Rollin S . Woodruff, Pres. Charles M. Jarvis, Vice-Pres. 

William R. Tyler, Treas. Edward S. Swift, Sec. 

Fred M. Carroll, Asst. Sec. 

The Mechanical Brain, an Adding and Listing Machine 

Tireless— Infallible 

342 YORK STREET, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



THE H. B. BROWN COMPANY 

Established 1865. Capital, Nominal, $50,000, 

Paid in, $16,000 

Henry B. Brosvn, Pres. and Treas. G. S. Brown, Sec. 

BOLT AND NUT MACHINERY 

CHATHAM, CONN. 



THE 

WHITLOCK PRINTING PRESS MFG. CO. 

Established 1888. Capital $105,000 

C. F. Ahlstrom, Pres. E. E. Jameson, Vice-Pres. 

Julius G. Day, Sec. and Treas. 

PRINTING PRESSES 

DERBY, CONN. 



NORWALK BRASS COMPANY 

Established 1901. Capital $50,000 
Wallace Dann, Pres. W. A. Curtis, Treas. 
Frank CoMSTOtj: 
MECHANIC STREET, NORWALK, CONN. 



THE RIMMON MANUFACTURING CO. 

Established 1900. Capital $70X00 

G. E. Matthies, Pres. C W. Michaels, Beey. arid Treas. 
F. A. Pehrics, Supt. 

Eyelets, Grommets, Screw Machine Products, 

Brass and German Silver Washers 
North Main and Day Sts., Seymour, Conn. 

AMERICAN WOOLEN COMPANY 
WORSTEDS AND WOOLENS 

Main Street, Moosup, Conn. 



J. B. TATE M & S O N 

J. B. Tatem and J. B. Tatem. Jr. 

Established 1862. Capital $5,000 to $20,000 

Hardwood Workers, Manufacturers of all kinds of Handles 

Make a specialty of Picker Sticks, Leather Capped 

Chisel Handles and Lawn Mower Handles and Rolls 

PUTNAM, CONN. 



Every Manufacturer 

IN 

CONNECTICUT 

SHOULD BE RECORDED IN 
THESE PAGES 

WRITE TO-DAY TO THE 
Compiling Depaki 

CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE 
Hartford — New Haves 



INDUSTRIAL STRENGTH OF CONNECTICUT 

Herewith is a list of townships in Connecticut with the names of the leading manufacturing 
concerns as officially recorded with the State— According to recent Government report the 
combined capital of Connecticut industries is $373,283,580, employing 181,529 at annual wages 
of $87,942,628, and producing goods valued at $369,082,091— Concerns named in heavy type are 
presented in full detail in preceding pages. 



ANDOVER 

Case, F. L. Paper Co. 



ANSONIA 

Ansonia Brass & Copper Co. 
Ansonia Electrical Co. 
Ansonia Flour & Grain Co. 
Ansonia Manufacturing Co. 
Ansonia Novelty Co. 
Ansonia O. & C. Co. 
Cameron, H. P. 
Coe Brass Manufacturing Co. 
Cook, II. C. & Co. 
Cook, H. C. Machine Co. 
Farrel Foundry & Machine Co. 
Gardner, J. B. Sons 
Gaylord, F. L. Co. 
Omega Steel Tool Co. 
Phelps, H. D. 
Redshaw, S. G. 
S. O. & C. Co. 
Union Fabric Co. 



AVON 

Climax Fuse Co. 

BARKHAMSTED 

Rogers Rake Co. (Pleasant Valley) 

BEACON FALLS 

Beacon Falls Rubber Shoe Co. 
Bronson, Homer D. Co. 



BERLIN 

American Bridge Co. (East Berlin) 
Am. Paper Goods Co. (Kensington) 
Berlin Construction Co. (Kensington) 
Moore, R. A. & Son, (Kensington) 
Peck, Stow & Wilcox (East Berlin) 
Seward Rubber Co., (Kensington) 

BETHEL 

Baird Untiedt Co. 

Bethel Hat Forming Co. 

Bethel Manufacturing Co. 

Bethel Silk Co. 

Clark, Frank W. 

Ellis Wood Working Co. 

Farnum & Fairchild. 

Fountain Cigar Co. 

Higson & Co. 

Judd & Co. 

Judd & Dunning Hat Co. 

Reid, John 

Shepard, Geo. A. & Sons Co. 

Short, Edwin Hat Co. 

BOZRAH 

Fairbanks * Plainfield (Bozrahville). 
Harrison Schick k Pratt (Bozrahville). 
Palmer Bros. Co. (Fitchville). 

BRANFORD 
Malleable Iron Fittings Co. 



BRIDGEPORT 

Acme Oil Engine Co. 

Acme Shear Co. 

Acme Wire Works 

Adams, A. L. 

American Corundum Co. 

American & British Manufacturing Co. 

American Graphophone Co. 

American Lacquer Co. 

American Tube & Stamping Co. 

Armstrong Manufacturing Co. 

Ashcroft Manufacturing Co. 

Atlantic Manufacturing Co. 

Atlas Shear Co. 

Automatic Machine Co. 

Automatic Scale Co. 

Baker Machine Co. 

Batcheller, George C. & Co. 

Beach, Fred F. 

Beach, J. W. 

Belknap Manufacturing Co. 

Berkshire Mills 

Benton, F. A. & Son 

Bias Narrow Fabric Co. 

Birdsey & Somers 

Blue Ribbon Horse & Carriage Co. 

Bradley, H. C. 

Braitling, Fred K. 

Bridgeport Art Glass Co. 

Bridgeport Boiler Works 

Bridgeport Brass Co. 

Bridgeport Chain Co. 

Bridgeport Coach Lace Co. 

Bridgeport Crucible Co., The 

Bridgeport Deoxidized Bronze & Metal 

Co. 
Bridgeport Elastic Fabric Co. 
Bridgeport Electro Plate Co. 
Bridgeport Enamel Dial Co. 
Bridgeport Forge Co. 
Bridgeport Foundry & Machine Co. 
Bridgeport Hardware Mfg. Co. 
Bridgeport Hydraulic Co. 
Bridgeport Hat Manufacturing Co. 
Bridgeport Malleable Iron Co. 
Bridgeport Metallic Packing Co. 
Bridgeport Motor Co. Inc. 
Bridgeport Organ Co. 
Bridgeport Paper Box Co. 
Bridgeport Patent Leather Mfg. Co. 
Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. 
Bridgeport Silk Co. 
Bridgeport Type Furnishing Co. 
Bryant Klertric Co. 
Bullard Machine Tool Co. 
Burns & Co. 
Burns, Silver & Co. 
Burritt, A. W. Co. 
Canneld, H. 0. 
Canfield Rubber Co. 
Challenge Cutlery Corp. 
Columbia Nut & Bolt Co. 
Compressed Paper Box Co. 
Connecticut Clasp Co. 
Connecticut Tool Co. 
Connecticut Web Co. 
Consolidated Safety Valve Co. 
Cooper, R. H. 

Cornwall & Patterson Mfg. Co. 
Coulter k McKenzie Machinery Co. 
Crockett, David B. Co. 
Crown Corset Co. 
Crown Paper Box Co.' 
Curtis & Curtis Co. 
Donovan, P. J. Brass Foundry Co. 
Downer, ITawes & Co. 



Drouve, G. Co. The 

Eaton, Cole & Burnham Co. 

Elmwood Button Co. 

Erie, Charles 

Fairchild & Shelton 

Farist Steel Co. 

Fray, John S. & Co. 

Frederickson Bros. & Co. 

Gates Carriage Co. 

Gaynor & Mitchell Manufacturing Co. 

General Chemical Co. 

Grant Manufacturing & Machine Co. 

Hall. C. W. Carriage Co. 

Halsey, R. B. & Co. 

Hamilton, John 

Hammond Co. 

Handy & Harmon 

Hatheway Manufacturing Co. 

Hincks & Johnson 

Hoffman, Henry C. & Co. 

Hotchkiss, Edward S. 

Housatonic Rubber Works 

Hubbell, Harvey 

Hurlburt, W. S. Building Co. 

Hurwood Manufacturing Co. 

Hutchinson, Pierce & Co. 

International Silver Co. 

Ives Manufacturing Co. 

Jackson Stone Co. 

Jennings. Bros. Manufacturing Co. 

Jones, James S. H. 

Knapp, George S. 

Krause, A. L. 

Krause, W. E. 

Leeds Marine Equipment Co. 

Liberty Cycle Co. 

Locke Steel Belt Co. 

Locomobile Company of America 

Marigold-Foster Printing Co. 

Metal Ware Manufacturing Co. 

Miller, Frank, Lumber Co. 

Mills, W. S. 

Model Machine Co. 

Monumental Bronze Co. 

Moore, C. W. 

Nan ga tuck Valley Ice Co. 

New England Novelty Co. 

Nilson, A. H. Machine Co. 

Osborn, George R. & Co. 

Pacific Iron Works 

Palmer, N. & Co. 

Parrott Varnish Co. 

Parsons, R. E. Co. 

Peck & Lines 

Pequonnock Foundry, Inc. 

Perkins Electric Switch Mfg. Co. 

Piatt, O. S. 

Read Carpet Co. 

Rowell, W. G. & Co. 

Royal Equipment Co. 

Salt's Textile Manufacturing Co. 

Schwab, Alois 

Schwing, John Corporation 

Sewing Machine Cabinet Co. 

Sioman Hard Rubber Corp. 

Silliman & Godfrey Co. 

Smith, E. H. IT. Silver Co. 

Smith, W. A. Building Co. 

Smith & Egge Manufacturing Co 

Somers, James M. 

Special Machinery Co. 

Springfield Manufacturing Co. 

Spring Perch Co. 

Standard Card <fe Paper Co. 

Standard Coupler Co. 

Sterling. Hitch 

Swinnerton & Sniff en Mfg. Co. 



Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 



Tait k Sons Paper Co. 

Taylor, Thomas P. 

Union Metallic Cartridge Co. 

Union Typewriter Co. 

Wakeman, Albert 

Walter, Edward P. 

Warner Bros. Co. 

Warren, Edmund 

Weildich Bros. Manufacturing Co. 

Weir, James W. 

Weld Manufacturing Co. 

Wellington & Co. 

Wheeler & Wilson Manufacturing Co. 

Wheel & Wood Bending Co. 

White Manufacturing Co. 

BRISTOL 

American Silver Co. 

Am. Bit & Auger Co. (Forestville) 

Andrews, C. E. (Forestville) 

Barnes, Wallace Co. 

Barrett, W. L. 

Birge, N. L. Sons Co. 

Blakeslee Novelty Co. 

Bristol Brass Co. 

Bristol Manufacturing Co. 

Clayton Bros. 

Dunbar Bros. 

Horton, Everett 

Horton Manufacturing Co. 

Ingraham, E. Co. 

Ladd, W. C. 

Liberty Bell Co. 

Manross, F. N. (Forestville) 

Mills, D. E. (Whigville) 

Mills, II. J. 

New Departure Manufacturing Co. 

Penfield Saw Works 

Root, C. J. 

Sessions Clock Co. (Forestville) 

Sessions Foundry Co. 

Sessions, J. H. k Son 
Smith, Ira B. 
Snyder, L. II. k Co. 
Thompson, II. C. Clock Co. 

Turner & Deegan (EdgewoocP 

Turner Heater Co. 
Warner, A. H. & Co. 
Webler, B. P. 
Young Bros. (Forestville) 

BROOKFIELD 

Lennox Shear Co. 



EURLINGTON 
Hartigan, W. R. 

CANAAN 

Borden's Condensed Milk Co. 
Johnson, Lindell k Co. 

CANTERBURY 

Cutler Mills Co. (Packerville) 

CANTON 

Collins Co. The (Collinsville) 

CHATHAM 
Bevin Bros. Mfg. Co. (East Hampton) 
Brown, H. B.8cCo.(E. Hampt'n) 
Carpenter, L. S. k Son (R. Hampton) 
East Hampton Bell Co. (R. Hampton) 
Gong Bell Mfg. Co. (Rast Hampton) 
Hill, N. N. Brass Co. (Rast Hampton) 
Star Bros. Bell Co. (Rast Hampton) 
Summit Thread Co. (Rast Hampton) 
Tibbals Oakum Co. (Cobalt) 



CHESHIRE 

Ball & Socket Mfg. Co. (West Ches.) 
Cheshire Brass Co. (W. Cheshire) 
Harry, James W. & Son (W. Cheshire) 
Hubbell, M. B. & F. S. 

CHESTER 

Bates, C. J. 

Brooks, M. S. k Sons 

Chester Manufacturing Co. 

Deuse, J. S. 

Ferguson, J. R. & Co. 

Jennings, Russell Manufacturing Co. 

Rogers Brush Works 

Ryan, M. L. 

COLCHESTER 
H. C. Brown (Comstock Bridge) 

Norton, C. H. (No. Westchester) 

COLUMBIA 
Case Leather Works (Hop River) 

CORNWALL 
Mallison, C. Co. (West Cornwall) 

COVENTRY 

Armstrong, Henry (South Coventry) 
Dady, John A. (S. Coventry) 
Kingsbury Box & Printing Co. (S. 

Coventry) 
Tracy, E. A. (South Coventry) 
Washburn, A. & Son Co. (S. Coventry) 
Wood, T. H. (South Coventry) 

CROMWELL 

Stevens, J. k E. Co. 

DANBURY 

American Hatters' k Furriers' Corp. 

Armstrong, Isaac k Co. 

Barnum, Elmer II. 

BeaverBrook Paper Mill 

Beltaire Bros. & Co. 

Boesch Manufacturing Co. 

Brainard k Wilson Co. 

Clark Box Co. 

Connett Hat Co. 

Danbury Brass Works 

Danbury Co. 

Danbury Medical Printing Co. 

Danbury Shirt Co. 

Davenport, A. S. 

Delohery Hat Co. 

Doran Bros. 

Ferry- Hallock Co. 

Foster Bros. 

Green, John W. «fe Sons, Inc. 

Green Soft Hat Manufacturing Co. 

Hawes Von Gal Co. 

Heim Machinery Co. 

Hoffman, C. A. 

Ilolley, S. C. k Co. 

Horch, C. M. 

Hoyt, Walthausen k Co. 

Irving, J. G. 

Kinner, Geo. A. 

Lee Hat Manufacturing Co. 

Lee Soft Hat Co. 

I oewe, D. F. & Co. 

Mallory, E. A. k Sons 
McLachlan, II. 
Meeker Bros. k Co. 
Millard Hat Co. 
Morclock k Husk 
Murphy, J. B. & Co. 
National Hat Co. 
New Machine Co. 
Neff. T. W. k Co. 
Peck Fur Co. 



Robinson Fur Cutting Co. 

Rogers Silver Plate Co. 

Romans, C. A. 

Roth, Max 

Rundle k White 

Russell, Tomlinson Electric Co. 

S. A. G. Hat Co. 

Sherman, George B. 

Simon k Keane 

Simon, Philip 

Sunderland, W. \V. 

Turner Machine Co. 

Tweedy, A. E. 

Tweedy, F. D. k Co. 

Vass Chemical Co. 

Young, P. k Sons 

DEEP RIVER 

(See Say brook.) 



ERBY 



/ DERE 

r, A. H. k C. B. 



Ailing, 

Birmingham Iron Foundry. 

Brewester Corset Co. 

Derby Comb Co. 

Graham Manufacturing Co. 

Howe Manufacturing Co. 

Kelly, Fergus. 

Morse, E. A. 

Patrick, N. J. 

Peterson Hendee Co. 

Sterling Co. The. 

Sterling Pin Co. 

U. S. Rapid-Fire Gun k Power Co. 

Whitlock Print. Press Mfg. Co 

Williams Typewriter Co. 

DURHAM 
Merriam Manufacturing Co. 

EASTFORD 

Tatem, M. E. 

EAST HADDAM 

Brockway & Meckinsturn (Moodus) 
Brownell, C. E. k Co. (Moodus) 
Hall, Lincoln k Co. (Moodus) 
Neptune Twine k Cord Mills (Moodus) 
New York Net * Twine Co. (Moodus) 
Purple, A. E. (Moodus) 

EAST HARTFORD 

Case & Marshall. (Woodland Mill) 
Rast Hartford Mfg. Co., (Burnrddf) 
Tavlor-Atkins Paper Co. (Burnstde) 
Walker, J. H. (Burnside) 

EAST LYME 
Niantic Manufacturing Co. 

EAST WINDSOR 

Broad Brook Co. (Broad Brook) 
Warehouse Pt. Silk Co. (Whous* Pt.) 

ENFIELD 

Bridge. A. D. (Hanrdrttlc) 

Bushnell Press Co. iThompsonvillf) 
Gordon Bros.. (HuartMUe) 
Hartford Carpet Co. ( Thorn p-vurillf ) 
Stowe, J. D. * Son. (S« 
Upson. Martin Oft., (Thomp^onTille ) 
Westfield Plate Co.. cThompsonTille) 

ESSEX 

Comstock. Chrnrv A; i'o. (Ivorvton) 
Conn. Valley Mfg. Co. ( Center Brook) 
Dickerson, R. K. £ Oft, 
E33eX Wood T'.:rnin£ Co. 



Industrial Strength of Connecticut 



Lenifect Co. 

Looby & Fargo (Center Brook) 

Tiley, Pratt & Co. 

FAIRFIELD 

Fairfield Motor Co. 
Fairfield Rubber Co. 
Jeliff, C. O. Mfg. Corp (Southport) 

FARMINGTON 

Am. Writ'g. Paper Co. (Unionville) 
Broadbent, J. & Son, (Unionville) 
Case Mfg. Co. (Unionville) 
H. C. Hart Mfg. Co. (Unionville) 

Jones, R. F. (Unionville) 

Monce, S. G. (Unionville) 

Taft, Geo. E. (Unionville) 

Union Cut. & Hdw. Co. (Unionville) 

Upson Nut Co. (Unionville) 

GLASTONBURY 

Conn. River Spar Mill (So. Glast'by) 
Crosby Mfg. Co. (East Glastonbury) 
Glastonbury Knit. Co. (Addison) 
Glazier, Franklin & Son (Hopewell) 
Naubuc Paper Co. 
Riverside Paper Mfg. Co. 
Roser, Herman, (East Glastonbury) 
Wausuc Mills Co. (Hopewell) 
Williams Bros. Mfg. Co. 
Williams, J. B. Co. The 

GREENWICH 

American Felt Co. (Glenville) 

Brooklyn Ry. Supply Co. (Mianus) 

Brush, Joseph 

Greenwich Yacht Yard. 

Palmer Bros. (Cos Cob & Mianus) 

Reynolds, G. M. (Glenville) 

R., B. & W. Bolt & Nut Co. (GlenviP) 

GRISWOLD 

American Thread Co., (Glasco) 
Ashland Cotton Co. (Jewett City) 
Aspinock Co. (Jewett City) 
Burleson, A. B. & Co. (Jewett City) 
Jewett City Textile Nov. Co. (Jew.C.) 
Slater, Wm. A. Mills, (Jewett City) 

GROTON 

Eastern Ship Building Co. 
Palmer, Rob't & Son Co. (Noank) 
Salter, John & Son. 

GUILFORD 

Case, O. D. Co. 
Guilford Wheel Mfg. Co. 
Knowles-Lombard Co. 
Sachem's Head Canning Co. 
Spencer, I. S. Sons 

HADDAM 

Cutaway Harrow Co. (Higganum) 
Higganum Hardware Co. (Higganum) 
Russell Mfg. Co. (Higganum) 

HAMDEN 

Cook, Willis Miller (Mt. Carmel) 
Henry, J. T. Mfg. Co. 
New Haven Web Co. (Centerville) 
Mt. Carmel Bolt Co. (Mt. Carmel) 
Woodruff, W. W. & Son (Mt. Carmel) 

HARTFORD 

Andrews & Peck Co. 
Aetna Stamp Works 
Andrews, S. M. 



Arknot Co. 

Atlantic Screw Works 

Austin Organ Co. 

Baker Electric Co. 

Barber Ink Co. 

Barrett Bros. 

Beach, H. B. & Son 

Becher & Eitel 

Beseman & Bostwick 

Billings & Spencer Co. 

Birkery, C. 

Bishop, E. C. & Co. 

Bladon, G. L. 

Blake, E. J. 

Brewing Appliance Spec. Co. 

Bronson & Robinson Co. 

Burch, George W. 

Burr Index Co. 

Burr, J. B. & Co., Inc. 

Calhoun Show Print Co. 

Callaghan, C. J. 

Capewell Horse Nail Co. 

Capitol Foundry Co. 

Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co. 

Cheney Bros. 

Clark, Edred W. 

Colt's Pat. Fire Arms Mfg Co. 

Conn. Steel & Wire Co. 

Cook, Asa S. Co. 

Cook, Charles C. 

Cooley & Trevor Mfg. Co. 

Craig, J. M. 

Cushman Chuck Co. 

Daniels, L. C, Grain Co. The 

Daniels Mill Co. The 

Davis, I. B. & Son, 

Dodd Lithographic Co 

Dresser, Charles H. & Co. 

Electric Vehicle Co. 

Evarts Machine Co. 

Fenn-Sadlpr Machine Co. 

Fernside, G. W. 

Franklin Electric Mfg. Co. 

French, H. A. 

Garvan, P. 

Ger & Posner 

Gerstein, I. 

Gray & Prior Machine Co. 

Gray Tel. Pay Station Co. 

Green & Bauer 

Harman, H. 

Harriman Motor Works 

Hart & Hegeman Mfg. Co. 

Hart Mfg. Co. The 

Hartford Bedstead Co. 

Hartford Board Co. 

Hartford Box Co. 

Hartford Builders' Finish Co. 

Hartford Dairy Co. 

Hartford Electric Machine Repair Co. 

Hartford Engine Works 

Hartford Engraving Co. 

Hartford Foundry Corp. 

Hartford Hat & Cap Co. 

Hartford Heating Co. 

Hartford Leather Goods Co. 

Hartford Lumber Co. 

Hartford Mach. Screw Co. 

Hartford Manufacturing Co. 

Hartford Mattress Co. 

Hartford & New York Trans. Co 

Hartford Pattern & Model Co. 

Hartford Printing Co. 

Hartford Pulp Plaster Corp. 

Hartford Rubber Works 

Henry & Wright Mfg. Co. 

Hitchcock & Curtiss Knitting Co. 

Hoadley, E. J. 

Hogan Mfg Co. 

Hotchkiss, E. E. 

Howard, James L. & Co. 

Jacobs Mfg. Co. 

Jewell Belting Co. 

McClary, John Wood Working Co. 

Jewell Pin Co. 



Johns-Pratt Co. 

Johnson-Carlyle Machine Co. 
Johnson, F. G. Co. 
Jones, O. H. 
Kelley Bros. 
Kellogg & Bulkeley Co. 
Knox, Frank J. Co. 
Laragy, P. 
Law, F. A. 

Legate Manufacturing Co. 

Leschke & Pletcher 

Levy & Hurwitz 

Lippman, B. & Son 

Little, H. B. & Co. 

Lockwood, William H. v 

Loveland, A. C. & Co. 

Maslen, Stephen Corp. 

McCue, C. T. Co. 

McKone Bros. 

McNie, Malcolm 

Melrose Silver Co. 

Merrow Machine Co. 

Mugford, A. . 

Mutual Machine Co. 

National Machine Co. 

Ney, John M. & Co. 

Nichols Paper Box Co. 

Nonotuck Silk Co. 

Olds, William & Co. 

Organ Power Co. 

Park Knitting Works 

Pease, C. A. & Co. 

Peck, R. S. & Co. 

Perkins Corp. 

Phoenix Brass Foundry Co. 

Phoenix Iron Works Corp. 

Phoenix Manufacturing Co. 

Pickering, W. H. & Co. 

Pindar, A. Corp. 

Plimpton Mfg. Co. 

Pope Manufacturing Co. 

Pratt k Cady Co. 

Pratt & Whitney Co. 

James Pullar & Co. 

Purvis, Adam 

Remsen Mfg. Co. The 

Resnik, P. 

Rhodes, L. E. 

Richman, Jacob M. 

Rockwell, J. W. 

Rogers, S. L. & G. H. Co. 

Schwartz, Myers & Gross 

Shea, C. W. 

Sigourney Tool Co. 

Silver Bros. 

Simons & Fox 

Slate, Dwight, Machine Co. 

Smith, Northam & Co. 

Smith-Worthington Co. 

Soby, Charles 

Spencer Automatic Screw Co. 

Springer, E. O. 

Standard Co. 

Standard Foundry Co. 

Sterling Blower & Pipe Mfg. Co. 

Stoddard & Caulkins 

Swift, M. & Sons 

Talcott, William H. 

Taylor, Edwin Lumber Co. 

Taylor Mfe\ Co. 

Thompson, John Press Co. 

Topping 1 Bros. 

Tucker, W. W. & C. F. 

Tuttle Plating Co. 

Underwood Typewrit'r Mfg.Co. 

II. S. Env. Co. (Plimpton Div.) 

Vanderbeek Tool Works 

Veeder Manufacturing Co. 

Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. 

Whittemore, W. L. & Son 

Whitney Manufacturing Co. 

Wiley, William H. & Son Co. 

Williams & Carleton Co. 

Windsor Cut Stone Co. 



Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 



HEBRON 

Turner, P. W. (Turnerville) 

HUNTINGTON 

Adams Mfg. Co. (Shelton) 
Bassett, D. M. Bolt Works (Shelton) 
Bassett, R. N. Co. (Shelton) 
Birmingham Brass Co. (Shelton) 
Blumenthal, S. ft Co. (Shelton) 
Dairy Mach. & Con. Co. (Shelton) 
Derby Rubber Co. (Shelton) 
Griffin Button Co. (Shelton) 
Huntington Piano Co. (Shelton) 
International Silver Co. (Shelton) 
Meyer Iron & Brass Foundry (Shelton) 
National Fold. Box & Paper Co. 

(Shelton) 
O. K. Tool Holder Co. (Shelton) 
Radcliffe Bros. (Shelton) 
Shelton Co. (Shelton) 
Silver Plate Cutlery Co. (Shelton) 
Specialty Weaving Co. (Shelton) 
Star Pin Co. (Shelton) 
United Box Board & Paper Co. 

(Shelton) 
Whitcomb Met. Bedstead Co. (Shelton) 

KILLINGLY 

Arnold, O. S. (Williamsville) 
Assawaga Co. (Dayville) 
Attawaugan Co. (Attawaugan) 
Brigham Woolen Co. (Elmville) 
Danielsonville Cotton Co. (Danielson) 
Danielson Worsted Co. (Danielson) 
Davis & Brown Woolen Co. (Dayville) 
Jacobs, E. H. Mfg. Co. (Danielson) 
Larkin Reed Co. (Danielson) 
Marcus M. H. & Bros. (Elmville) 
Nichols, James A. (Danielson) 
Pequot Worsted Co. (Danielson) 
Quinebaug Co. (Danielson) 
Smith, Fred R. (E. Killingly) 
Thayer Woolen Co. (Elmville) 
Williamsville Mfg Co. (Williamsville) 

LITCHFIELD 

Bantam Mfg. Co. (Bantam) 
Echo Farm Corp. (Bantam) 
Flynn & Dovle (Bantam) 
Northfield Knife Co. (Northfield) 

LYME 

Taylor, H. E. & Co.(Hadlyme) 

MANCHESTER 

American Writing Paper Co. 

Bon Ami Co. 

Brookside Paper Co. (So. Man) 

Case, Willard A. 

Case Bros. (Highland Park) 

Cheney Bros. (So. Man.) 

Foulds, William Co. 

Glastonbury Knit. Co. (Mchr. Green) 

Hilliard, E. E. Co. (Buckland) 

Lydall k Foulds Paper Co. 

Lydall, H. & Foulds 

Norton Elec. Instrument Co. 

Robertson, J. T. Co. 

Rogers Paper Mfg. Co. (So. Man) 

Spring Silk Co. (So. Man. ) - 

Treat, Orion 

MANSFIELD 

Hanks, O. G. (Spring Hill) 

Kirby, G. J. Co. (Mansfield Hollow) 

McFarland, James S. (Mansfield C'ter) 

Mansfield Organ Pipe Co. (M'fid Dep.) 

Pollock, M. (Conantville) 

Ross, John L. (Eagleville) 

8mith, E. L. (Gurleyville) 



MERIDEN 

Aeolian Co. 

Bergen, J. D. Co. 

Bliss, E. A. Co. 

Bradley & Hubbard Mfg. Co. 

Brown & Dowd Mfg. Co. 

Conn. Tel. & Elec. Co. 

Cornell & Andrews 

Curtiss-Way Co. 

Dodd, Chas. T. 

Doolittle, E. J. 

Foster-Merriam & Co. 

Fox, C. F. 

Griswold, Richmond & Glock Co. 

Hall, A. J. & Co. 

Hall, W. B. 

Handel Co. 

Helmschmied Mfg. Co. 

International Silver Co. 

Jones, A. H. Co. 

Kelsey Press Co. 

Lines, H. Wales Co. 

Manning, Bowman & Co. 

Meriden Curtain Fixture Co. 

Meriden Cut Glass Co. 

Meriden Cutlery Co. 

Meriden Fire Arms Co. 

Meriden Gravure Co. 

Meriden Machine Tool Co. 

Meriden Woolen Co. 

Merriam, A. H. 

Miller Bros. Cutlery Co. 

Miller, Edward & Co. 

Monroe, C. F. Co. 

Morehouse Bros. Co. 

Niland, J. J. & Co. 

Parker Bros. 

Parker, Charles Co. 

Parker Clock Co. 

Schenck, M. B. & Co. 

Schenck Governor Co. 

Schunuck, C. E. 

Silver City Plate Co. 

Sprenenberg & Co. 

Todd Electric Mfg Co. 

Wallace, F. J. 

Wheeler, F. & Son 

Wheeler, W. W. Co. 

Wilcox & White Co. 

Wusterbarth Bros. 

MIANUS 

Mianus Motor Works 

MIDDLEFIELD 

Lyman Gun Sight Works 
Rogers Mfg. Co. (Rockfall) 
Russell Mfg. Co. (Rockfall) 
Smith, Otis A. (Rockfall) 

MIDDLETOWN 

Arawana Mills 

Allison Bros. 

Annual Wind Clock Co. 

Broderick Carriage Co. 

Chapman, W. H. Co. 

Coles k Co. 

Douglass, W. k B. 

Eisenhuth Horsel. u Vehicle Co. 

Ely, E. A. 

Evans, J. B. 

Goodall HammocJr ' -o. 

Goodvear Rubber Co. 

Hubbard, H. W. 

Keating Motor Co. 

Kirby Manufacturing Co. 

Leeds k Catlin Co. 

Loewenthal, Gustav 

Meech & Stoddard 

Merchant Silk Co. 

Middletown Silver Co. 

New England Enameling Co. 

Omo Manufacturing Co. 

Pel ton k King 

Portland Silk Co. 

Read, A. 0. Co. 

Rockfall Woolen Co. 



Kogers k Hubbard Co. 

Russell Manufacturing Co. 

Smith, J. O. Mfg. Co. (Little River) 

Try on, Jasper 

Warner, M. R. k Sons (Little River> 

Watrous, C. H. 

AVilcox, Crittenden & Co. 

MILLDALE 

Clark Bros. Bolt Co. 

MILFORD 

Reeves Manufacturing Co. 
Rostand Manufacturing Co. 
Vanderheof & Co. 

MONTVILLE 
Kaplan Bros. (Chesterfield) 
Massasoit Mfg. Co. (Oakdale) 
Monarch Woolen Mill 
Palmer Bros Co. 
l'equot /Mills 
Robertspn, C. M. Co. 
Un. DyL Wood ft Ext Co. I 
UncasVille Mfg. Co. (Uncasville) 

MOOSUP 
American Woolen Co. 
NAUGATUCK 

Diamond Labratory Co. (Union City> 
Dunham Hosiery Co. 
Goodyear's India Rub. Glove Mfg. Co. 
Goodyear's Metallic Rubber Shoe Co. 
Metal Finishing Co. (Union City) 
Naugatuck Chemical Co. 
Naugatuck Mfg. Co. (Union City) 
Naugat'ck Mall. Iron Co. (Union City), 
United States Rubber Co. 
Russell, J. W. Manufacturing Co. 
Smith, E. F. k Sons (Union City) 
White k Wells Co. 

NEW BRITAIN 

Adkins Printing Co. 

American Artificial Stone Co. 

American Hosiery Co. 

American Needle Works 

Beaton & Bradley Co. 

Brady, T. H. 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

Corbin, II. IT. k Son 

Corbin Motor Vehicle Corp. 

Corbin, P. & F. 

Corbin Screw Corp. 

Curtis, 0. F. 

Donahue, J. D. 

Flannerv, P. J. 

Hart ft Cooley Co. 

Humason k Beckley Mfg. Co. 

Judd, 0. S. 

Landers, Frary & Clark 

Lines, C. W. 

Malleable Iron Works 

Minor k Corbin Box Co. 

Mullcr, L. J. 

National Spring Bed Co 

New Britain Co-op. Building Co. 

New Britain Machine Co. 

New Britain Plr.r-'ng A Hkfe Wks. 

North & Judd Mfg. Co. 

North & Pfciffor Manufacturing Co. 

Olmstcad. H. B. Co. 

Parker Shirt Co. 

Pinches. John Co. 

Porter A Dyeofl Co 

Riley * Beckley Manufacturing Oo. 

Roach. William 

Russell & Erwin Mfg. Co. 

Skinner Chuck Co. 

Stanley Rule & Level Co. 

Stanley Works 

Taplin Manufacturing Co. 

Traut & Hine Mfg. Co. 

Union IfMrafhctnrtaf Co. 

Vulcan Iron Works 

White. C. J. I Co. 



Industrial Strength of Connecticut 



NEW CANAAN 

Benedict & Co. 
Jeliff, C. 0. & Co. 
Lane, Frank I. 
Rockwell Bros. 

NEW HARTFORD 

Bancroft, George W. 
Chapin Stevens Co. (Pine Meadow) 
RotrtTs Rake Co. (New Hartford) 
Smith, D. P. & Son Co. (Pine Meadow) 
Standard Brush Co. 

NEW HAVEN 

Acme Wire Co. 

Adlerhurst Iron Co. 

Ailing, Geo. Sons Co. 

American Rivet Co. 

Anthony & Scovil Co. 

Armstrong, M. & Co. 

Atlas Manufacturing Co. 

Baldwin & Rowland Sw'ch & Signal Co. 

Barnes Tool Co. 

Barnum, S. II. 

Barnum, W. T. & Co. 

Bates, L. C. & Co. 

Baumann Rubber Co. 

Belden Machine Co. (Westville) 

Benham, J. T. 

Benton-Armstrong Folding Box Co. 

Best Manufacturing Co. 

Bigelow Co. 

Bird, C. H. Co. 

Bishop Box & Paste Co. 

Bover, G. W. 

Bradley, Smith & Co. 

Brett, E. P. 

Brooks, C. J. 

Brooks Corset Co. 

Brown, R. II. & Co. 

Brown & Stoddard Co. 

Buckingham Routh Co. 

Burgess, E. A. 

Burn, W. S. Manufacturing Co. 

Candee, L. & Co. 

Capasso, A. 

Carroll, F. M. 

Cashin Card & Glazed Paper Co. 

Celluloid Starch Co. 

Clark, David H. Co. The 

Coe & Brown 

Columbia Hosiery Co. 

Conn. Adamant Plaster Co. 

Conn. Computing Machine Co. 

Conn. Fat Rend. & Fert. Corp. 

Conn. Pants Mfg. Co. 

Cott-A-Lap Co. 

Cowles, C. & Co. 

Crampton, J. M. 

Cronan, P. J. Paper Box Co. 

Curtiss & Pierpont Co. 

Dann Bros. & Co. 

Davis, R. G. 

Defiance Button Machine Co. 

Demarest, A. T. & Co. 

Dillon & Douglas 

Dorman Lithograph Co. 

Doroff, M. S. 

Douglass, B. H. & Co. 

Doyle, John T. Co. 

Druen, B. 

Eastern Machinery Co. 

Economy Manufacturing Co. 

Elm City Engineering Co. 

Elm City Lumber Co. 

Ely, C. Upham 

Everhart Pop Corn & Candy Co. 

Faeth, Anton 

Fair Haven Art Glass Co. 

Farren Bros. Co. 

Fitch, W. & E. T. Co. 

Fitzmorris, Robert 

Flanagan, Matthew 

Foskett & Bishop Co. The 

Frankenberger. II . & Co. 

Geometric Tool Co. (Westville) 

Gibbs. H. J. 



Gilbert Manufacturing Co. 

Globe Silk Works 

Goodrich, J. F. & Co. 

Graham, James & Co. 

Graves, F. D. 

Green, J. F. 

Griest, Mfg. Co. (Westville) 

Griffith, J. II. & Sons 

Grilloy Co. The 

Griswold, George M. 

Flauff, F. A. 

Hall, H. & Co. 

Harris-Hart Co. 

Hemming Bros. 

Hendryx, Andrew B. Co. 

Henn, A. S. & Co. 

Herrick & Cowell 

ILckok Co. 

Hoggson & Pettis Mfg. Co. 

Holaday, A. E. Manufacturing Co. 

Holcomb, H. C. 

flr-oker, Henry & Co. 

Howard Co. 

Howe & Co. 

Hubbell, M. B., F. S. 

Hubbell, Merwin & Co. 

Hygienic Ice Co. 

Ideal Manufacturing Co. 

Imperial Granum Co. 

Ives, H. B. & Co. 

Jacobs Bros. & Co. 

Johnstone & Gerrish 

Kafka, A. & Co. 

Kilborn & Bishop Co. 

Kil feather, John P. 

Killam, Henry Co. 

Kutchuck, J. 

Lambert, George D. 

Levine Bros. 

Magnus Metal Co. 

Mallory, Wheeler Co. 

Manning. C. M. 

Marlin Fire Arms Co. The 

McKenzie, George M. 

McLagon Foundry Co. 

Metal Manufacturing Co. 

Miner & Peck Mfg. Co. 

Moffat, W. J. 

Molloy, James F. & Co. 

Morgan & Humiston Co. 

Munson & Co. 

Narrow Fabric Corp. 

National Casket Co. 

National Folding Box & Paper Co. 

National Pipe Bending Co. 

National Steel Foundry Co. 

National Wire Corp. 

New England Broom Co. 

New England Mfg. Co. 

New England Stool Co. 

New England Stone Co. 

New England Warp Co. 

New Era Lustre Co. 

New Haven Awning & Dec'g. Co. 

New Haven Boiler Works 

New Haven Button Co. 

New Haven Carriage Co. 

New Haven Clock Co. 

Npw Haven Iron & Steel Co. 

New Haven Dairy Co. 

New Haven Manufacturing Co. 

New Haven Pulp & Board Co. 

New Haven Rendering Co. 

New Haven Rug Co. 

New Haven Saw Mill Co. 

Now Haven Spring Co. 

New Haven Toy & Game Co. 

New Haven Upholstering Co. 

Newman, I. & Sons 

North, O. B. &. Co. 

Norton Bros. & White Co. 

Ochsner, A. & Sons Co. 

Oriental Emery Co. 

Osterweiss, L. k Sons 

Page, Samuel K. 

Parker, Jos. & Son Co. (Westville) 

Peck Bros, ft Co. 

Peckham, John A. 

Perpente Manufacturing Co. 



PUcghar, F. P. & Son 
Phillips, Thos. & Son 
Prentice, George G. & Co. 
Price, Lee & Adkins Co. 
Rattan Manufacturing Co. 
Reade, Chas. W. Button Co. 
Recording Fare Register Co. 
Remfler & Thompson 
Reynolds Brass Foundry 
Reynolds & Co. 
Reynolds, James Mfg. Co. 
Rottman, B. 
Rowland, F. C. & A. E. 
Sanderson Fertilizer and Chemical Co. 
'Sargent & Co. 
Savage, B. B. & Co. 
Schollhorn, William Co. 
Scoville & Peck Co. 
Seabrook & Smith Cariage Co. 
Seamless Rubber Co. 
Setlow, M. & Son 
Seward, M. & Son Co. 
Sheahan & Groark 
Sheldon, E. B. Co. 
Shepard, H. G. & Sons 
Shoninger, B. Co. 
Sinister, F. B. Co. 
Smith, A. H. & Co. 
Smith, Edward F. & Co. 
Smith, E. S. 
Smith's, H. Sons. 
Smith, Hobart E. 
Jmith, William A. T. 
Smith, W. J. & Co. 
Smith & Twiss 
Snow, L. T. 
§perry & Amos Co. 
Steinertone Co. 
Stevens &Sackett Co. 
Stiles, A. C. Anti-Friction Metal Co. 
•Hrouse, Adler & Co. 
nrouse, I. & Co. 
Ten Brock, George A. & Co. 
Thompson, H. G. & Son 
Todd, Henry H. 
Todd, James E. 

Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Co. 
Valley Farm Creamery Co. 
Warner, G. F. Mfg. Co. 
Weil Novelty Co. 
Wilbur Corp. The 
Wilson, Robert 
Williams, F. E. Co. 
Winchester Repeating Arms Co. 
Yale Gas Stove Co. 
Yale Univ. Carpenter's Shop 
Yudkin, Samuel 

NEWINGTON 

Newington Paper Co. 

NEW LONDON 

Bingham Paper Box Co. 
Boss, C. D. & Son 

Brainerd & Armstrong Co. 

Brown Cotton Gin Co. 

Buckley, M. D. 

Chappell, F. H. & A. H. Co. 

Douglass, II. R. 

Fowler, F. C. 

Heath & Hawthorn 

Hopson, Chapin Mfg. Co. 

Ladd, F. M. 

New England Carpet Lining Co. 

New London Electro Plating Co. 

New London Marine Iron Works 

New London Motor Co. 

New London Vise Works 

New London Wash Silk Co. 

Palmer Bros. Co. 

Rogers, William G. 

Sheffield Dentrifice Co. 

Spiers Bros. 

Steam Bottling Co. 

Thames Tow Boat Co. 

Trumbull Marine Co. 

Tyler, George G. 

Whiton D. E. Machine Co. 



Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 



NEW MILFORD 

Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co. 
Eastern Lounge Co. 
Mew Mil ford Hat Co. 
Morthrop, J. A. & Son 



NEWTOWN 

Borden's Condensed Milk Co. 
Crowe, Patrick (Botsford P. 0.) 
Curtiss, S. & Son 

Fabric Fire Hose Co. (Sandy Hook) 
S. H. Reclaiming Wks. (Sandy Hook) 



NORFOLK 

Aetna Silk Co. 

Norfolk & New Brunswick Hosiery Co. 

NORTH CANAAN 

urn, Richardson Co. (E. Canaan) 



NORWALK 

American Paper Pail & Box Co. 

Arnold Co. Inc. 

Artistic Bronze Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Automatic tool Co. (E. Norwalk) 

Austin & Craw (S. Norwalk) 

Barthol, Otto Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Bates, Martin, Jr. & Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Binns, Joseph 

Boese, Peppard & Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Carman & Seymour (E. Norwalk) 

Colonial Foundry & Mach. Co. (East 

Norwalk) 
Craw, J. W. (S. Norwalk) 
Crofut & Knapp Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Dennis k Blanchard (S. Norwalk) 
Eastern Underwear Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Excelsior Rug. Co. (E. Norwalk) 
Fernandez & Earnst Cigar Co. (South 

Norwalk) 
Hatch, Bailey & Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hat Forming Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hodson, A. A. & Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hotchkiss, E. H. & Co. 
Hubbell, W. B. (S. Norwalk) 
Hutchinson, Pierce & Co. 
Jerome Paper Co. 
Knapp Box Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Le Count, Wm. G. (E. Norwalk) 
Lockwood Mfg. Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Loth, Joseph k Co. 
Lounsbury, Bissel & Co. (Winnipauk) 
Lounsbury, Matthewson Co. (S.N'wk) 
Malkin, A. R. 

Mather, H. W. (S. Norwalk) 
Meeker Union Foundry Corp. 
McKibben, Geo. N. Mfg. Co. (S.N'wk) 
Miller, J. W. (S. Norwalk) 
Muller Gloria Mills (Winnipauk) 
New England Food Co. (E. Norwalk) 
Nichols Underwear Corp. (S. N'wk) 
Norwalk Box Co., (S. Norwalk.) 

Norwalk Brass Co. 

Norwalk Launch Company 
Norwalk Mills Co. (Winnipauk) 
Noiwalk Tron Works (S. Norwalk) 
Norwalk Lock Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Old Well Cigar Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Phoenix Fur Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Postal Typewriter Companv 
Rough Hat Co. (S. Norwalk) 
R. & G. Corset Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Simons, Ernest Manufacturing Co. 
&t. George Pulp k Paper Co. 
St. Johns, Chas. S. (S. Norwalk) 
Trowbridge, C. S. (S. Norwalk) 
»Uttle, H. A. Mfg. Co. (E. Norwalk) 
O. S. Alcohol Refining Co. (S. N'wk) 
U. S. Foundry k Sales Co. (S. N'wk) 
Universal Hat Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Volk Hat Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Waldron & Riordan (S. Norwalk) 



Walhizer k Dreyer (S. Norwalk) 
Wheeler, A. C. 
Wheeler Bros. (S. Norwalk) 
Wilson, J. C. k Co. (S. Norwalk) 



NORWICH 

American Wood Work. Machine Co. 

Barber, M. A. 

Bard, Union Company 

Blissville Mills, Inc. 

Brown, Robert 

Chelsea File Works 

Clinton Mills Company 

Crescent Fire Arms Company 

Davenport, W. II. Fire Arms Co. 

Dawley, H. F. & A. J. 

Falls Companv 

Gilbert, N. S. k Sons 

Givernaud Bros. 

Glen Woolen Mills 

Goodwin Cork Company 

Gould, A. 

Green, M. J. 

Gulliver, A. H. 

Hall Bros. 

Hiscox, James A. 

Hiscox Company 

Hopkins & Allen Arms Company 

Hubbard, A. II. Company 

International Silver Company 

Johnson & Company 

Kellogg-McCrum- Howell Company 

Kuebler, C. A. 

Lester & Wasley 

Manning, A. R. (Yantic) 

Martin, J. B. Company 

Mohawk Paint & Chemical Co. 

Norwich Belt Manufacturing Co. 

Norwich Nickel & Brass Company 

Norwich Paper Box Company 

Norwich Silk Company 

Ossawan Mill Company 

Page, Wm. II. Boiler Company 

Pequot Brass Foundry 

Ponemah Mills (Taftville) 

Porter, H. B. k Son Company 

Prentice, C. W. (Taftville) 

Puritan Manufacturing Company 

Quinlan, John C. 

Reliance Worsted Company 

Ring, M. B. 

Scott k Clark Corp. 

Shetucket Company 

Stetson, V. S. 

Strom, Peter 

Thames Arms Manufacturing Co. 

Tobin Arms Manufacturing Co. 

Turner, Emerson P. Manufacturing Co. 

Ulmer Leather Company 

Uncas Paper Company 

Uncas Specialty Company 

United States Finishing Company 

Vaughn Foundry Company, Inc. 

Yantic Woolen Co. (Yantic) 



PLAINVILLE 

Bristol Manufacturing Company 

Calor, C. IF. 

Carter, K. T. 

Carter, L. II. 

Clark, A. N. k Son 

Clark Castor Company 

Elm City Brass 4: Rivet Company 

Hills, Edwin 

Lamb, B. k Company 

Norton k Jones 

Osborne k Stepheason Mfg. Compan* 

Trumbull Electric Co. 



PLYMOUTH 

Cooper, D. G. (Terryville) 
Eagle Lock Co. (Terrwille) 
Greystone Mfg. Co. (Greystone) 
Terry, Andrew Co. (Terryville) 



/ PORTLAND 

Brainerd, Shaler k Hall Quartz Co 
Gildersleeve, S. k Sons (Gildersleere) 
Tdeal Mfg. Co. (Gildersleeve) 
Main Products Company 
New England Enameling Company 
Pickering Governor Company 

PRESTON 

Lucas, B. Co. (Poquetannoc) 

PUTNAM 

Bosworth Bros. 

Case, W. D. k Co. 

Dady, John A. Corp. 

Hammond k Knowlton Co. 

Hampton Silk Co. 

Johnson, E. E. 

Johnson, W. S. 

Kent, C. M. k E. B. 

Monohansett Manufacturing Co. 

Morse Mills Co. 

Nightingale Mills 

Powhatan Mills 

Putnam Box Corp. 

Putnam Foundry k Mach. Co. 

Putnam Manufacturing Co. 

Putnam Silk Co. 

Putnam Woolen Co. 

Robbins, E. E. 

Royal Knitting Mills 

Tatem, J. B. & Son 

Union Novelty Co. 

Wheaton Bldg. k Lumber Co. 

RIDGEFIELD 

Bennett, R. 0. (Rranchville) 

Bdpt. Wood Finishing Co. (BViiie) 

Gruman, Geo. B. (Rranchville) 

ROCKY HILL 

Billings. C. ' The 

Champion Manufacturing 
Friable, L. T. Co. 

ROCKVILLE 
e Vernon] 

ROXBURY 

\klrich, Mfg. Co. (Moosup) NVw England Quartz Co. 

American Woolen Co. iMoosup^ 

Babcock, w. P. SALISBURY 

Cranska, Floyd (Moosup) 

Loes. W. S. Co. (Central Village) Barnum, Richs 

Plainfield Woolen Co. (Cent. Village) Rorden*fl Condensed II ilk Co, y\. K > 

Torrev, Bros k Co. (Central Village) Holley. Iff*. Co. (LakerlDe) 

Wauregan Companv (Wauregan) Salisbury Cutlery * Ifandk 



ORANGE 

American Buckle Co. (W. Haven) 
Mathushek Piano Mfg. Co. (W. II.) 
Sanderson Fertilizer k Chemical Co. 
West Haven Buckle Co. (W. Haven) 
West Haven Mfg. Co. (West Haven) 
Wire Novelty Co. The (W. Haven) 
Yale Safe k Iron Co. (W. Haven) 



PLAINFIELD 



Industrial Strength of Connecticut 



SAYBROOK 

Denison Bros. (Deep River) 
Potter & Snell (Deep River) 
Pratt, Read & Co. (Deep River) 
Williams & Marvin Mfg. Co. (D. R.) 

SEYMOUR 

Arethusa Spring Water Co. 

Beach, S. Y. Paper Co. 

Brixey, W. R. 

Day, H. P. & E. 

Fowler Nail Co. 

Garrett & Beach 

Rumphreyville Manufacturing Co. 

Little River Manufacturing Co. 

Matthews, H. A. Manufacturing Co. 

New Haven Copper Co. 

Rimmon Manufacturing Co. 

Seymour Iron Foundry Co. 

Seymour Manufacturing Co. 

Smith, J. M. 

Swan, James Co. 

Tingue Manufacturing Co. 

SHELTON 

(See Huntington) 

SIMSBURY 

Ensign, Bickford & Co. 

Rnsign, R. H. 

Tariffville Lace Mfg. Co. (Tariffville) 

SOMERS 

Somcrsville Mfg. Co. (Somersville) 

SOUTHBURY 

Hawkins Co. (South Britain) 
Diamond Match Co. (Southford) 

SOUTHINGTON 

Aetna Nut Co. 

Atwater Mfg. Co. (Plantsville) 
Beaton & Corbin Mfg. Co. 
Blakeslee Forging Co. (Plantsville) 

Clark Bros. Bolt Co. (Milldale) 

Ellis Manufacturing Co. (Milldale) 

Frost, L. D. & Son (Marion) 
Peck, Stowe & Wilcox Co. 
Southington Cutlery Co. 
Smith, H. D. Co. (Plantsville) 
Thompson, Drop & Forge Co. P'ville) 
Wolcott Hardware Co. (Plantsville) 
Wood, G. E. Tool Co. (Plantsville) 

SPRAGUE 

Airlie Mills (Hanover) 
Baltic Mills ^Co. (Baltic) 
Eastern Strawboard Co. (Versailles) 
Shetuckct Worsted Mills (Baltic) 
Totokett Mills Co. (Versailles) 
Uncasville Mfg. Co. (Versailles) 

STAFFORD 

Amidon, S. B. (Staffordville) 
Beckwith Card Co. 'Siaff'd Sp.) 
Bradway, C. P. (W. Stafford) 
Ellis, J. J. & A. D. (Stafford Springs) 
Fabyan Woolen Co. (Stafford Springs) 
Fabyan Woolen Co. (Staffordville) 
Faulkner Woolen Mill (Stafford S.) 
Faulkner Woolen Mill (Staffordville) 
Garland Woolen Co. (Staffordville) 
Mullen, T. F. & Co. (Stafford Springs) 
Paton, A. B. Mfg. Co. (Stafford S.) 
Phoenix Woolen Co. (Stafford) 
Riverside Woolen Co. (Stafford) 
Smith & Cooley (Stafford Springs) 
Stafford Loom Worka (Stafford) 
8tafford Worsted Co. (Stafford S.) 
Warren Woolen Co. (Stafford Springs) 



STAMFORD 

Atlantic Insulated Wire & Cable Co. 

Baer Bros. 

Ball Manufacturing Co. 

Beck, Frederick k Co. 

Blickensderfer Manufacturing Co. 

Boas Thread Co. 

Boston Artificial Leather Co. 

Brown, Christian 

Celluloid Zapon Co. 

Chemical Works of America, Inc. 

Co-operative Cigar Co. 

Davenport & Tracy 

Diamond Ice Co. 

Excelsior Hardware Co. 

Hale, Henry S. 

Hefumos Manufacturing Co. 

Hoyt, Lyman Son & Co. 

Imperial Manufacturing Co. 

International Power Vehicle Co. 

Jerals & Townsend Mfg. Co. 

Lounsburv & Soule 

Moll, Joseph H. 

Muench, George 

Murphy Manufacturing Co. 

Oven 'Equipment & Mfg. Co. 

Phillips, Chas. H. Chemical Co. 

(Glenbrook) 
Roth, Max 

Schleicher Sons' Piano Co. 
St. John's Wood Working Co. 
Stamford Foundry Co. 
Stamford Gas Stove Co. 
Stamford Iron Works 
Stamford Manufacturing Co. 
Stamford Motor Co. 
Stamford Rubber Supply CO. 
Star Manufacturing Co. 
Wagner, Michael 
Waterside Mills 
Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co. 



STERLING 

U. S. Finishing Co. 

STON1NGTON 

Allen Spool & Printing Co. (Mystic) 

American Thread Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

American Velvet Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

Atwood-Morrison Co. 

Cottrell, C. B. & Sons (Westerly P.O.) 

Hasbrook Motor Works (W. Mystic) 

Homes Ship Bldg. Co. (W. Mystic) 

Lantern Mills Silex Works (Mystic) 

Lathrop, J. W. (Mystic) 

Lorraine Mfg. Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

Maxson & Co. (Westerly P. O.) 

McDonald, M. C. (Mystic) 

Miller, A. R. Sons 

Mystic Motor Works (Mystic) 

Mystic Mfg. Co. (Mystic) 

Mystic Twine Co. (Mystic) 

Mystic Woolen Co. (Old Mystic) 

Packer Mfg. Co. (Mystic) 

Rossi e Velvet Co. (Old Mystic) 

Standard Machinery Co. (Mystic) 

Westerly Woolen Co. (Westerly P.O.) 

Whitford, Urban (Old Mystic) 

STRATFORD 

Oronoque Paper Mill (Oronoque) 

SUFFIELD 

Bissell, L. P. 
Ranney, S. O. 

THOMASTON 

Northfleld Knife Co. (Reynolds Bridge) 
Plume & Atwood ' Mfg. Co. 
Thomas, Seth Clock Co. 
Thomaston Knife Co. 



THOMPSON 

French Riv. Text. Co. (Mechanicsville) 
Grosvenordale Co. (Grosvenordale) 
Keegan, Lawrence (Wilsonville) 
Murdock, T. G. & Son (New Boston) 

TOLLAND 

Sumner, Wm. Belting Co. 

TORRINGTON 

Coe Brass Manufacturing Co. 
Eagle Bicycle Manufacturing Co. 
Excelsior Needle Co. 
Hendey Machine Co. 
Hotchkiss Bros. Co. 
Perkins, E. A. Electric Co. 
Progressive Manufacturing Co. 
Standard Manufacturing Co. 
Torrington Manufacturing Co. 
Turner & Seymour Manufacturing Co. 
Union Hardware Co. 
Warrenton Woolen Co. 

TRUMBULL 

Radcliffe, C. E. (Long Hill) 
Toucey, R. G. (Long Hill) 

UNIONVILLE 

(See Farmington) 

VERNON 

American Mills Co. (Rockville) 

Avery, Bates Co. (Ellington) 

Belding Bros. & Co. (Rockville) 

Hockanum Co. (Rockville) 

Martin's, E. J. Sons (Rockville) 

Murlless, H. B. (Rockville) 

New England Co. (Rockville) 

Ravine Mills Co. 

Regan, J. J. Mfg. Co. (Rockville) 

Rock Mfg. Co. (Rockville) 

Springville Mfg. Co. (Rockville) 

Swett, R. K. Co. 

Talcott Bros. (Talcottville) 

U. S. Envelope Co. (Rockville) 

Vernon Woolen Co. 

VOLUNTOWN 

Briggs Manufacturing Co. 

WALLINGFORD 

Backes, G. W. & Sons 

Backes, M. Sons 

Biggins, Rogers Co. 

Haller-Brown Co. (Yalesville) 

Hamden Manufacturing Co. 

Hodgetts, W. J. 

International Silver Co. 

Jennings & Griffin Mfg. Co. (Tracy) 

Judd, H. L. & Co. 

N. Y. Insulated Wire Co. 

Parker, Chas. Co. (Yalesville) 

Rogers, S. L. & G. H. Co. 

Wallace, R. & Sons Mfg. Co. 

Wallingford Co., Inc. 

Yale, C. I. Mfg. Co. (Yalesville) 



WATERBURY 

American Manufacturing Co. 

American Mills Co. 

American Pin Co. (Waterville) 

American Ring Co. 

Barlow Bros. Co. 

Benedict & Burnham Mfg. Co. 

Blake & Johnson Co. 

Bristol Co. 

BerbeckT & Rowland (Watervtlle> 



Connecticut Towns and Their Manufacturers 



Chase Rolling Mill Co. 

Coe Brass Co. 

Cross & Speirs Machine Co. 

Daly, M. J. & Sons 

Draher, John 

Fry, B. H. & Co. 

Hartley, George 

Hemingway, M. & Sons 

Henderson Bros. 

Hygeia Ice & Cold Storage Co. 

International Silver Co. 

Judd, W. B. 

Kalbfleisch, F. H. & Co. 

Lane Manufacturing Co. 

Macauley, J. J. 

Manufacturers' Foundry Co. 

Manville Bros. Co. 

Manville, E. J. Machine Co. 

Mattatuck Manufacturing Co. 

Matthews & Willard Mfg. Co. 

McCarthy & Moore 

Morden, L. M. 

New England Watch Co. 

Noera Manufacturing Co. 

Novelty Manufacturing Co. 

Phoenix, Fred 

Piatt Bros. & Co. 

Plume & Atwood Manufacturing Co. 

Randolph-Clowes Co. 

Risdon, S. A. 

Rowbottom Mach. Co. (Waterville) 

Scoville Manufacturing Co. 

Shoe Hardware Co. 

Smith & Griggs Mfg. Co. 

Smith, J. E. & Co. 

Standard Electric Time Co. 

Steele & Johnson Mfg. Co. 

Tracy Bros. Co. 

Upham, George 

Waterbury Battery Co. 

Waterbury Blank Book Mfg. Co. 

Waterbury Brass Co. 

Waterbury Brass Goods Corp. 

Waterbury Buckle Co. 

Waterbury Button Co. 

Waterbury Clock Co. 

Waterbury Crucible Co. 

W'b'y Farrel Fdy. & Mach. Co. 

Waterbury Machine Co. 
Waterbury Manufacturing Co. 
Waterbury Paper Box Co. 
Waterbury Wire Die Co. 
Waterville Cutlery Co. (Waterville) 
Welch, H. L. Hosiery Co. (W'ville) 
Wevand, Henry Co. 
White, L. C. Co. 
White & Wells Co. 

WATERFORD 

Booth Bros. 

Gardner, Henry (Millstone Pt.) 
Robinson, F. P. Paper Co. (Q. Hill) 
Woodworth, N. A. (Quaker Hill) 



WATERTOWN 

Baird Machine Co. (Oakville) 
Hemingway & Bartlett Silk Co. 

(Watertown) 
Hemingway, M. & Sons Silk Co. 

(Watertown) 
Oakville Co. (Oakville) 
Phoenix, Fred 

Smith, Seymour & Son (Oakville) 
Woolson, J. B. (Watertown) 

WEST HARTFORD 

Goodwin Bros. Pottery Co. (Elmwood) 
Park Brick Co. (Elmwood) 
Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. (Elmwood) 

WESTPORT 

Atlantic Starch Co. 

Bradley, G. W. Sons 

Computing Snale Co. (Saugatuck) 

Doscher Plane & Tool Co. (Saugatuck) 

Embalmers' Supply Co. 

Kemper, Charles H., Jr. 

Lees Manufacturing Co. 

Saugatuck Mfg. Co. (Saugatuck) 

Wakeman, Rufus (Saugatuck) 

Westport Paper Co. 

WETHERSFIELD 

Hartford Blower Co. 

WILLIM ANTIC 

(See Windham) 

WILLI NGTON 

Conn. Woolen Mill (E. Willington) 
Hall, Gardner & Son Co. (S. W'ton) 

WILTON 

Gilbert & Bennett Mfg. Co. 

(Georgetown) 



WINCHESTER 

Brown Mach. Co. (Winsted) 

Carter & Hakes Mach. Co. (Winsted) 
Dudley, Geo. & Son Co. (W'td) 
Empire Knife Co. (Winsted) 
Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 
Gilbert, Wm.L.CIock Co. (W'd) 
Goodwin & Kintz Co. (Wt'd) . 
Harrison, B. J. & Son Co. (Winsted) 
Moore, Franklin Co. (Winsted) 
Morgan Silver Plate Co. (Winsted) 
New England Knitting Co. (Winsted) 
New England Pin Co. (Winsted) 
Richards, Benjamin & Co. (Winsted) 



Richards, T. C. Hardware Co. (W'gtd) 
I Roe, John W. (Winsted) 
Strong Mfg. Co. (Winsted) 
Wilcox, George C. (Winsted) 
Winsted Cabinet Co. (Winsted) 
Winsted Edge Tool Works (Winsted) 
Winsted Hosiery Co. (W'td) 
Winsted Mfg. Co. (Winsted) 
Winsted Silk Co. (Winsted) 
Winsted Yarn Co. (Winsted) 

WINDHAM 

American Thread Co. (Willimantic) 
Bosson Fibre Board Co. (N. Windham) 
Chaffee Mfg. Co. (Willimantic) 
Harris, C. R. (N. Windham) 
Hartson, L. M. Co. (N. Windham) 
Hillhouse & Taylor (Willimantic) 
Holland Mfg. Co. (Willimantic) 
Latham & Crane (Willimantic) 
Mall, t. H. & Son (N. Windham) 
Sibley J Wm. (N. Windham) 
Smith & Wjnche?terCo. S. W. 
Thread City Collar Co. (Willimantic) 
Turner, A. G. (Willimantic) 
Vanderman Plumb. & Heat. Co. 
„ r .„. „ „ (Willimantic) 

Willimantic Cotton Mills Corp. 
„ T .„. . (Willimantic) 

Willimantic Machine Co. (Williman') 
Windham Mfg. Co. (Willimantic) 

WINDSOR 

Eddy Manufacturing Corp. 
Hartford Paper Co. (Poquonock) 
Health Underwear Co. (Poquonock) 
Hartford Paper Co. (Rainbow) 
Merwin, G. J. (Rainbow) 
Rainbow Mill (Rainbow) 
Windsor Collar & Cuff Co. 

WINDSOR LOCKS 

American Writing Paper Co. 
Anchor Mills Paper Co. 
Clark, Geo. P. Co. 
Dexter, C. H. k Sons 
Horton, E. & Son Co. 
Medlicott Co. The 
Montgomery. J. R. Co. 
Whittlesey Paper Co. 
Windsor Locks Machine Co. 

WindsorSilk Co. 

WINSTED 

(See Winchester) 

WOODBURY 

Amer. Shear & Knife Co. 

(Hotchkissville) 
Curtis, Daniel & Sons 



CONNECTICUT PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURERS 

Concerns named in heavy type are given in full detail in preceding p ... 



ADVERTISING NOVELTIES 
Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 

AGRICULTURAL TOOLS 

Cutaway Harrow Co. (Higganum) 

AMMONIA 
Standard Co. (Hartford) 

AMMUNITION 

Am. & British Mfg Co. (Bridgeport) 
Union Metallic Cartridge Co. " 

U 8 Rapid Fire Gun & Powder Co. 

(Derby) 



Winchester Repeating Arms Co. 

(New Haven) 

ARM BANDS 

Blakesley Novelty Co. (Bristol) 

AUTOMOBILES 

Electric Vehicle Co. (Htfd.) 

Pope Mfg Co. 

Corbin Motor VehicleCo.(N.B.) 
Locomobile Co. of America (Bridgep't) 
Eisenhuth Horseless Vehicle Co. 

(Middletown) 



AUTO COOLERS AND 
CONDENSERS 

Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. (Htfd.) 

AUTO SPECIALTIES 
Uncas Specialty Oo, 

BEDSTEADS (Metallic) 

Fartford Redttead ■ Hartford) 

National Spring !?<•,! i'o \ 

Whitcomb M. Shelfn) 



Industrial Strength of Connecticut 



BELLS 

Liberty Bell Co. (Bristol) 

New Departure Mfg Co. 

Bevin Bros Mfg Co. (East Hampton) 

East Hampton Bell Co. " 

Gong Bell Mfg Co. 

N N Hill Brass Co. " 

Star Bros Bell Co. 

BELTING (Leather) 

Jewell Belting Co. (Hartford) 
Coe & Brown (New Haven) 

Norwich Mfg Co. (Norwich) 

Ulmer Leather Co. 
N Palmer k Co. (Bridgeport) 

William Sumner Belting Co. (Tolland) 

BICYCLES 

Pope Mfg. Co. (Hartford) 

Eagle Bicycle Mfg Co. (Torrington) 

BICYCLE SUPPLIES 

Liberty Bell Co. (Bristol) 

New Departure Mfg Co. 

Veeder Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

Post & Lester 

Liberty Cycle Co. (Bridgeport) 

BLANK BOOKS 

Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 
Waterbury Blank Book Mfg Co. 

(Waterbury) 
Talcott, W. H. (Hartford) 

BLUING 
Standard Co. (Hartford) 
BOATS 

Hartford & N Y Transportation Co. 

(Hartford) 
Thames Tow Boat Co. (New London) 
Trumbull Marine Co. 
Leeds Marine Equip. Co. (Bridgeport) 
Palmer Bros (Cos Cob) 

Greenwich Yacht Yard (Greenwich) 
Norwalk Launch Co. (Norwalk) 

(Stamford) 
Internat. Power Vehicle Co. 
Stamford Motor Co. 
S. Gildersleeve & Son (Gildersleeve) 
E. A. Ely (Middletown) 

BOILERS 

H B Beach & Son (Hartford 

Bigclow Co. (New Haven) 

New Haven Boiler Works " 

Randolph-Clowes Co. (Waterbury) 

Hopson Chapin Mfg Co. (New London^ 

Spiers Bros. 

K.ll< t'g-McCramm-HowellCo (N'weh 

Wm H Page Boiler Co. 

Bridgeport Boiler Works (Bridgeport) 

BOLTS AND NUTS 
Clark Bros- Bolt Co. (Milldale) 
BONE GOODS 

Rogers k Hubbard Co. (Middletown) 
Rogers Mfer Co. (Rockfall) 

BOOKS & BINDING 

Case, Ix>ckwood k Brainard Co.(Htfd.) 
Price, Lee k Adkins (New Haven) 

Tnttle, Morehouse k Taylor Co. " 

Middlesex County Printery (Portland) 

BOXES (Paper) 

H J Mills (Bristol) 

C J Callaghan (Hartford) 

Hartford Box Co. " 

Nichols Paper Box Co. 
H TT Corbin k Son (New Britain") 



Minor Corbin Box Co. (New Britain) 
S G Redshaw (Ansonia) 

E J Doolittle (Meriden) 

C E Schumick " 

White & Wells Co. (Naugatuck) 

Benton-Armstrong Fold. Box Co. 

(New Haven) 
Bishop Box & Paste Co. " 

P J Cronan Paper Box Co. " 

Munson & Co. " 

National Fold. Box & Paper Co. " 
New England Mfg Co. " 

W J Hodgetts (Wallingford) 

Waterbury Paper Box Co. (Waterbury) 
White & Wells Co. 

Bingham Paper Box Co. (N. London) 
Norwich Paper Box Co. (Norwich) 
Frank W Clark (Bethel) 

John Reid " 

Bridgeport Paper Box Co. (Bridgeport) 
Compressed Paper Box Co. " 

Crown Paper Box Co. " 

Isaac Armstrong k Co. (Danbury) 
Clark Box Co. " 

C A Romans " 

S Curtiss & Son (Newtown) 

Am. Paper Pail & Box Co. (Norwalk) 
Knapp Box Co. (South Norwalk) 

Norwalk Box Co. " 

S C Trowbridge 

Nat'l. Fold. Box & Paper Co.(Shelton) 
L S Carpenter & Son (E. Hampton) 
C H Watrous (Middletown) 

Kingsbury Box k Ptg. Co. (S.Coventry) 

BOXES (Wood) 

Bronson & Robinson Co. (Hartford) 
J W Rockwell 

Chas T Dodd (Meriden) 

Chas S St Johns (South Norwalk) 
Putnam Box Corp (Putnam) 

BRASS GOODS 

Bristol Brass Co. (Forestville) 

(Hartford) 
Brewery Appliance Specialty Co. " 
Ansonia Mfg Co. (Ansonia) 

Homer D Bronson Co. (Beacon Falls) 
Andrew B Hendrvx Co. (New Haven) 
Rostand Mfg Co. (Milford) 

H A Matthews Mfg Co. (Seymour) 
Rimmon Vifg, Co. (Seymour) 

H L Judd k Co. (Wallingford) 

Am. Ring Co. (Waterbury) 

Novelty Mfg Co. " 

Plume k Atwood Mfg Co. 
Steele k Johnson Mfg Co. " 

Waterbury Goods Corp. 
Waterbury Mfg Co. 
Ball k Socket Mfg Co. (W Cheshire) 
Norwich Nickel k Brass C^. (Norwich) 
Eaton, Cole k Burnham Co. (B'port) 
Gaynor k Mitchell Mfg Co. 
James M Somers " 

NorwMk BnssCo. (Norwalk) 
Artistic Bronze Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Jerals k Townsend Mfg Co. (Stamford) 
Benjamin. Richard k Co. (Winsted) 

BRASS (Sheet) 

Bristol Brass Co. (Bristol) 

BRICKS 

Park Brick Co. (Elmwood) 

Eastern Machinery Co. (New Haven) 
Howard Co. " 

BROOMS 

New England Broom Co. (N. Haven) 
Geo W Bancroft (New Hartford) 

BRUSHES 

W L Whittemore * Son (Hartford) 
Standard Brush Co. (New Hartford) 



Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 

(Winsted) 
Looby & Fargo (Center Brook) 

Rogers Brush Works (Chester) 

BUILDERS' HARDWARE 

(New Britain) 
Russell & Erwin Mfg Co. 
P & F Corbin 
Stanley Works 

BUILDERS' SUPPLIES 
H Wales Lines Co. (Meriden) 



BUTTONS 



New Haven Button Co. 
Chas W Reade Button 
Weil Novelty Co. 
E F Smith & Sons 
Lane Mfg Co. 
Piatt Bros k Co. 
Waterburv Button Co. 
L C White Co. 
Elmwood Button Co. 
Hatheway Mfg Co. 
Patrick Crowe 
Saugatuck Mfg Co. 
Griffin Button Co. 



(New Haven) 
Co. 

«» 

(Union City) 
(Waterbury) 



(Bridgeport) 

(Newtown) 

(Saugatuck) 

(Shelton) 



CALENDARS 

Curtiss-Way Co. (Meriden) 
Beckwith Print. Co. (Norwich) 

CANNED GOODS 

Knowles-Lombard Co. (Guilford) 

Sachems Head Canning Co. (Guilford) 

CARDBOARD 

Naubuc Paper Co. (Glastonbury) 

Riverside Paper Mfg Co. " 

Hartford Board Co. (Hartford) 

Case Bros (Highland Park) 

Wausuc Mills Co. (Hopewell) 

Willard A Case (Manchester) 

Brookside Paper Co. (So. Manchester) 
Rogers Paper Mfg r"o. " 

New Haven Pulp k Board Co. (N.H.) 
Diamond Match Co. (Southport) 

Eastern Straw Board Co. (Versailles) 
C H Norton (N. Westcheshire) 

Standard Card & Paper Co. (B'port) 
Tait k Sons Paper Co. ** 

United Box Board & Paper Co. 

(Shelton) 
Westport Paper Co. (Westport) 

Bosson Fibre Board Co. (Chaplin) 

F L Case Paper Co. (Andover) 

R K Swett Co. (Vernon) 

CARPETS 

Hartford Carpet Co. (Thompsonville) 
Upson, Martin k Co. " 

Reid Carpet Co. (Bridgeport) 

CARPENTERS' TOOLS 

Stanley Rule & Level Co. 

(New Britain) 

CARRIAGE CLOTH 

Clinton Mills Co. (Norwich) 

Fairfield Rubber Co. (Fairfield) 

CARRIAGES & PARTS 

Guilford Wheel Mfg Co. (Guilford) 
M Armstrong k Co. (New Haven) 



Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 



A T Demarest ft Co. (New Haven) 
J F Goodrich & Co. " 

H C Holcomb " 

Henry Hooker & Co. " 

Henry Killian Co. " 

New Haven Carriage Co. (New Haven 
Samuel K. Page " 

Seabrook & Smith Carriage Co. " 

M Seward & Son Co. " 

James W Harry & Son Co. 

(W. Cheshire) 
M B Ring (Norwich) 

Scott & Clark Corp. 
Blue Ribbon Horse & Carriage Co. 

(Bridgeport) 
Gates Carriage Co. " 

C W Hall Carriage Co. " 

Hincks & Johnson " 

Wheel & Wood Bending Co. " 

W P Babcock (Plainfield) 

Flynn & Doyle (Bantam) 

Standard Mfg Co. (Torrington) 

Broderick Carriage Co. (Middletown) 
J. B. Evans " 

CASTINGS (Brass) 

E J Blake (Hartford) 

J M Craig 

Phoenix Brass Foundry Co. 

Wm. Roach (New Britain) 

F L Gay lord Co. (Ansonia) 

H D Phelps 

Edward Miller Co. (Meriden) 

Upham Ely (New Haven) 
James Graham & Co. " 
J F Green " 
Reynolds Brass Foundry " 
Pequot Brass Foundry (Norwich) 
Bridgeport Deoxidized Bronze & Metal 

Co. (Bridgeport) 

Burns Silver Co. " 
P J Donovan Brass Foundry Co. " 

W G Rowell & Co. " 

Danbury Brass Works (Danbury) 

Birmingham Brass Co. (Shelton) 

Christian Brown (Stamford) 

CASTINGS (Iron) 
Sessions Foundry Co. (Bristol) 

Capitol Foundry Co. (Hartford) 

Hartford Foundry Corp. " 

P Laragy " 

Phoenix Iron Works Corp. 
Standard Foundry Co. 
Malleable Iron Works (New Britain) 

D. E. Whiton Machine Co. N 

(New London) 

Vulcan Iron Works " 

E T Carter (Plainville) 

Champion Mfg Co. (Rocky Hill) 

Malleable Iron Fittings Co. (Branford) 
Birmingham Iron Foundry (Derby) 

1 S Spencer's Sons (Guilford) 
S H Barnum (New Haven) 
McLagon Foundry Co. " 
G F Warner Mfg Co. " 
Hubert Wilson " 
Seymour Iron Foundry Co. (Seymour) 
Naugatuck Malleable Iron Co. 

(Union City) 
Manufacturer's Foundry (Waterbury) 
Waterbury Farrel Fdy. & Mach. Co. " 
Vaughn Foundry Co. (Norwich) 

I B Miller Sons (Stonington) 

Bridgeport Malleable Iron Co. 

(Bridgeport) 
R E Parsons Co. " 

Pequonnock Foundry Inc. " 

Arnold Co., Inc. (Norwalk) 

Meeker Union Foundry Corp. " 

U S Fdy & Sales Co. (So. Norwalk) 
Meyer Iron & Brass Fdy. (Shelton) 
Putnam Fdy. & Mach. Co. (Putnam) 
Andrew Terry Co. (Terryville) 

H B Murlless (Rockville) 

S B Amidon (Staffordville) 

Terry Co. (Plymouth) 



CASTINGS (Steel) 

National Steel Fdy Co. (New Haven) 
A C Stiles Anti-Friction Metal Co. " 

CHEMICALS fe 

Naugatuck Chemical Co. (Naugatuck) 
F B Kalbfleisch Co. (Waterbury) 

Mohawk Paint & Chemical (Norwich) 
General Chemical Co. (Bridgeport) 
Vass Chemical Co. (Danbury) 

Chas. H. PhiUips Chem. Co. 

. , (Glenbrook) 

Chemical Wooks of America Inc. 

(Stamford) 

CHINA WARE 
Helmschmied Mfg Co. 

(Meriden) 

CHUCKS (Lathe) 
Cushman Chuck Co. 

(Hartford) 
Jacobs Mfg Co. " 

Skinner Chuck Co. (N. Brit.) 
Union Mfg Co. 
E Horton & Son Co. (Windsor Locks) 
Hoggson & Pettis Mfg Co. 

(New Haven) 

D. E. Whiton Machine Co. 

(New London) 

CLOCKS 

E Ingraham Co. (Bristol) 

H C Thompson Clock Co. " 

Sessions Clock Co. (Forestville) 

Parker Clock Co. Meriden) 

New Haven Clock Co. (New Haven) 
Standard Elec. Time Co. (Waterbury) 
Waterbury Clock Co. " 

(Winsted) 
Wm L Gilbert Clock Co. 
Goodwin & Kintz Co. " 

Annual Wind Clock Co. (Middletown) 

CLOCK PARTS 

Youncr Bros (Forestville) 

Reeves Mfg Co. (Milford) 

Bridgeport Enamel Dial Co. 

(Bridgeport) 

COIN REGISTERS 

Burdick-Corbin Co. (Hartford) 

Henry Killian Co. 

COMBS 



Derby Comb Co. 
Pratt, Read & Co. 



(Derby) 
(Deep River) 



J R Montgomery Co. (Windsor Lock*) 

Ansonia & C Co. (Ansoniaj 

New England Warp Co. (New Haven) 

Baltic Mills Co. (Baltic) 

Ashland Cotton Co. (Jewett City) 

Wm. A Slater Mills » 

Am. Thread Co. (Glasco) 

Palmer Bros Co. (Montville) 

I Pequot Mills « 

! Mystic Twine Co. (Mystic) 

i _ . (New London) 

New England Carpet Lin. Co. 

Blissville Mills Inc. (Norwich) 

! Falls Co. 

Shetucket Co. 

Peter Strom « 

Emerson P Turner Mfg Co. « 

U S Finishing Co. " 

Massosoit Mfg Co. (Oakville) 

Am Thread Co. (Stonington) 

Lorraine Mfg Co. 

Totokett Mills Co. C Versailles) 

Briggs Mfg Co. (Voluntown) 

C W Pjrentice (Taftville) 

Uncasville Mfg Co. . (Uncasville) 
Uncasville Mfg Co. (Versailles) 

Ernest Simpons Mfg Co. (Norwalk) 
Adam Mfg Co. (Shelton) 

Lee's Mfg Co. (Wt-stport) 

Attawaugan Co. (Attawaugan) 

W S Lees Co. (Central Village) 

Danielsonville Cotton Co. (Danielson) 
Quinebaug Co. " 

Fred R Smith (E Killingly) 

Aldrich Mfg Co. (Moosup) 

Floyd Cranska " 

Cutler Mills Co. (Packerville) 

Monohansett Mfg Co. (Putnam) 

Moss Mills Co. " 

Nightingale Mills " 

Powhatan Mills " 

Putnam Mfg Co. 

Wauregan Co. (Wauregan) 

Williamsville Mfg Co. (Williamsville) 
Am Thread Co. (Willimantic) 

Windham Co. 

Willimantic Cotton Mills Corp. ■ 
E H Mall & Son (N Windham) 

M H Marcus & Bros (Elmville) 

Grosvenordale Co. (Grosvenordale) 
Summit Thread Co. (East Hampton) 
Russell Mfg Co. (Higgaum) 

C E Brownell (Moodus) 

Hall, Lincoln k Co. 
Neptune Twine & Cord Mills " 

N Y Net k Twine Co. 
A E Purple 

M Pollock (Conantville) 

John L Ross (Faeleville) 

Gardner Hall ft Son (So. Willington) 
Ravine Mills Co. (Vernon) 



COMPUTING MACHINES 
Conn Computing Mach. Co. 

(New Haven) 

CORKS 

Goodwin Cork Co. (Norwich) 

CORSETS 

Brewster Corset Co. (Derby) 

Brooks Corset Co. (New Haven) 

Gilbert Mfg Co. 

Hickok Co. 

I Newman k Sons 

I Strouse k Co. 

Strouse-Adler k Co. 

Henry H. Todd 

Geo. C. Batcheller k Co. (Bridgeport) 

Birdsey k Somers 

Crown Corset Co. 

Downer, Hawes k Co. 

Warner Bros Corset Co. 

R k G Corset Co. (S. Norwalk) 

R N Bassett Co. (Shelton) 

COTTON GOODS 
Arawana Mills (Middletown) 

J Broadbent ft Son (Unionville) 



CRUCIBLES 

Waterbury Crucible Co. (Waterbury) 
Bridgeport Crucible Co. (Brnlgep't) 

CUTLERY (Pocket) 

Humason ft Beckley Mfg Co. 

(Now Britain) 
Southington Cut. Co. (Southington) 
Miller Bros Cut. Co.(Moridon) 
Waterville Cut. Co. (Waterville) 

Challenge Cut. Corp. (Briv ! _- 
Holley Mfg Co. (i ikerille) 

Northfleld Knife Co. (Northfleld) 

Northfleld Knife Co (Reynolds Bridge) 
Thomaston Knife Co. (Ttiom 

Empire Knife Co. Bated) 

Salisbury Cutler? Beadle Oo SaJfcbury 

CUTLERY (Tabled 
Landers. Frary & Clark. 

(New Britain) 
H.C. Hart Mfg. Co. nville) 

Union Cut. ft HdV Oft, 
Meriden Cut. Co M 

Internet. Silver Co. S 

sihor Piatt Cutlerj Oo 



Industrial Strength of Connecticut 



DAIRY PRODUCTS 

Hartford Dairy Co. (Hartford) 

New Haven Dairy Co. (New Haven) 

Valley Farm Creamery Co. 
Borden's Cond. Milk Co. (Newtown) 

DIES 

Everett Horton (Bristol) 

Ira B Smith (Bristol) 

L E Rhodes (Hartford 
Meriden Mach Tool Co. 

(Meriden) 
Waterbury Wire Die Co. (W'tbury) 
Conn Tool Co. (Bridgeport) 

DRESS SHIELDS 

Omo Mfg Co. (Middletown) 

DRESS STAYS 

Union Fabric Co. (Ansonia) 

DRILL PRESSES 

Henry & Wright Mfg Co. 

(Hartford) 

DROP HAMMERS 
Billings & Spencer Co. (Hfd.) 

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES 

Arknot Co. (Hartford) 

Baker Electric Co. (Hartford 
Franklin Electric Mfg Co. " 

Green & Bauer " 

Hart & Hegeman Mfg Co. " 
Hart Mfg Co. 
Johas-Pratt Co 
Norton Elec. Instrument Co. 

(Manchester) 
T H Brady (New Britain) 

Trumbull Elec. Co. (Plainville) 

Eddy Mfg Corp (Windsor) 

Ansonia Electric Co. (Ansonia) 

H P Cameron Elec Mfg Co. 
Todd Electric Mfg Co. (Meriden) 
Acme Wire Co. (New Haven) 

A E Holaday Mfg Co. " 

N Y Insulated Wire Co. (Wall'gford) 
Waterbury Battery Co. (Waterbury) 
Bryant Electric Co. (Bridgeport) 

Perkins Elec. Switch Mfg Co. " 

E A Perkins Elec. Co. (Torr'gton) 

ELECTRIC FUSES 

Johns-Pratt Co. (Hartford) 

ELECTRIC INSULATORS 

Johns-Pratt Co. (Hartford) 

ELECTRIC SWITCHES 

Hart & Hegeman Mfg Co. " 
(Hartford) 
Hart Mfg Co. 

ELECTROTYPES 

A. Mugford (Hartford) 

Robert Weller 

A Pindar Corp. " 

Hartford Engraving Co. " 

R S Peck & Co. 

W T Barnum & Co. (New Haven) 

Best Mfg Co. " 

E B Sheldon Co. " 

Curtiss- Way Co. (Meriden) 

W W Wheeler Co. (Meriden) 

F A Benton & Son (Bridgeport) 



EMERY (Ground) 

Oriental Emery Co. (New Haven) 

Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. 

(Bridgeport) 
Springfield Mfg Co. " 

ENAMELED GOODS. 

New England Enameling Co. 

(Middletown) 
New England Enameling Co. (P'land) 

ENGINES 

Hasbrook Motor Works (Mystic) 

New London Marine Iron Works 

(New London) 
Acme Oil Engine Co. (Bridgeport) 
Pacific Iron Works 
Royal Equipment Co. "■ 

Norwalk Iron Works (S. Norwalk) 
International Power Vehicle Co. 

(Stamford) 

ENGINES (Gasoline) 



Mianus Motor Works 
Harriman Motor Works 
Hartford Engine Works 
Evarts Mfg Co. 
F A Law Mach Co. 
New Britain Mach Co. 
J W Lathrop 
Mystic Motor Works 
New London Motor Co. 
Fairfield Motor Co. 
Brooklyn Ry Supply Co. 
Palmer Bros 
Norwalk Launch Co. 
Stamford Motor Co. 
E E Johnson 
Eagle Bicycle Mfg Co. 
H W Hubbard 
Keating Motor Co. 
Royal Equipment Co. 



(Mianus) 
(Hartford) 



(N. Britain) 
(Mystic) 

(N. London) 

(Fairfield) 

(Mianus) 

(Norwalk) 

(Stamford) 

(Putnam) 

(Torr'gton) 

(Middletown) 

« 

(Bridgeport) 



ENGINE GOVERNORS 

Pickering Governor Co. (Portland) 

ENGRAVING (Photo) 

A. Mugford (Hartford) 

Hartford Engraving Co. " 
Robert Weller 

A Pindar Corp. " 

Brown & Stoddard Co. (N. Haven) 

Curtiss -Way Co. (Meriden) 

W W Wheeler Co. (Meriden) 

ENGRAVING (Wood) 

A. Mugford (Hartford) 

Robert Weller 

Calhoun Show Print Co. " 

A Pindar Corp. " 

R S Peck Co. 

ENVELOPES 

Tavlor-Atkins Paper Co. (Burnside) 

Hartford Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

Plimpton Mfg Co. (Hartford) 

U S Envelope Co. " 
Am Paper Goods Co. (Kensington) 

W J Moffat (New Haven) 

U S Envelope Co. (Rockville) 

EXTRACTS 

Williams & Carleton (Hartford) 

Uncasville Dye Wood & Ext. Co. 

(Uncasville) 
Stamford Mfg Co. ( Stamford) 

EYELETS 

Rimmon Mfg. Co. (Seymour) 



FABRICS 

Arawana Mills (Middletown) 
New Haven Web Co. (Hamden) 

Cott-A-Lap Co. (New Haven) 

Narrow Fabric Corp " 

Am Mills Co. (Waterbury) 

Jewett City Textile Novelty Co. 

(Jewett City) 
Ponemah Mills (Taftville) 

Bias Narrow Fabric Co. (B'dgep't) 
Bridgeport Coach Lace Co. «« 

Bridgeport Elastic Fabric Co. " 

Conn Web Co. (Bridgeport 

J G Irving (Danbury) 

C E Radcliffe (Long Hill) 

Muller Gloria Mills (Winnipauk) 

Boese, Peppard & Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Hefumos Mfg Co. (Stamford) 

Star Mfg Co. 
Russell Mfg Co. (Rockfall) 



FIREARMS 
Colt's Pat. Fire Arms Mfg Co. 

„ .. ^ (Hartford 

Meriden Fire Arms Co. (Meriden 

Parker Bros. 

Ideal Mfg Co. (New Haven 

Marlin Fire Arms Co. 

Winchester R'ptg. Arms Co. 

Crescent Fire Arms Co. (Norwich 

W H Davenport Fire Arms Co. 

Hopkins & Allen Arms Co. 

Thames Arms Mfg Co. 

Tobin Mfg Co. 

Otis A Smith (Rockfall 



FIREWORKS. 

(Wallingford) 



G W Backes & Sons 
M Backes Sons 



FISH LINES (Silk) 

E J Martin's Sons (Rockville) 



FLATWARE 



Melrose Silver Co. 
Biggins-Rogers Co. 



(Hartford) 
Wall'gford) 



FOOD PRODUCTS 

C. H. Bird Co. (New Haven) 

Imperial Granum Co. (N. Haven) 

C D Boss & Son (New London) 

New England Food Co. (E. Norwalk) 
Echo Farm Corp (Bantam) 

Borden's Cond. Milk Co. (Canaan) 
Borden's Cond. Milk Co. (Lime Rock) 

FOOTWEAR 

Benedict & Co. (New Canaan) 

Frank I Lane " 

Lounsburv, Matthewson & Co. 

(S. Norwalk) 
Lounsbury & Soule (Stamford) 

W D Case & Co. (Putnam) 

W S Johnson " 

Goodyear Rubber Co. (Middletown) 



FORGINGS (Drop) 

Billings & Spencer Co. (Hfd.) 
Blakeslee Forging Co. (Plantsville) 
Kilbourn & Bishop Co. (New Haven) 
Bridgeport Forge Co. (Bridgeport) 



FURNACES 

Turner Heater Co. (Bristol) 



Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 



FURNITURE 



D Case Co. 
Eastern Lounge Co. 
B J Harrison Son Co. 

FUSES 

Climax Fuse Co. 
Ensign, Bickford & Co. 



(Guilford) 

(New Milford) 

(Winsted) 



(Avon) 
(Simsbury) 



GARTERS 



Blakesley Novelty Co. 
C J White & Co. 



(Bristol) 
(New Britain) 



GERMAN SILVER 



Bristol Brass Co. 



(Bristol) 



GLASS (Cut) 

J D Bergen Co. (Meriden) 

International Silver Co. " 

Meriden Cut Glass Co. " 
J J Niland 

GLASS CUTTERS 

W L Barrett (Bristol) 



GLASSWARE 

A J Hall & Co. (Meriden) 

Handel Co. 
Helmschmied Mfg Co. 

(Meriden) 
C F Monroe " 

Fair Haven Art Glass Co. (N. Haven) 
Bridgeport Art Glass Co. (Brdtjep't) 



GOLD LEAF 



G L Bladon 

John M Ney & Co. 

M Swift & Sons 



GONGS 



(Hartford) 



(Bristol) 



W C Ladd 

GRAPHOPHONES 

Am. Graphophone Co. (Bridgep't) 

GAUGES 

Bristol Co. (Waterbury) 

Ashcroft Mfg Co. 
D G Cooper 



Am. Bit & Augur Co. (Forestville) j 

C E Andrews " 
Capewell Horse Nail Co. (Hartford) ! 

Billings & Spencer Co. (Hfd.) I 

C T McCue Co. " I 
Pratt & Cady Co. 

W W & C F Tucker « 
Whitney Mfg Co. 

R A Moore & Son (Kensington) 

H Lydall & Foulds (Manchester) 

Orion Treat " 

L D Frost & Son (Marion) 

Clark Bros. & Co. (Miiidale) 

F L Ellis & Son 

Am. Needle Works (New Britain) 
Beaton & Bradley Co. " 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 
P & F Corbin 

Corbin Screw Corp. " 

Hart & Cooley Co. « 

O S Judd 

Landers, Frary & Clark " 
North & Judd Mfg Co. 
Russell & Erwin Mfg Co. " 
Stanley Rule & Level Co. 
Stanley Works 
Taplin Mfg Co. " 

Traut & Hine Mfg Co. 
Union Mfg. Co. " 

C H Calor (Plainville) 

L H Carter " 

A N Clark & Son 

Clarke Castor Co. " 

Elm City Brass & Rivet Co. " 

Edwin Hills 

Osborn & Stephenson " 

Atwater Mfg Co. (Plantsville) 

Peck, Stow & Wilcox Co. " 

H D Smith Co. 
Wolcott Hdw. Co. 
G E Wood Tool Co. 
Aetna Nut Co. (Southington) 

Beaton & Corbin Mfg Co. 
Ellis Mfg. Co. 

Peck, Stow & Wilcox " 

Westfield Plate Co. (Thompsonville) 



< New Haven 



(Bridgeport) 
(Terryville) 



GUNS (Machine & Gatling) 

Colt's Pat. Fire Arms Mfg Co. 

(Hartford) 

GUNS 

Hopkins & Allen Arms Co. (Norwich) 
Am. & British Mfg Co. (Bridgep't) 
U S Rapid Fire Gun & Power Co. 

(Derby) 
Tobin Arms Mfg. Co. (Norwich) 

HAMMOCKS 

Arawana Mills (Middletown) 
Goodall Hammock Co. (Middletown) 

HARDWARE 

Turner & Deeean (Bristol) 

Ira B Smith * (Bristol) 

Clayton Bros " 

C J Root 

W C Ladd 

J H Sessions & Son " 

L H Snyder " 

New Departure Mfg Co. 

Collins Co. 

Peck. Stow & Wilcox 

H S Bartholomew 

Turner St Deegran 



Unionville) 



(Wethersfield) 
(Ansonia) 



(Derby) 



(Ham den) 
(Meriden) 



(Collinsville) 
(E. Berlin) 
(Edgewood) 

(Bristol) 



H W Humphrey 

S G Monce 

Upson Nut Co. 

Bailey Mfg Co. 

Ansonia Novelty Co. 

H C Cook & Co. 

J B Gardner Sons. 

S & C Co. 

Graham Mfg Co. 

Howe Mfg Co. 

Fergus Kelly 

J T Henry Mfg Co. 

Brown & Dowd Mfg Co 

Foster-Merriam & Co. 

A H Jones Co. 

Manning Bowman & Co. 

Chas Parker Co. 

M B Schenck Co. 

F J Wallace 

Wusterbarth Bros " 

Willis M Cook (Mt. Carmel) 

Mt. Carmel Bolt Co. 

W W Woodruff & Son Co. 

Am. Rivet Co. (New Haven) 

Atlas Mfg Co. 

R H Brown & Co. 

W S Burn Mfg Co. 

C Cowles & Co. 

B Druen 

W & E T Fitch Co. 

Robert Fitzmorris 

Grillev Co. 

A S Henn k Co. 

H B Ives & Co. 

Mallory Wheeler Co. 

Metal Mfg Co. 

James F Molloy & Co. 

National Wire Corp 

New Haven Spring Co. 



(So. Britain) 

(Union City) 

(Wallingford) 

(Waterbury) 



( Branch ville) 
(Bridgeport) 



B North & Co. 
Perpente Mfg Co. 

Sargent & Co. " 

Wm Schollhorn Co. - 

M Seward & Son Co. ** 

A H Smith & Co. " 

L T Snow " 

Hobart E Smith 

Fowler Nail Co. (Seymour) 

Garrett & Beach 

Humphreyville Mfg Co. " 

Little River Mfg Co. 

James Swan Co. 

Hawkins Co. 

Naugatuck Mfg Co. 

Hamden Mfg Co. 

Am. Mfg 

Blake & Johnson 

B H Fry & Co. 

Mattatuck Mfg Co. 

L M Mqrden 

Noera Mfg Co. 

Shoe Hardware Co. 

Smith & Griggs Mfg Co. 

Waterbury Buckle Co. 

Berbecker & Rowland Mfg Co. 

(Waterville) 
Am Buckle Co. (New Haven) 

West Haven Buckle Co. 
West Haven Mfg Co. 
Griest Mfg Co. (Westville) 

New London Vise Works (N. London) 
Bard, Union Co. (Norwich) 

Chelsea File Works 
Puritan Mfg Co. 
R Bennett 

Geo B Gruman 
Acme Shear Co. 
Atlantic Mfg Co. 
Atlas Shear Co. 
Automatic Scale Co. 

Bridgeport Chain Co. 
Bridgeport Hdw Mfg Co. 
Burns, Silver & Co. 

Columbia Bolt & Nut Co. 

Con. Safety Valve Co. 

Cornwall & Patterson Mfg Co. 

John S Fray & Co. 

Edward S Hotchkiss 

Harwood Mfg Co. 

Jennings Bros Mfg Co. 

Geo S Knapp 

A L Krause 

W E Krause 

Locke Steel Belt Co. 

Metal Ware Mfg Co. 

Smith & Egge Mfg Co. 

Spring Perch Co. 

Swinnerton tz Sniffen Mfg Co. 

Weildich Bros Mfg Co. 

White Mfg Co. 

Lennox Shear Co. (Brookfleld) 

Russell, Birdsall & Ward 

Bolt & Nut Cd. (Glenville) 

Lockwood Mfg Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Norwalk Lock Co. 

D M Bassett Bolt Works ■ 

Shelton Co. (Shelton) 

Davenport & Tracy (Stamford) 

Excelsior Hardware Co. 

Yale * Towne Mfg Co. 

Grevstone Mfg Co. < G "T st ?, n '> 

Seymour Smith & Son (Oaknlle) 

Chapin Stevens Co. (Pine Meadow) 

Fasrle Lock Co. (Terrynlle) 

Progressive Mfg Co. (Torrington) 

Torrington Mfg Co. #< 

Turner k Seymour Mfg C«. 

Union Hardware Co. 

Franklin Moore Co. (Winsted) 

Morgan Silver Plate Co. 

T C Richards Hdw. Co. 

Strong Mfg Co. 

Conn. Vallev Mfg Co. (Center Brook) 

Chester Mfg Co. (Chester) 

J S Dense „ 

J R Ferguson I Co. 

Jennings. Russell Mfg Co. 

H E Tavlor * Co. (Htdlrrne) 



Industrial Strength of Connecticut 



Higganum Hdw. Co. (Higgnaum* 

M R Warner & Sons (Little River) 

W H Chapman Co. (Middletown) 

Wilcox, Crittenden & Co. " 

HARNESS HARDWARE 

North & Judd Mfg Co. 

(New Britain) 

HARNESSES 

Peck k Lines (Bridgeport) 

HATS 

S M Andrews (Hartford) 

Vanderhoef & Co. (Milford) 

H Frankenberger & Co. (New Haven) 

Baird Untiedt Co. (Bethel) 

Bethel Mfg Co. 

Farnura & Fairchild 

Higson & Co. 

Judd & Co. 

Judd & Dunning Hat Co. 

Edwin Short Hat Co. 

Beltaire Bros & Co. (Danbury) 

Connett Hat Co. 

Danbury Co. 

Delohery Hat Co. 

John W Green & Sons Inc. 

Green Soft Hat Mfg Co. 

Hawes, Von Gal Co. 

S C Holley & Co. 

Hoyt, Walthausen & Co. 

Lee Hat Mfg Co. 

Lee Soft Hat Co. 

D E Lowe & Co. (Danbury) 

E A Mallory & Sons 

H McLachlan 

Meeker Bros & Co. 

Millard Hat Co. 

J B Murphy & Co. 

National Hat Co. 

Rundle & White 

SAG Hat Co. 

Simon & Keane 

A C Wheeler (Norwalk) 

Otto Barthol Co. (S. Norwalk) 

Crofut & Knapp Co. 

Dennis & Blanchard 

A A Hodson & Co. 

W B Hubbell 

Rough Hat Co. 

Volk Hat Co. 

J C Wilson & Co. 

Walhizer & Dreyer 

New Milford Hat Co. (N. Milford) 

HAT FORMING & FINISH- 
ING 

Bethel Hat Forming Co. (Bethel) 

Bridgeport Hat Mfg Co. (B'dg'p't) 

A S Davenport (Danbury) 

F D Tweedy & Co. " 

C M Horch " 
Hat Forming Co. (S. Norwalk) 
Universal Hat Co. 

HEATERS (Feed Water) 

Whitlock Coil Pipe Co. (Htfd.) 

I B Davis & Son " 

Foskett & Bishop Co. (N. Haven) 

National Pipe Bending Co. " 

HOSIERY 

Am. Hosiery Co. (N. Britain) 
Dunham Hosiery Co. (Naugatuck) 

Columbia Hosiery Co. (N. Haven) 
Radcliffe Bros. (Shelton) 

Winsted Hosiery Co. (W'sted) 

ICE (Artificial) 
Hygienic Ice Co. (New Haven) 

Hygenia Ice & Cold Stor. (W'terbury) 



Naugatuck Valley Ice Co. (B'dg'port) Chas H Kempner, Jr. 
Diamond Ice Co. (Stamford) E E Bobbins 



INDEX BOOKS 
Burr Index Co. (Hartford) 

INKS 
Standard Co. (Hartford) 

IRON OR STEEL (Bar) 

New Haven Iron & Steel Co. (N. H.) 
Barnum, Richardson Co. (E. Canaan) 



JEWELRY 



Porter & Dyson Co. 
C R Harris 



(New Britain) 
(N. Windham) 



KEYS 

Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 

Graham Mfg. Co. (Derby) 

KNIFE HANDLES 

Salisbury Cut. & Handle Co. (Sal'b'y) 
KNIT GOODS 

Royal Knit. Mills (Putnam) 

LACE CURTAINS 

Tariffville Lace Mfg Co. (TarifiVUe) 

LACQUERS 

New Era Lustre Co. (New Haven) 

Am. Lacquer Co. (Bridgeport) 
David B Crockett Co. 

Parrott Varnish Co. " 

Celluloid Zapon Co. (Stamford) 

LADDERS 

E C Bishop & Co. (Hartford) 

LAMPS 

Edward Miller & Co. (M'den) 
Scoville & Peck Co. (N. Haven) 

Stevens & Sackett Co. " 

Matthews & Willard Mfg Co (W'bury) 
Plume & Atwood Mfg Co. " 

Goodwin & Kintz (Winsted) 
White Manufacturing Co. (Bridgeport) 

LATHES 

Meriden Mach. Tool Co. 

(Meriden) 
New Haven Mfg Co. (N. Haven) 

E E Johnson (Putnam) 

Brown Machine Co. (Winsted) 

LEATHER 

Herman Roser (E. Glastonbury) 

Jewell Belting Co. (Hartford) 
Bridgeport Patent Leather Mfg Co. 

(Bridgeport) 
Geo Dudley & Son Co. (W'ted) 
Case Leather Works (Hop River) 

LEATHER (Artificial) 

Boston Artificial Leather Co. 

(Stamford) 

LEATHER GOODS (Fancy) 

Hartford Leather Goods Co. (Hartford) 
George A Shepard & Sons Co. (Bethel) 
Fred K Braitling (Bridgeport) 



(Westport) 
(Putnam) 



LETTER BOXES 
Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 

LITHOGRAPHS 

Calhoun Show Print Co. (Hartford) 
Dodd Lithographic Co. " 

Kellogg & Bulkeley Co. " 

Dorman Lithographing Co. (N. Haven) 

LOCKS 
Corbin Cabinet Lock Co. 

(New Britain) 
A Ochsner & Sons Co. (N. Haven) 

MACHINERY 

Pratt & Whitney Co. (Htfd.) 

Edred W Clark * 

Cooley & Trevor Mfg Co. 

Fenn-Sadler Machine Co. 

Gray & Prior Machine Co. 

Carlyle Johnson Mach Co. " 

Mutual Machine Co. 

National Machine Co. 

Phoenix Mfg Co. " 

W H Pickering & Co. «' 

L E Rhodes 

Sigourney Tool Co. * 

Dwight Slate Machine Co. " 

John Thompson Press Co. * 

Whitney Mfg Co. 

New Britain Machine Co. (N. B'tain) 

North & Pfeiffer Mfg Co. * 

B Lamb & Co. (Plainville) 

Norton & Jones 

Thompson Drop Forge Co (PlantVlle) 

C E Billings Mfg Co. (Rocky Hill) 

George P Clark Co. (Windsor L'ks) 

Windsor Locks Mach Co. 

H C Cook Machine Co. (Ansonia) 

Farrel Foundry & Mach Co. ' 

Meriden Mach. Tool Co. 

(Meriden) 
A H Merriam 

F Wheeler & Son * 

C J Brooks (New Haven] 

E A Burgess Est. * 

F M Carroll ' 

Defiance Button Machine 
Eastern Machinery Co. 
Elm City Engineering Co. 
George M Griswold 
Hemming Bros 
Herrick & Cowell 
George M McKenzie 
New Haven Mfg. Co. 
F P Pfleghar & Son 
George E Prentice & Co. 
Reynolds & Co. 
James Reynolds Mfg Cos. 
F C & A E Rowland f 

F B Shuster Co. * 

W J Smith & Co. 
Smith & Twiss 
H G Thompson & Son Co. 
J M Smith (Seymour) 

Cross & Spiers Mach Co. (Waterbury) 
John Draher 
Manville Bros 
E J Manville Mach Co. 

W'b'y Farrel Fdy. * Men. Co. 

Waterbury Mach Co. 

Rowbottom Machine Co. 

(Waterville 
Belden Mach Co. (Westville) 

Standard Machinery Co. (Mystic) 

D E Whiton Mach. Co. _ 

(New London 
Am Woodworking Mach Co. (Norwich) 
M A Barber 

A Gould ; 

Hiscox Co. 
Lester & Wasley 



Connecticut Products and Their Manufacturers 



Atwood-Morrison Co. (Stonington) 

A L Adams (Bridgeport) 

Automatic Mach Co. " 

Baker Mach Co. " 

H C Bradley 

Bridgeport Fdy. & Mach Co. " 

Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. " 
Bullard Mach Tool Co. 
Coulter & McKenzie Mach Co. 
Curtis & Curtis Co. " 

Grant Mfg & Mach Co. " 

A H Nilson Mach Co. " 

Special Mach Co. " 

Edward P Walter " 

James W Weir " 

Boesch Mfg Co. (Danbury) 

Doran Bros " 

Heim Mach Co. " 

Morelock & Husk " 

New Mach Co. " 

Turner Mach Co. " 

Colonial Fdy. & Mach Co.(E. Nor'w'k) 
H A Tuttle Mfg Co. 
J W Craw (S. Norwalk) 

George N McKibben Mfg Co. " 

J W Miller 

Computing Scale Co. (Saugatuck) 

Dairy Mach'y & Construe. Co. (Shel'n) 
Ball Mfg Co. (Stamford) 

George Muench Co. 

Stamford Iron Works " 

Larkin Reed Co. (Danielson) 

Willimantic Mach Co. (Willimantic) 

Smith & Winchester Co. „ s 
(S. wmdham) 
J A Northrop & Son (N. Milford) 
Baird Machine Co. (Oakville) 

Hendey Machine Co. (Torrington) 

Brown Machine Co. (Winsted) 
H. S. Brown & Co. (E. Hampton) 
A Read Co. (Middletown) 

Brockway & Meckinsturn (Moodus) 

MACHINERY (Clock) 

Everett Horton (.Bristol) 

J H Sessions & Son " 

MACHINERY (Registering) 

Conn Computing Machine Co. 

(New Haven) 
C J Root (Bristol) 

MACHINERY (Screw) 

Hartford Machine Screw Co. 
(Hartford) 

MACHINERY (Wood Screw) 
Asa A Cook Co. (Hartford) 

MACHINES (Sewing) 

Merrow Machine Co. (Hartford) 

Model Mach Co. (Bridgeport) 

Wheeler & Wilson •' 

MACHINISTS' TOOLS 

Billings & Spencer Co. (Htfd.) 
(Hartford) 

MANTELS 

Hartford Faience Co. (Htfd.) 

MASSAGE (Rubber Brushes) 

Flexible Rubber Goods Co. 

(Winsted) 

MATTRESSES 

B Rottman (New Haven) 

'■ B Savage & Co. ■ 

Samuel Yudkin «« 



Hugh Sterling 
Rufus Wakeman 



(Bridgeport) MUSICAL RECORDS 

(Saugatuck) Leedg & Catlin Co (Middletown) 



MATTRESSES (Woven Wire) OAKUM 

Hartford Bedstead Co. (Hartford; Tibbals Oakum Co. (Cobalt) 



MECHANICAL NOVELTIES 



Reeves Mfg Co. 
Weld Mfg Co. 



(Milford) 
(Bridgeport) 



METALLIC PACKING 

Bridgeport Metallic Pack Co. 

(Bridgeport) 

METAL WORKING 

Goodwin & Kintz Co. (W'sted 
Beseman & Bostwick (Hartford 

Sterling Blower & Pipe Mfg Co. 
Ansonia Brass k Copper Co. (Ansonia 
Coe Brass Mfg Co. 
Griswold, Richmond & Glock Co. 

(Meriden 
Adlerhurst Iron Co. (N. Haven 

Buckingham, Roth Co. 
Curtiss & Pierpont Co. 
Levine Bros 
Magnus Metal Co. 
Wm A T Smith 
New Haven Copper Co. (Seymour 
Metal Finishing Co. (Union City 
Benedict & Burnham Co. (Waterbury 
Chase Rolling Mill Co. 
Coe Brass Co. 
Randolph-Clowes Co. 
Scovill Mfg Co. 
Waterbury Brass Co. 
Henry Weyand Co. 
Cheshire Brass Co. (W. Cheshire 

Am. Tube & Stamping Co. (Bridgeport 
J W Beach 
Bridgeport Brass Co. 
Farist Steel Co. 
Handy k Harmon 
G Drouve Co. 
C W Moore 
John Schwing Corp. 
Oven Equipment & Mfg Co. (St'ford 
Plume k Atwood Mfg Co. (Thom'ton 
Coe Brass Mfg Co. (Torrington 

MILL SUPPLIES 

E H Jacobs Mfg Co. (Danielson) 

L M Hartson Co. (N. Windham) 

MONUMENTAL WORKS 

Stephen Maslen Corp. (Htfd.) 
H D Burnham, " 

Thos Phillips k Son (N. Haven) 

John Salter k Son (Groton) 

Henry Gardner (Millstone Pt.) 

F M Ladd New London) 

C A Kuebler (Norwich) 

Monumental Bronze Co. (Br'dg'port) 

MOTORS 

Bridgeport Motor Co. (Bridgeport) 

MOTOR CARRIAGES 
Electric Vehicle Co. (Htfd.) 

MUCILAGE 
Standard Co. (Hartford) 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 

Aeolian Co. (Meriden) 

Wilcox & White Co. 



OIL HEATERS 
Edward Miller & Co. (M'den) 

ORGANS 
Wilcox & White Co. (M'den) 
Bridgeport Organ Co. (Bridgeport) 

ORGANS (Church) 

Austin Organ Co. (Hartford) 
H Hall k Co. (New Haven) 

ORGAN MOTOR & PUMPS 

Organ! Power Co. (Hartford) 

ORGAN PIPES 

Mansfield Organ Pipe Co. 

(Mansfield Depot) 

ORGAN (Stops & Knobs) 
Denison Bros (Deep River) 

ORNAMENTAL GOODS 

(Winsted) 
Wm. L. Gilbert Clock Co. 
Goodwin & Kintz Co. 

OVERGAITERS 

Wm H Wiley k Son Co. (Hartford) 

PAINTS 

Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co. 

(Bridgeport) 

PAPER 

East Hartford Mfg Co. (Burnside) 

Taylor-Atkins Paper Co. 

J H Walker 

P Garvan (Hartford) 

Am Writing Paper Co. (Manch'ter) 

Lydall k Foulds Paper Co. 

Newington Paper Co. (Newington) 

Hartford Paper Co. (Rainbow) 

G J Merwin 

Rainbow Mill 

J D Stowe & Son (Scitico) 

Am Writing Paper Co. (Unionville) 

Case Mfg Co. 

Am Writing Paper Co. (Windsor Lka) 

Anchor Mills Paper Co. 

Whittlesey Paper Co. 

C H Dexter & Son (W. Locks) 

Case k Marshall Inc. (Woodland) 

Cashin Card & Glared Paper Co. 

(New Haren) 
S Y Beach Paper Co. (Seymour) 

Jos Parker k Ron Do. (Westville) 

h. c. Brown iComatoek Urid^ 

Harrison Shick k Pratt Co. 

(Bor.rahville) 
C M Robertson Co. (MontriHe") 

A H Hubbard Co. (Norwich) 

Uncas Paper Co. 

F P Robinson Poper Co. (W'terford) 
N A Woodworth 
Beaver Brook Paper Mill 

(DtnburO 
Jerome Paper Co. i^Norwmlk) 

St. George Pulp * Paper Co- 
Oronoque Paper Co. (Oroncvmr> 

Frederick Beck & Oo. (Stamford) 

Avery Bates Co. (Ellin^orO 

PAPER MILL MACHINERY 
Smith St Winchester Mf?. Co 

lS. Windham) 



Industrial Strength of Connecticut 



Vehicles (Elec. Sc Gasoline) 

Electric Vehicle Co.(Hartford) 

VENTILATING SYSTEMS 

Hartford Blower Co. ( Wether sfield) 
(Hartford) 
Sterling Blower & Pipe Mfg Co. 



WAGONS 

James Pullar k Co. (Hartford) 

Geo. A. Ten Brock & Co. (N. Haven) 



WATCHES 

New England Watch Co. (Waterbury) 
Waterbury Clock Co. " 



WATER WHEELS 

C P Bradway (W. Stafford) 

WINDOW SHADES 

Meriden Curtain Fixture Co. (M'den) 
J M Crampton (New Haven) 



WIRE 



Acme Wire Co. 
W R Brixey 
Seymour Mfg Co. 
Geo Hartley 



(New Haven) 
(Seymour) 

(Waterbury) 
(Stamford) 



Atlantic Ins'l. Wire & Cable Co. 
WIRE GOODS 

Hartford Bedstead Co. (Hartford) 

Conn. Steel & Wire Co. " 

Edward F Smith & Co. (New Haven) 
Wire Novelty Co. (West Haven) 

Acme Wire Works (Bridgeport) 

Gilbert k Bennett Mfg Co. 

(Georgetown) 
C O Jeliff k Co. (New Canaan) 

C O Jeliff Corp. (Southport) 

M S Brooks & Sons (Chester) 

Potter & Snell (Deep River) 



WIRE MATTRESSES 
(Woven) 

Hartford Bedstead Co. (Hartford) 

WIRE SPECIALTIES 

Geo A K inner (Danbury) 

Geo B Sherman " 

WITCH HAZEL 

Johnson k Co. (Norwich) 

E E Dickerson & Son (Essex) 

Lenifect Co. 

WOOD SPECIALTIES 



A H Warner k Co. 
R H Cooper 
C J Bates 



(Bristol) 

(Bridgeport) 

(Chester) 



WOOD WORKING 



E A Morse 

N J Patrick 

Morehouse Bros 

J W Russell Mfg Co. 



(Derby) 

(Meriden) 
(Naugatuck) 



Geo Ailing Sons Co. (New Haven) 

Bradley Mfg Co. 

E P Brett 

David H Clark Co. 

Dann Bros & Co. 

Elm City Lumber Co. 

C Upham Ely " 

Anton Faith 

J II Griffith & Sons 

Hubbell Merwin & Co. 

Johnstone & Gerrish 

C M Manning 

Morgan & Humiston Co. 

New England Stool Co. 

New Haven Saw Mill Co. 

Norton Bros & White Co. " 

Remfler & Thompson 

H G Shepard & Sons 

Sperry k Amos Co. 

W R Hartigan (Burlington) 

Andrews k Peck Co. (Hartford) 

C H Dresser & Son " 

H A French 

H Harman 

Hartford Builders Finish Co. 

Hartford Lumber Co. 

John McClary W W Co. 

Wm. Olds & Co. 

C W Shea 

Stoddard & Caulkins 

Edwin Taylor Lumber Co. 

A D Birge (Hazardville) 

F Curtis (New Britain) 

New Brit. Co-operative Bldg. Co. " 

New Brit. Plan. k Mold. Works " 

John Pinches Co. " 

George E Taft (Unionville) 

James E Todd (New Haven) 

Wilbur Corp 

Yale University Carpenter Shop " 

J J Macauley (Waterbury) 

J E Smith k Co. 

Tracy Bros Co. 

George Upham 

Haller Brown Co. (Yalesville) 

Charles Parker Co. " 

F H & A H Chappell Co. (N. London) 

H R Douglass 

Heath & Hawthorn 

Wm G Rogers 

George G Tyler 

N S Gilbert & Sons (Norwich) 

James A Hiscox 

H B Porter & Son Co. " 

V S Stetson " 

Maxson & Co. (Stonington) 

Ellis Wood-Working Co. (Bethel) 

A W Burritt Co. (Bridgeport) 

Frederickson Bros k Co. 

H C Hoffman & Co. 

W S Hurlbut Bldg Co. 

James S Jones 

Frank Miller Lumber Co. 

Sewing Machine Cabinet Co. 

W A Smith Bldg Co. 

Albert Wakeman 

Elmer H Barnum (Danbury) 

Foster Bros 

W W Sunderland 

Joseph Brush (Greenwich) 

A R Malkin (Norwalk) 

Carman & Seymour (E. Norwalk) 

Hatch, Bailey k Co. (S. Norwalk) 

H W Mather 

Waldron k Riordan " 

Doscher Plane «fe Tool Co. (Saugatuck) 

Lyman Hoyt Son k Co. (Stamford) 

Imperial Mfg Co. 

Frank Miller Lumber Co. 

St. Johns' Wood-Working Co. " 

Torrey Bros k Co. (Central Village) 

James A Nichols (Danielson) 

C M & E B Kent (Putnam) 

J. B. Tatem & Son (Putnam) 

Wheaton Bldg & Lumber Co. " 

O S Arnold (Williamsville) 

Hillhouse k Taylor (Willimantic) 

Latham & Crane " 



Johnson Lindell & Co. 
Hotchkiss Bros Co. 
John W Roe 
George C Wilcox 
Winsted Cabinet Co. 
M L Ryan 

Williams k Marvin Co, 
Essex Wood Turning 
Custav Loewenthal 
Jasper Tryon 
Henry Armstrong 



(Canaan) 

(Torrington) 

(Winsted) 



(Chester) 

(Deep River) 

Co. (Essex) 

(Middletown) 

(S. Coventry) 



WOOLEN GOODS 

Broad Brook Woolen Co. (B. Brook) 
E E Hilliard Co. (Buckland) 

Crosbv Mfg Co. (E. Glastonbury) 

Hitchcock & Curtiss Knit. Co. (Htfd.) 
Park Knit. Works 
Gordon Bros (Hazardville) 

Franklin Glazier & Son (Hopewell) 
Meriden Woolen Co. (Meriden) 

Tingue Mfg Co. (Seymour) 

Shetucket Worsted Mills (Baltic) 

Fairbanks k Plainfield (Bozrahville) 
Niantic Mfg Co. (E. Lyme) 

Airlie Mills (Hanover) 

Monarch Woolen Mill (Montville) 

Mystic Mfg Co. (Mystic) 

Mystic Woolen Co. " 

A B Burleson & Co. (Jewett City) 
Palmer Bros (New London) 

Glen Woolen Goods (Norwich) 

Hall Bros «* 

Reliance Worsted Co. " 

B Lucas Co. (Poquetannoc) 

Westerly Woolen Co. (Stonington) 
Yantic Woolen Co. (Yantic) 

Am. Felt Co. (Glenville) 

Lounsbury, Bissell & Co. (Winnipauk) 
Norwalk Mills Co. " 

Plainfield Woolen Co. (Cent. Village) 
Danielson Worsted Co. (Danielson) 
Pequot Worsted Co. " 

Assawaga Co. (Dayville) 

Davis & Brown Woolen Co. " 

Brigham Woolen Co. (Elmville) 

Thayer Woolen Co. " 

French River Textile Co. 

(Mechanicsville) 
Am. Woolen Co. (Moosup 

T G Murdock & Son (New Boston) 
Putnam Woolen Co. (Putnam) 

Lawrence Keegan (Wilsonville) 

Wm Sibley (N. Windham) 

Warreton Woolen Co. . 

(Torrington) 
Winsted Yarn Co. (Winsted) 

Daniel Curtis k Son3 (Woodbury) 
Rock fall Woolen Co. (Middletown) 
Conn. Woolen Mill (E. Willington) 
Am. Mills Co. (Rockville) 

Hockanum Co. ** 

New England Co. " 

J J Regan Mfg Co. 
Rock Mfg Co. 
Springville Mfg Co. 
Somersville Mfg Co. (Somersville) 
E A Tracy (S. Coventry) 

Phoenix Woolen Co. (Stafford) 

Riverside Woolen Co. 

Beckwith Card Co. 

(Stafford Spring's) 
J J & A D Ellis 
Fabyan Woolen Co. 
Faulkner Woolen Mill 
F T Mullen k Co. 
A B Paton Mfg Co. 
Smith k Cooley 
Stafford Worsted Co. 
Warren Woolen Co. 
Fabyan Woolen Co. (Staffordville> 
Faulkner Woolen Mill 
Garland Woolen Co. " 

Talcott Bros (Talcottville) 

Vernon Woolen Co. (Vernon) 

X-RAY GOODS 
Baker Electric Co. (Hartford) 



MENNENS 

BORATED TALCUM 

TOILET POWDER 






I 



./ 

f- 





to? 






"When Frost is on the Pumpkin 

and fodder's in the shock," there comes a feeling of satisfaction to daily users of 

MENNEN'S 

Borated Talcum 

TOILET POWDER 

at having survived the summer months with clear skin and complexions unimpaired. 
Mennen's is a safe and pure toilet necessity, delightful after bathing and after sha\ log, 
and indispensable in the nursery. 

For your protection it is put up in a non-refillable box — the "box that lax." 
If MENNEN'S face is on the cover it's genuine and a guarantee of purity. Guaran- 
teed under the Food and Drugs Act, June 30th, 1906. Serial No. L542. 
Sold everywhere, or by mail 25 cents. Sample Free. 

GERHARD MENNEN CO., Orange Street, Newark, N. J. 

Try MENNEN'S Violet (Borated) Talcum Toilet Powder* It lias tho si-em Of txoah-CUl Panna VtolatB 
Sent FREE for 2 cent stamp, to pay postage, ne set of Mennen's Bridge 
Whist Tallies, enough for six tables. 



Please mention "The Connecticut Magazine" when patronizing- our advertisers. 




C H. DEXTER & SONS 



A, D. COFFIN. 



H, R. COFFIN. 



Paper manufacturer 

WINDSOR LOCKS, CONNECTICUT. 



lttaRersof « 



TWO MILLS 



"Princess" Cover Papers. 
"Unique*' Cover Papers 
"Abbotsford" Deckle Edge Papers. 
"Star" Bristol Boards. 
"Star" White and Colored Tissues. 
"Star" Manifold Linen and Onion Skin Papers 
Specialties in Colors and Thin Papers. 



Established 1838. Incorporated 1854. 

CHENEY BROTHERS, 
SILK MANUFACTURERS. 



MILLS. 

Hartford and South Manchester, Conn. 

I 

SALESROOMS. 

IEW YORK, BOSTON, 

447 Broome Street. 79 Chauncey Street. 

CHICAGO, PHILADELPHIA, 

239 Fifth Avenue. 929 Chestnut Street, Boom 303 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 1239 Franklin Street. 



3 ongees and Florentines. 

Plain, Figured and Printed. For Dress Goods and 
Decorative Purposes. 

3 rinted Silk Flags. 

Satins, Twills and Armures. 

Printed and Solid Colors. Black and Colored Cros 
Grains and Taffetas. 

/elvets and Plushes. 

Jpholstering Materials, Drapery Fabrics and 

Curtains. 

RIBBONS, 

Cros Grain, Satin and Fancy. 

Trams, Organzines and Spun Silks, 

For Manufacturers' Use. 



SILKS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES TO ORDER 



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^^^fA *dw A^r A^^ A^r A^r A^r ^^ ^^ A^r £^r ^^ ^^ ±^r £^r ^^ j^r ^^ £^r ^^ ^^^\\ 



THE OLDEST AND MOST SUCCESSFUL MAKERS 
W OF PIANO-PLAYING DEVICES ANNOUNCE THE 

| MELODANT 

>AW A NEW AND EXCLUSIVE FEATURE OF THE 

ANQELUS i 



In every composition there runs a vein of melody commonly called 
the " air," frequently lying wholly in the treble, sometimes inter- 
woven with the accompaniment or wholly covered by ornamentation. 

The function of the MELODANT is to automatically pick out 
and accent the melody notes, even when such note or notes 
appear in the midst of a full chord, giving to each its proper 
value as previously determined in an authentic interpretation. 

This most desirable and long-sought-for effect is obtained in the 
MELODANT ANGELUS by the performer simply using the pedals 
in the ordinary manner. Thus with an ANGELUS equipped with 
the MELODANT the performer has at his command two methods of 
accentuation. 

He can accent either, automatically by means of the MELO= 
DANT or, by his own manipulation of the Melody Buttons, 
which have been and which still are one of the most valuable 
features of the ANQELUS. 

NO OTHER PIANO-PLAYER CAN OFFER SO MUCH. 

The addition of the MELODANT does not impair the efficiency 
nor detract from the value of the simple yet complete expression 
devices also found upon the ANGELUS. These will still be the 
means for individual interpretation, which to many persons constitutes 
the chief and unrivaled charm of our instrument. The ANGELUS is 
absolutely the only piano-player with whose aid the best artistic 
results can be obtained. 



The ANQELUS in cabinet form, the EMERSON= ANQELUS PIANO, 
KNABE=ANGELUS PIANO -all are equipped with the MELODANT. 



the 



The introduction of the MELODANT is another step forward in the steady 
progress of the ANGELUS, which has been continuously developed from the 
pioneer piano-player — brought out in 1895 — to the truly wonderful instrument 
of to-day. 



For sale in all the principal cities. 



Descriptive literature upon request. 



si 



The Wilcox & White Co. ( 




Established 1876 



Meriden, Conn, 



1 



Please mention "The Connecticut Magazine" when patronizing our advertisers. 



^ J^L ML M, M^^JL^JL 

*f^*wr*w& *W^ *W^ *4f* **J* 



The only ODORLESS-IMPERVIOUS Dress Shield 



Curvette 




Contains 

No 

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Detachable 



Can 

Be 

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Attached without sew- 
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Zouave 

A detachable Dress 
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We will send circular 
showing Zouave up- 
on application 



DRESS SHIELD 



GUARANTEED 

We will pay f >r damage to garment resulting from an im- 
perfectly made OMO DRESS SHIELD 

Out of Sight HYGIENIC 

Made from a pure, odorless, impervious fibre without the 
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We make every STYLE and SIZE of shield necessary to 
protect the garment 

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Linen Mesh 

An ideal Hot Weather 

Shield 



Short Flap 





Specially for Summer 
Shirt Waists 



Is invisible when worn 
with thin sleeves 



THE OMO MANUFACTURING CO., Middletown, Conn 



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WEBSTER'S 

INTERNATIONAL 

DICTIONARY 

A LIlillAItY IX ONE BOOK. 

Besides an accurate, practical, and scholarly 
vocabulary of English, with 25,000 NEW 
WORDS, the International contains allistory of 
the English Language, Guide to Pronunciation, 
Dictionary of Fiction, New Gazetteer, New Bio- 
graphical Dictionary, Vocabulary of Scripture, 
Greek and Latin Names, English Christian 
Names, Foreign Quotations, Abbreviations, Etc. 

2380 PAGES. 5000 ILLUSTRATIONS. 
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TO THE MEMORY OF AMERICAN SACRIPIC >n Pratl 

Sculptor- Recently erected at the old Andersonville Prison grounds 
in Georgia in memory of the Connecticut patriots who 
there gave their lives to the nation 



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An this eleventh 
Jlnnioersary of 
this Book ibe 
Greetings of the 
Season are ex- 
tended to all 
who may turn 
its pages . . . 









The Connecticut Magazine 



NUMBER 4 FOURTH QUARTER NINETEEN HUNDRED AND SEVEN VOLUME XI 

An Illustrated Quarterly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various 
phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. 
Published in four beautiful books to the annual volume. Following is con- 
tents of this edition, generously illustrated and ably written. Editorial de- 
partment in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford — Business department 
at 671-679 Chapel Street, New Haven. 



ART COVER — Monument erected in 1907 at Andersonville Prison in Georgia to the 
memory of the Connecticut patriots who there gave their lives to the nation dur- 
ing the Civil War By Bela Lyon Pratt 

THE LAW OF LIFE — AN ELEGY — "Search then thyself, O Heart, for in thy beat- 
ing the meaning of the Universe lies hid" — Poem by Honorable William Franklin 
Henney of Hartford 505 

THE GREETING TO THE NATIONS — 1607-1907 — AMERICA'S BIRTHDAY — By Theo- 
dore Roosevelt, President of the United States 515 

EXPERIENCES OF A MINISTER'S WIFE IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION— Suf- 
fering of Rebecca Foote of Branford, Connecticut, who married a clergyman whose 
zeal in the cause of American liberty subjected her to brutality of the Hessians — 
With her children huddled about her she watched the battle in front of the par- 
sonage — By Reverend Roderick Terry, D.D. — Manuscript contributed by Frederick 
T. Peet of Auburn, New York 523 

A CONNECTICUT WOMAN'S JOURNEY TO THE "FAR WEST" IN 1833— Barouche 
from East Guilford to New Haven — Stage to Bridgeport — Steamboat to Albany — 
Canal to Buffalo — Steamer to Cleveland — Cross country in wagons and on horse- 
back — Memories of old log-cabin days in the wilderness 

By Annie Kelse3^ Maher, Niece of the Narrator of the Journey 533 

SCULPTURE IN AMERICA — A Symposium of the Finest Pieces of Sculpture erected 

during the year of 1907 537 

A TRIBUTE TO PEACE — Lunette on McKinley Memorial at Canton, Ohio 

By Charles H. Niehaus, Sculptor 537 

PROSPERITY — Pediment for Kentucky State Capitol.. By Charles H. Niehaus, Sculptor 537 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE AMERICAN SOLDIER — For the monument to Soldiers and 

Sailors at Webster, Massachusetts By Finn H. Frolich, Sculptor 538 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE AMERICAN SAILOR — For the monument to Soldiers and 

Sailors at Webster, Massachusetts By Finn H. Frolich, Sculptor 539 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE MARTYRED PRESIDENT— WILLIAM McKINLEY— 
Erected in bronze in front of the National Memorial at Canton, Ohio 

By Charles H. Niehaus, Sculptor 540 

TO THE MEMORY OF A ROUGH RIDER WITH ROOSEVELT AT SANTIAGO— Captain 
"Buckey" O'Neill, killed in battle — Erected at Prescott, Arizona 

By Solon H. Borglum, Sculptor 541 

TO THE MEMORY OF A GREAT AMERICAN MATERIALIST — Colonel John A. Roeb- 
ling, First Engineer of Brooklyn Bridge — Builder of the Great Span across Niagara 
Falls — For erection at Trenton, New Jersey By William Couper, Sculptor 542 

TO THE MEMORY OF A GERMAN- AMERICAN SOLDIER— General Franz Sigel— For 

Riverside Drive, New York City By Karl Bitter, Sculptor 543 

TO THE MEMORY OF AMERICAN SACRIFICE— Erected at the old Andersonville 

Prison Grounds, in Georgia By Bela Lyon Pratt, Sculptor 544 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE DISPATCH RIDER OF THE WAR FOR AMERICAN 
INDEPENDENCE — Erected at Orange, New Jersey 

By Frank Edwin Elwell, Sculptor 545 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE FIRST FALLEN IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR— 
Ensign Worth Bagley, U. S. N, the only Naval Officer killed during that war — 
Erected in Capitol Square, Raleigh, North Carolina By F. H. Packer, Sculptor 546 

Entered at the Post-Offloe at New Haven, Connecticut, as Mail Matter of the Second Class.— This Edition for FOURTH' 
QUARTER of 1907— October, November, December. 



The Connecticut Magazine 



NUMBER 4 FOURTH QUARTER NINETEEN HUNDRED AND SEVEN VOLUME XI 

Connecticut is the only Commonwealth in the Union that for eleven years 
has contributed to American history and literature through a state publica- 
tion of the highest quality. In collaboration with the "Journal of American 
History " extensive researches are being made and some of the results pub- 
lished simultaneously in both publications. It is essential that all sons and 
daughters of Connecticut should secure these invaluable researches through 
The Connecticut Magazine, during Nineteen Hundred ajrid Eight. 



TO THE MEMORY OF A SOUTHERN WARRIOR— General John B. Gordon— Erected 

at State Capitol Grounds at Atlanta, Georgia By Solon H. Borglum, Sculptor 547 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE HEART OF THE SOUTH — An Allegorical Figure bearing 
a Palm of Peace and Branch of Laurel covering the Sword, an Emblem of Glory — 
For erection at Houston, Texas By Louis Amateis, Sculptor 548 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE TEXAS RANGERS— Erected at the State House in Austin, 

Texas By Pompeo Coppini, Sculptor 549 

TO THE MEMORY OF AN AMERICAN WARRIOR— General George Brinton McClellan 

— Erected at Washington, District of Columbia. By Frederick MacMonnies, Sculptor 550 

TO THE MEMORY OF THE FIRST AMERICANS— Statue of the Indian Chief, Mahaska 
— Now being exhibited in the Salon at Paris — To be erected at Oskaloosa, Iowa 

By S. E. Fry, Sculptor 551 

ON THIS TWO HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF THE MOTHER OF 
WASHINGTON — Ancient Engraving Dedicated to Her Memory — The Original is in 
the Collection of John M. Crampton, and is known as "Washington's Last Inter- 
view with His Mother" 

HERO OF BATTLESHIP "SARATOGA"— MACDONOUGH OF CONNECTICUT— De- 
scendant of King of Connaught who struck the fatal blow which saved Northern 
New York and Vermont from being annexed to Canada — Memories of the gallant 
Commodore in Middletown where the body was buried after his death on the 
Mediterranean By Emma C. Gilman, of Middletown, Connecticut 

VISION OF THE CONNECTICUT — Poem By William Francis Andro- 

ALONG THE CONNECTICUT RIVER — Historic shores of one of the most beautiful 
waterways in America which is now spanned by the largest masonry bridge in the 
world — Entertaining anecdotes of the old days — By Mabel Cassine Holman, B 
brook, Connecticut — Author of "Letters of Early American Warriors," A s 
of Early American Womanhood," and many other articles in "The Connecticut 
Magazine" 561 

1807-1907 — JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER — The Seventeenth Day of December mirks 
the Centenary of a Beloved American Poet whose contributions to American Lit- 
erature have Endeared Him in the Hearts of the American People — Whit 
born December 17, 1807, at Haverhill, Massachusetts — Died Septemh< at 
Hampden Falls, New Hampshire — His own lines in his own handwriting arc 
re-dedicated to his memory 

WHITTIER IN CONNECTICUT— CENTENARY OF BIRTH OF AMERICAN POET- B 
first real insight into world of men and affairs was when he left his home scenes 
and came among strangers in a strange commonwealth — Whlttler's literal 
found its first impetus for national greatness in the literary atmosphere ol Hart- 
ford By Sarah Qertrude Pomeroy 569 



SUBSCRIPTS $2.00 A VOLUME SINGLE NUMBERS 50 CENTS 

Address manuscript to The Connecticut Magazine Company, Hartford, Connecticut -Address ail business communications 
to publication office at New Haven, Connecticut-Copyright 1807— By The Connecticut Magazine Company 



CONTENTS— (Continued) 



OLD BOOKS PRINTED IN CONNECTICUT— Connecticut has given to American Litera- 
ture more authors in prorata to population than any other state in the Union — A 
new volume from a private bookshelf bearing- the imprint of Hartford as a pub- 
lishing - center — Bibliography By W. E. Grumman, Georgetown, Connecticut 574 

FIRST COURT TRIALS IN CONNECTICUT— First case tried in New England was 
John Billington, of old Plymouth, in 1621 — First General Court on record in Con- 
necticut convened at Hartford in 1626 in which constables were sworn to protect 
the peace of the colony — Jury system is revealed in 1637 — Investigation 

By Joel Nelson Eno, M.A., Yale University Library, New Haven, Connecticut 577 

AN EARLY CONNECTICUT GENIUS — First American astronomer to observe transit 
of Venus — First white man to reach summit of Mt. Washington — Manasseh Cutler, 

engineer, lawyer, physician, statesman By "William Elroy Curtis 

In "Chicago Record-Herald" 583 

MY OLD HOME — Poem By S. Ward Loper, Curator at Wesleyan University 584 

THE MOST VALUABLE COLLECTION OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS IN AMERICA— 
Connecticut holds Seven Thousand original negatives taken on the battlefields dur- 
ing the Civil War — First known collection of its size on the Western Continent — 
Believed to be the first time that the camera was used so extensively and practi- 
cally in war — By Francis Trevelyan Miller — Editor of "The Journal of American 
History," "The Connecticut Magazine," "The Eaton Photographic Histories of the 
Civil War" and other works 585 

THE DUTY OF A POLITICIAN IN EARLY AMERICA— Manuscript by the Reverend 
Joseph Webb, born in 1666, occasioned by the demise of Major Nathan Gold of Fair- 
field, Connecticut — He characterizes a politician as "a Father of the People — A Pro- 
tector from Evil" — Transcribed by Mrs. Elizabeth Hubbell Schenck 

Author of "The History of Fairfield, Connecticut" 601 

TRUE LIVING — Poem By George Warren Parker 607 

"BEHOLD, HE LIVES! THEN WEEP FOR HIM"— Poem By Frank P. Foster, Jr. 608 

ANECDOTE OF AN OLD-TIME MINISTER — Reverend Samuel Eells of Branford, who 
acted as village doctor and marched his congregation to Washington's headquar- 
ters when call came for troops to fight for American Independence 

By George S. Roberts 
Author of "The Connecticut Valley" and other Historical Works 609 

ON THE CONNECTICUT SHORE— Poem By Elizabeth H. Jocelyn Cleaveland 

New Haven, Connecticut 610 

RECOLLECTIONS OF A STATESMAN FROM CONNECTICUT— Memories of Lafayette 
S. Foster, of Norwich, President of the Senate after the Assassination of Lincoln 

By John Philo Trowbridge 
Author of "The First American Satirists — The Hartford Wits" 611 

THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN — Poem By Melicent Eno Humason 

New Britain, Connecticut 613 

CONNECTICUT AND THE BATTLEFIELD OF ANTIETAM— Memorials erected to the 
sublime courage of the men who offered their lives to their country 

By L. D. Emmert, Torrington, Connecticut 614 

A WOMAN'S PRAYER — Poem By Kate Woodward Noble, Waterbury, Connecticut 616 

GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES— Illustrated with many 
photo engravings of the magnificent homes, historic shrines, and foremost men of 

the township By Elisha J. Edwards, LL.D. 

Former Editor of the "New York Evening Sun" 617 

FIRST PAPER MONEY IN AMERICA IN 1690 — By Henry Russell Drowne of the 

American Numismatic and Archaeological Society 648 

THE THOMAS FAMILY IN AMERICA — Researches into the New Haven Probate 
Records — New Haven Land Deeds — New Haven County Court Records — New 
Haven Vital Statistics — Records of the First Congregational Church — Investiga- 
tions By Donald Lines Jacobus, New Haven, Connecticut 649 

THE MANGER CHILD — Christmas, 1907 By Henry Sherman Smart 659 

ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN HISTORICAL DATA AND STUDIES IN ANCES- 
TRY — Self-helps in studies in ancestry — Valuable information to genealogical 
researches — Department conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 660 

THE DIMOCKS IN AMERICA — Results of recent investigations in which important 

data is added to the printed records By Joel N. Eno, M.A. 

Yale University Library 662 

THE LINSLEYS IN AMERICA — The results of recent investigations in which the 
first four John Linsleys are here authentically recorded 

By Frances Harrison Corbin, New Haven, Connecticut 664 



Fjere Beginnetb tbe Tourtb Part of tbe €leventb Book 

Sbogjng tbe manner of Cife and tbe 

gtjajnmem Cbereof in the 

gojBjjOjtggijjb of a 

Diligent People 



EDITED BY 



%l*>Uc<<Us0 //i^tst^a^^fc^Lt^ 



THE 

Connecticut Magazine 

VOLUME XI WINTER OF 1907 NUMBER 4 

Cbc Caw of Cife-Jiii Elegy 



Searcf) tften fbyself, o fieart, for in tfty tearing 
Cfte meaning of tbe Universe lies bid 

BY 

HONORABLE WILLIAM FRANKLIN HENNEY 

Mayor of Hartford 

AN ancient church its sturdy belfry rears, 
Rocked by the storms of nigh three hundred years. 
Before its pillared porch and paneled doors 
A busy city's thronging commerce pours. 
Behind, the church-yard's crumbling headstones greet 
The curious wanderer from the crowded street. 
The tangled grass the fitful breezes stir 
On shapeless mound and mouldering sepulchre. 
Here sleep the dead, whose time-worn marbles show 

Their names and lineage in the long-ago. 
The high and low, the rich and poor, the great, 
The humble, and the favorite of Fate, 
The true and false, the selfish and the just, 
Lie here commingling in a common dust. 
Straying, one day, by vagrant impulse led 
Within these precincts, sacred to the dead, 
I marked a spot, by mosses overgrown, 
And knelt to read the inscription on the stone. 
Two centuries and more had not effaced 
The tribute hands, now dust themselves, had traced, 
In memory of the long- forgotten dead ; 
The name, the age, and then this verse I read : 
"Nature he loved, and every wind that blew 
Its message brought and stirred his heart anew. 
In winter's snow and summer's fragrant air 
He saw alike the faithful Father's care, 
And bird and brook and star and flower and sea 
Unto his listening soul made melody. 
Hence shall he rise and pass to life from death, 
With Love his guide and Faith his shibboleth." 



S«5 



"0 flge, wbo$e Pricle and Greed forger' 

Ah, loving heart that loved and wrought 

Through storm and stress of vanished years, 
And strong in faith some glimpses caught 

Of glory through the mists of tears ; 
O willing soul, that bravely trod 

Life's wierd and doubt-beclouded path, 
And, hope-uplifted, spurned the sod, 

Rejoicing in the aftermath ! 
Full many a spring hath bloomed and flown, 

Since in the flesh he walked with men ; 
A thousand moons have dimmed and shone, 

And yet, he cometh not again. 
The snows and dews awake him not, 

Nor roar of Traffic's busy ways ; 
And joy and care and grief forgot, 

He sleepeth through the nights and days. 
We, who a little longer stray 

Amid the soul-encircling gloom, 
Still fearful, tread the beaten way 

That led to this neglected tomb. 
What boots the wisdom of the wise, 

The boast of science and of art ? 
We sound the seas and pierce the skies, 

And feed with husks the hungry heart ; 
We rear our pantheons and fill 

The treasure-house with golden store, 
We reap the harvest vast, and still 

Our eager hands would compass more. 
Yet far and wide our temples rise, 

We build the altar and the shrine ; 
Though Hope prepare the sacrifice, 

Our faltering Faith demands a sign. 
O hunger of the heart, whose pang 

Through all the story of the years, 
Since first the stars together sang, 

Hath pierced the soul with doubts and fears, 
Not wisdom's pride, nor learning's lore, 

Nor wealth's proud palace builded high, 
Nor treasure-houses running o'er 

Shall e'er that yearning satisfy ! 
O Age, whose Pride and Greed forget 

The boundaries of Right and Wrong, 
The living Harp shall rouse thee yet 

To listen to the minstrel's song ! 
Too long our eager feet have strayed 

Where commerce rules the crowded mart ; 
Too long the lust of gold betrayed 

The nobler yearnings of the heart. 
O for the pipes, whose notes of old 

Enchanted all the listening air, 
Or harp that Israel's longings told, 

In rhapsodies of praise and prayer ! 
soe 



"Cbe Uoice of Prayer and Psalm of Praise" 

for some minstrel touch to wake 

The slightest heart's neglected strings, 
Some winged word the spell to break 

When false the sordid siren sings ! 
Shall storied Art her glories spend 

To gild the grossness of the times ? 
Or Poesy her numbers lend 

To give a softer name to crimes? 
Shall the neglected Harp deplore 

The discord of her tarnished strings, 
Or Love to gracious Beauty pour 

Libations from polluted springs ? 
Still for our need the Morning's glow, 

And listening Evening's sunset bars, 
And summer's bloom and winter's snow, 

And nightly congress of the stars. 
And still the heart repines, and sighs 

Its diapason of despair ; 
Still from a thousand temples rise 

The myriad voices of its prayer. 
Still pants the soul of man to guess 

The riddle each must solve alone ; 
From nothingness to nothingness 

He walks unknowing and unknown — 
A shadow on the dial cast, 

To vanish when the day is done, 
A spectral shape that stalketh past 

The circle of the setting sun. 
Be these thy themes, reviving Art, 

And these, awakening bard, be thine ; 
Our grossness, greedy of the mart, 

Let Beauty purge and Song refine. 
Ah, pilgrim of that earlier day, 

Whose headstone bears the graven line, 
Would that my doubting heart could say 

Thy faith and hope in truth were mine ! 
And yet for me the breezes blow, 

The seasons bring the snows and flowers ; 
Like thee, I walk the earth and go 

To sleep beneath the stars and showers. 
While by thy grave I linger near, 

Still musing on the by-gone days, 
Within the church I seem to hear 

The voice of prayer and psalm of praise. 
Methinks with thee I wander far 

In quiet of the eventide, 
And greet with thee the rising star, 

And hear thy footfalls at my side. 

1 feel great Nature's touch, and lo ! 
My doubtings and my fears depart ; 

My quickening pulses catch the glow 
And fervor of her mighty heart. 



"Proclaim tbat iligDt ana Rest fim gome*' 

There standing, in the thoughtful hour, 

When night and day each other greet, 
I question of the star and flower 

And sod that teems beneath my feet ; 
Sweet messages of hope they bear, 

Sweet solace to my grief and fear, 
Their voices fill the brooding air 

With whisperings of faith and cheer. 
So here, with faltering hand, I write 

These fragments of a fitful lay, 
That other wanderers through the night 

May learn what Nature's voices say : 
The far-off murmur of the seas, 

The stillness of the listening trees, 
Empurpled evening's twilight bars, 

The first faint shimmering of the stars, 
The hush that marks the dying day 

As shape and shadow melt away, 
Commingling in the gathering gloom, 

Proclaim that Night and Rest have come. 

What voice, o'er hill and dale repining, 

Bemoans the Day 

Whose latest ray 
Behind the west is faintly shining, 
And sighs, o'er vale and mountain far, 
Its challenge to the evening star ? 
It is the wind of night : 
O'er farthest height, 
Through deepest glen, 
It wanders from the haunts of men, 
Seeking the hidden Day. 
Away, away, 

It roameth through the deeps of night 
Yearning for light. 
O'er thousand cities of the dead 
It moans, seeking the life that's fled, 
Asking of mouldering heap and crumbling stone 
"Where have they gone, 
Where do they wait, 
Who erstwhile wove their thread of fate 
Through warp and woof of human story, 
Tingeing its web with shame or glory, 
Feeding Time's wonder-weaving loom 
With strands of light or threads of gloom — 
With Love whose glorious pattern glows 
In colors of the sunset bars, 
Serene and fadeless as the stars, 
And pure as winter's drifting snows, 
Or yet with Hate, whose touch of blight 
Marks with its stain the shuttle's flight? 
Say, where are those whose flying feet 

Life's flower-strewn pathway danced along, 



508 



u 



Co Ulieltf Dominion over men" 

Rejoiced the fragrant hours to meet 

With gladsome laughter and with song? 
The happy ones of yesterday, 

Pulsing with Love and Passion's fire, 

Glowing with Youth's supreme desire. 
Answer, ye dismal mounds, and say, 
In all their beauty, where are they ? 
And those who wrought in field and dell, 

And hewed upon the mountain-side, 

And dared the ocean's heaving tide, 

And delved earth's treasures forth to bring, 

And made the echoing anvil ring 7 

The cunning of their art to tell ? 
And those the grimy factory knew 

From blush of morn till evening's shade, 
Whose pallid faces paler grew 

In haunts where sun-beam never strayed ? 
And those of happier lot who wrought 

In crowded mart, and those, again, 
The Senate and the forum taught 

To wield dominion over men, — 
Answer, ye dismal mounds, and say, 

Where are these toilers hid away ?" 
Silent the mounds of drifted clay, 

Silent the cold and crumbling stone ; 
Silent the cypress branches sway 

And listen to the night-wind's moan ; 
Silent the night-cloud, hanging low 

Upon the far horizon's brim — 
Behind, the star-beams faintly glow 

Along its vast and shadowy rim. 
Slowly before the starry ray 

The dismal vapor melts away, 
And then, across the wide earth far, 

The shimmering splendors of a star ; 
With joy its pregnant beams distil 

The darkness slumbering on the hill ; 
They glitter on the dewy leas, 

And quiver through the cypress trees ; 
Each mound they touch with soft caress, 

And gleam on every mournful stone 
Whose graven tribute would make known 

The wealth of human tenderness, 
And down the night-wind riding far 

They bear this message from the star : 
"Stay, stay, thou wandering wind," it says, "and listen 

And bear o'er forest, vale and field and height, 
Where'er the dews fall or the star-beams glisten. 

The wierd and solemn voices of the night. 
Wherever o'er the wide earth Pain and Sorrow 

And Pestilence and Want and Fear hold sway ; 
Wherever yearning heart and faint would borrow 

Some ray of hope to cheer its lonely way ; 



« 



mfren Coves are Dead ana Ropes expire " 

Wherever pilgrims o'er life's pathway faring 

Some key to its vast mystery would find, 
The strong and weak, the hoping and despairing, 

Bear thou these voices, swift and kindly wind. 
O bear them where the earnest heart is straying 

Through labyrinths of unbelief and gloom, 
Wherever doubt is rife and faith decaying, 

Or hope is lost, or earth contains a tomb." 

The night wind listens : Hope and Faith uprising, 
Their shining forms aside the shadows fling ; 

With gentle voice, the silences surprising, 

They speak, and these the messages they bring : 



First Voice. 

(What Hope saith to the disconsolate Heart:) 
Disconsolate and lone I look 

Upon the twilight's purple rim, 
I hear the gurgle of the brook, 

I see the mountain's outline dim. 
Deepens the shadow on the hill ; 

Deeper the darkness in my breast — 
The sorrows of the years, that fill 

The measure of my soul's unrest. 
O cheerless chambers of the heart, 

When loves are dead and hopes expire ! 
No more shall Rapture's flame upstart, 

Or Beauty kindle warm desire. 
The bitter ashes gray and cold 

On each deserted hearthstone lie, 
Together, silent, bent and old, 

We shiver there, Remorse and I. 
The waste of all the fruitful years, 

The gnarled trunk and naked bough, 
Phantoms of hopes and ghosts of fears, 

Ah, these alone are left me now ! 
The blush of morn, the noontide glow 

Of conscious manhood's faith and might 
Have dimmed and fled away, and slow 

The shadows deepen into night. 

sad and bitter hour of age, 

O palsied hand and dimming look ! 
Fill out, my heart, the blotted page 

E'er yet the angel close the book. 
Write there some little word of love, 
Some gentle deed in kindness done, 
Some heavenly impulse from above, 

Some holy sacrifice begun. 

1 look around, above, below, 

On star and flower, on earth and sea — 
The far and star-lit spaces glow 
That what is mine may come to me. 



44 



CDe Glad €ariD Yearns to Spend far Store" 

The bright seas roll from shore to shore 

Their white-capped billows, far and free, 
The glad earth yearns to spend her store 

That what is mine may come to me. 
The dark red rose its censer swings 

Of perfume from its heart of fire, 
And far around, in beauty, flings 

The fragrance of its deep desire. 
The lily spreads its petals white 

And pure upon the eager air, 
Unsullied by the touch of blight, / 

Stainless as snow and chaste as prayer! 
They strive, the star, the flower, the sea, 

That what is mine may come to me. 
And what is mine ? In years gone by 

I sat beside the moaning sea, 
And watched, with wistful heart and eye, 

For treasure ships to come to me. 
I yearned for yellow heaps of gold, 

For jewels rare and gems of fire, 
And these, my vacant heart, I told 

Would satisfy its fierce desire. 
Though many a snowy sail I see 

Upon the far horizon's rim, 
The billows sweep them far from me 

Across its misty circle dim. 
Far on, far on, to other shores, 

Each rushing, eager prow is set, 
And soon behind its foaming course 

The waters and the skies are met. 
And on and on, across the light 

The spreading sails are swiftly prest, 
To some fair port beyond the night, 

Some happy island of the blest. 
Ah, not for me the bright seas lend 

Their favoring breezes fair and free, 
Nor Time, nor Tide, nor Fortune send 

My treasure-laden argosy. 
They are not mine, these golden stores 

That men call riches — vain for me 
To linger on the vacant shores 

And scan the reaches of the sea. 
Nor yet for me the dream of Power, 

Nor Glory's idle boast, nor Fame, 
Whose luster gilds the transient hour 

With fickle splendors of a name. 
O glittering bauble, falsely bright, 

How vain, how impotent to bless — 
A meteor's flash across the night, 

Whose goal and end is nothingness ! 
But mine the joy of service, mine 

To labor on through storm and strife, 



5" 



"faitb gomfortetb tbe Doubting Soul 

And build in hope and faith the shrine 

And temple of a noble life. 
And like the mystic ladder, bright 

With angel forms, that one of old 
Beheld far stretching through the night 

Its shining length and steps of gold ; 
And as the busy insect weaves 

From its own vitals, firm and true, 
The fabric of its home and leaves 

The shining web upon the dew ; 
So, toiling on, in sacrifice, 

My deeds of love shall shine afar, 
The ladder of my labors rise 

From height to height, from star to star. 
Ah, this is mine, in joy to spend 

Each gift and talent freely given, 
To serve, to succor, to befriend, 

And build my ladder up to heaven. 
There angel forms shall come and go, 

And angel helpers hover nigh, 
And angel voices whisper low 

The counsels of their ministry. 
Rejoice, then, star and flower and sea, 
All that is mine shall come to me. 



f* 



Second Voice. 

(Faith comforteth the doubting soul:) 
Love knoweth all, the end from the beginning, 

Love seeketh all the brightest and the best, 
Love crowneth all : no triumphs worth the winning 

Save those whose wreaths are won at love's behest. 
Love builds the world : for one high purpose spending 

Its lavish treasures on the work begun ; 
There Truth and Right, in one vast glory blending, 

Shall dwell with Knowledge when the work is done. 
Vain, vain the labor of my hands contriving 

To build on earth some shrine and temple fair, 
And vain this wierd, wild phantasy of living 

Unless the soul of all things, Love, be there, 
The wedding marches and the nuptial torches — 

Ah, what are these but mimicry and jest, 
When Love lies dead and Life's fierce sunlight scorches 

The dying flowers with which his grave is drest ! 
What boots it to the aching heart and yearning 

That Beauty smiles and strains of music fall, 
When Fate withholds the master passion, burning 

To crown with glory and to seal it all. 
No more, no more the dying Autumn's splendor 

Shall paint the withered leaf. 
No more, no more the broken chord shall render 

Its tone of joy or grief. 
We love but once ; one heart is all that Pleasure 

Hath given us in store ; 



513 



"Cbi$ i$ Hoi Jill, Soul of mine" 

We pour out fondly once the glowing treasure, 

And Life affords no more. 
O Life, O Life, and is that little day 

The flying moment's span, 
Whose sun and shadow melt in night away, 

The horoscope of man? 
Behind him nothingness, and deep before 

Abyssmal darkness when the day is done ; 
Nearing the brink at last, he plunges o'er, 

Bereft of all things, naked and alone, 
His earliest voice a cry, his last a groan. / 

Can this be all, O ye immortal yearnings, 
For which we fight and toil 

Through dust and shame and marvelous heart-burnings, 
And fear and pain and broil ? 

If this be all, O kindly Night, o'ertake us 
With starless shadows deep ! 

O Sense and Passion, nevermore awake us 
From elemental sleep ! 

This is not all, O soul of mine, repining ! 
Self-exiled wanderer from the Father's home, 

From the far heaven the faithful home-lights shining 
Gleam on my vagrant steps where'er I roam. 

The quest of Knowledge led me forth, unbidden, 
Through realms of Sense and Time to wander far, 

To catch some glimpses of the purpose hidden 
In rolling earth and solemn-beaming star. 

Husks shall I eat, and bitter bread of sorrow, 
Vain prodigal, far from my Father's face, 

And on and on, to-morrow and to-morrow, 
Through labyrinthine glooms my pathway trace. 

Yet shall I gain my quest, and homeward turning 
Repentant steps, shall understand and see 

How the great Father-Heart above me yearning 
Hath wrought his signs and miracles for me. 

For me the glad earth threads the pathless spaces 
And tireless sets the bounds of night and day, 

And far Uranus, dim and distant, traces 
Its orbit vast and sheds its twilight ray. 

For me, for me, heir of the vast hereafter. 
The planets burn and star and system sweep, 

Nor voice of prayer, nor human tears nor laughter, 
Shall stay the wanderers of the azure deep. 

For they are there, sublimely wrought, to tell me 
How wisdom holds the universe in awe, 

How Life and Death and all that e'er befell me 
Are harmonies of one eternal law ; 

That law, O heart, that set thy pulses throbbing 
Through the long vista of the lapsing years. 

Whose dictates yet shall still thy fitful sobbing, 
And close the chapter of thy hopes and fears ; 

That law whose faith is still serenely guiding 



S»3 



"CHI CrutD at last Dispels tbe Darlmess" 

The mystic courses of the silent stars, 

That calls the morning forth, on splendors riding, 
And tints with beauty all the sunset bars. 

That law is Love, that law is Life unending, 
Through blight and change and envious decay, 

Its path of Order still divinely wending 
To blend its glories with the perfect day. 

Arise and sing, O heart of mine, and boldly 
The appointed paths of joy and sorrow tread, 

Though dark the way, and dimly shine and coldly 
The distant skies that far above thee spread. 

Thy goal is Day : thy treasure undecaying 
The gift of life, whose blossoms full and fair 

Shall yet rejoice to feel around them playing 
The thrilling breath of a diviner air. 

Disease and Sorrow, Death and Pain and Sighing 
Shall fail and vanish at the sun-lit ray, 

And wisdom write, in characters undying, 
The law of Life : to know is to obey. 

Search then thyself, O heart, for in thy beating 
The meaning of the universe lies hid, 

Thy tireless pulses through the years repeating 
The two-fold riddle of the quick and dead. 

Thou wast not made for tree, and brook and flower, 
For rolling heavens and earth-encircling sea, 

Thou wast not made an hour-glass, for the hour, 
But these — the world and time — were made for thee. 

What human king of kings could match the glory 
That fills the skies where constellations meet ? 

What human art interpret half the story 
That thrills the teeming earth beneath thy feet? 

Rejoice, rejoice, through worlds on worlds before thee 
Fair Knowledge throws her pathway open wide, 

She calleth from the suns that cycle o'er thee, 
She whispers in the murmur of the tide. 

Forever, O forever, for thy teaching, 
The bloom of Spring and Autumn's falling leaf, 

And yearning earth, in time and season reaching 
The full fruition of the garnered sheaf. 

Forever, O forever, for thy blessing 
The sun-beam's glory and the rain-drop's fall, 

Fond Nature's homage thee supreme confessing — 
Then know thyself, and knowing, compass all. 

Deep dwells the night upon thy path, and weary 
Thy homeward plodding, till the morning rise, 

Till Truth, at last, dispel the darkness dreary, 
O child of God, O heir of Paradise ! 



The Voices cease : the shining Oracle 

Wends slowly down its pathway through the deeps ; 
And Night and Silence all the spaces fill, 

The listening Stillness broods, and Nature sleeps. 



514 



2^ (greeting tn % NatUma 

IBOr-Amerttaa Itrfy&ag-lHflr 



BY 



^J^C^tr^drijc /\crc-3&?^& 



PRESIDENT OP THE TXKTTBD STATES 



These Words of Wisdom from the Man who has been chosen by the People of the 
First Republic in the World as their Leader, mark an Epoch in the annals of Mankind- 
Spoken at the Three Hundredth Anniversary of the First Permanent English Settle- 
ment in America, the observance of which is now drawing to a close at Jamestown, 
Virginia, they are emblazoned on these pages as a significant contribution to American 
historical literature— This publication, with the permission of the President, is from an 
autograph copy kindly presented by Mr. Roosevelt to the editor of this periodical 



J^k T the outset I wish to say a word of special greeting to 
JB^k the representatives of the foreign governments. 

^^m They have come to assist us in celebrating what 

^^^^k was in very truth the birthday of this nation, for it 
^^^ ^ r was here that the colonists first settled, whose 
incoming, whose growth from their own loins and 
by the addition of newcomers from abroad, was to 
make the people which one hundred and sixty-nine years later 
assumed the solemn responsibilities and weighty duties of com- 
plete independence. 

In welcoming all of you I must say a special word, first to the 
representative of the people of Great Britain and Ireland. The 
fact that so many of our people, of whom as it happens I myself 
am one, have but a very small portion of English blood in our 
veins, in no way alters the other fact that this nation was founded 
by Englishmen, by the Cavalier and the Puritan. Their tongue, 
law, literature, the fund of their common thought, made an inher- 
itance which all of us share, and marked deep the lines along 
which we have developed. It was the men of English stock who 
did most in casting the mold into which our national character 
was run. 



sis 



J^^^^^ET me furthermore greet all of you, the representa- 
jfm tives of the people of continental Europe. From 

J| • • almost every nation of Europe we have drawn some 
TIP part of our blood, some part of our traits. This 

Jr^^JL mixture of blood has gone on from the beginning, 
^^^^W and with it has gone on a kind of development unex- 
ampled among peoples of the stocks from which we 
spring ; and hence to-day we differ sharply from, and yet in some 
ways are fundamentally akin to, all of the nations of Europe. 

Again, let me bid you welcome, representatives of our sister 
Republics of this continent. In the larger aspect, your interests 
and ours are identical. Your problems and ours are in large 
part the same ; and as we strive to settle them, I pledge you here- 
with on the part of this nation the heartiest friendship and good- 
will. 

Finally, let me say a special word of greeting to those repre- 
sentatives of the Asiatic nations who make up that newest East 
which is yet the most ancient East, the East of time immemorial. 
In particular, let me express a word of hearty welcome to the 
representative of the mighty island empire of Japan ; that empire, 
which, in learning from the West, has shown that it had so much, 
so very much, to teach the West in return. 

To all of you here gathered I express my thanks for your 
coming, and I extend to you my earnest wishes for the welfare 
of your several nations. The world has moved so far that it is 
no longer necessary to believe that one nation can rise only by 
thrusting another down. All far-sighted statesmen, all true 
patriots, now earnestly wish that the leading nations of mankind, 
as in their several ways they struggle constantly toward a higher 
civilization, a higher humanity, may advance hand in hand, united 
only in a generous rivalry to see which can best do its allotted 
work in the world. I believe that there is a rising tide in human 
thought which tends for righteous international peace; a tide 
which it behooves us to guide through rational channels to sane 
conclusions ; and all of us here present can well afford to take to 
heart St. Paul's counsel: "If it be possible, as much lieth in you, 
live peaceably with all men." 

We have met ... to celebrate the . . . Exposi- 
tion which itself commemorates the first permanent settlement 
of men of our stock in Virginia, the first beginning of what has 
since become this mighty Republic. Three hundred years ago 
a handful of English adventurers, who had crossed the ocean in 
what we should now call cockle-boats, as clumsy as they were 
frail, landed in the great wooded wilderness, the Indian-haunted 
waste, which then stretched down to the water's edge along the 
entire Atlantic coast. They were not the first men of European 
race to settle in what is now the United States, for there were 
already Spanish settlements in Florida and on the headwaters of 
the Rio Grande; and the French, who at almost the same time 
were struggling up the St. Lawrence, were likewise destined to 
form permanent settlements on the Great Lakes and in the valley 
of the mighty Mississippi before the people of English stock 
went westward of the Alleghenies. 



516 



^1^' 

M 



OREOVER, both the Dutch and the Swedes were 
shortly to found colonies between the two sets of 
English colonies, those that grew up around the 
Potomac and those that grew up on what is now 
the New England coast. Nevertheless, this land- 
ing at Jamestown possesses for us of the United 
States an altogether peculiar significance, and this 
without regard to our several origins. The men who landed at 
Jamestown and those who, thirteen years later, landed at 
Plymouth, all of English stock, and their fellow-settlers who 
during the next few decades streamed in after them, were those 
who took the lead in shaping the life history of this people in the 
colonial and revolutionary days. It was they who bent into defi- 
nite shape our nation while it was still young enough most easily, 
most readily, to take on the characteristics which were to become 
part of its permanent life habit. 

Yet let us remember that while this early English colonial 
stock has left deeper than all others upon our national life the 
mark of its strong twin individualities, the mark of the Cavalier 
and of the Puritan — nevertheless, this stock, not only from its 
environment but also from the presence with it of other stocks, 
almost from the beginning began to be differentiated strongly 
from any European people. As I have already said, about the 
time the first English settlers landed here, the Frenchman and 
the Spaniard, the Swede and the Dutchman, also came hither as 
permanent dwellers, who left their seed behind- them to help 
shape and partially to inherit our national life. The German, the 
Irishman and the Scotchman came later, but still in colonial times. 
Before the outbreak of the Revolution the American people, not 
only because of their surroundings, physical and spiritual, but 
because of the mixture of blood that had already begun to take 
place, represented a new and distinct ethnic type. This type has 
never been fixed in blood. All through the colonial days new 
waves of immigration from time to time swept hither across the 
ocean, now from one country, now from another. The same 
thing has gone on ever since our birth as a nation ; and for the 
last sixty years the tide of immigration has been at the full. The 
newcomers are soon absorbed into our eager national life, and 
are radically and profoundly changed thereby, the rapidity of 
their assimilation being marvelous. But each group of new- 
comers, as it adds its blood to the life, also changes it somewhat, 
and this change and growth and development have gone on 
steadily, generation by generation, throughout three centuries. 

The pioneers of our people who first landed on these shores 
on that eventful day three centuries ago, had before them a task 
which during the early years was of heartbreaking danger and 
difficulty. The conquest of a new continent is iron work. Peo- 
ple who dwell in old civilizations and find that therein so much 
of humanity's lot is hard, are apt to complain against the condi- 
tions as being solely due to man and to speak as if life could be 
made easy and simple if there were but a virgin continent in 
which to work. 



!■! 



JT is true that the pioneer life was simpler, but it was 
certainly not easier. As a matter of fact, the first 
work of the pioneers in taking possession of a lonely 
wilderness is so rough, so hard, so dangerous that all 
but the strongest spirits fail. The early iron days of 
such a conquest search out alike the weak in body and 
the weak in soul. In the warfare against the rugged 
sternness of primeval Nature, only those can conquer who are 
themselves unconquerable. It is not until the first bitter years 
have passed that the life becomes easy enough to invite a mass 
of newcomers, and so great are the risk, hardship, and toil of the 
early years that there always exists a threat of lapsing back from 
civilization. 

The history of the pioneers of Jamestown, of the founders of 
Virginia, illustrates the truth of all this. Famine and pestilence 
and war menaced the little band of daring men who had planted 
themselves alone on the edge of a frowning continent. More- 
over, as men ever find, whether in the tiniest frontier community 
or in the vastest and most highly organized and complex civilized 
society, their worst foes were in their own bosoms. Dissension, 
distrust, the inability of some to work and the unwillingness of 
others, jealousy, arrogance and envy, folly and laziness — in short, 
all the shortcomings with which we have to grapple now, were 
faced by those pioneers, and at moments threatened their whole 
enterprise with absolute ruin. It was some time before the 
ground on which they had landed supported them, in spite of its 
potential fertility, and they looked across the sea for supplies. 
At one moment so hopeless did they become that the whole colony 
embarked, and was only saved from abandoning the country by 
the opportune arrival of help from abroad. 

At last they took root in the land, and were already prospering 
when the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. In a few years a great 
inflow of settlers began. Four of the present states of New Eng- 
land were founded. Virginia waxed apace. The Carolinas grew 
up to the south of it, and Maryland to the north of it. The 
Dutch colonies between, which had already absorbed the Swedish, 
were in their turn absorbed by the English. Pennsylvania was 
founded and, later still, Georgia. There were many wars with 
the Indians and with the dauntless captains whose banners bore 
the lilies of France. At last the British flag flew without a rival 
in all eastern North America. Then came the successful strug- 
gle for national independence. 

For half a century after we became a separate nation there 
was comparatively little immigration to this country. Then the 
tide once again set hither, and has flowed in ever-increasing size 
until in each of the last three years a greater number of people 
came to these shores than had landed on them during the entire 
colonial period. Generation by generation these people have been 
absorbed into the national life. Generally their sons, almost 
always their grandsons, are indistinguishable from one another 
and from their fellow-Americans descended from the colonial 
stock. 



518 



/^^^A^OR all alike the problems of our existence are funda- 

41 T mentall y tne same, and for all alike these problems 

(M BjJ change from generation to generation. In the colo- 

P W\ nial period > and for at least a century after its close, 
-7 ■ I the conquest of the continent, the expansion of our 
^^^ people westward, to the Alleghenies, then to the 

Mississippi, then to the Pacific, was always 
one of the most important tasks, and sometimes the most 
important, in our national life. Behind the first settlers 
the conditions grew easier, and in the older-settled regions 
of all the colonies, life speedily assumed much of comfort and 
something of luxury; and though generally it was on a much 
more democratic basis than life in the Old World, \i was by no 
means democratic when judged by our modern standards ; and 
here and there, as in the tide-water regions of Virginia a genuine 
aristocracy grew and flourished. But the men who first broke 
ground in the virgin wilderness, whether on the Atlantic coast, 
or in the interior, fought hard for mere life. In the early stages 
the frontiersman had to battle with the savage, and when the 
savage was vanquished there remained the harder strain of war 
with the hostile forces of soil and climate, with flood, fever, and 
famine. There was sickness, and bitter weather ; there were no 
roads ; there was a complete lack of all but the very roughest and 
most absolute necessaries. Under such circumstances the men 
and women who made ready the continent for civilization were 
able themselves to spend but little time in doing aught but the 
rough work which was to make smooth the ways of their 'suc- 
cessors. In consequence, observers whose insight was spoiled by 
lack of sympathy always found both the settlers and their lives 
unattractive and repellant. In Martin Chuzzlewit the descrip- 
tion of America, culminating in the description of the frontier 
town of Eden, was true and lifelike from the standpoint of one 
content to look merely at the outer shell ; and yet it was a com- 
munity like Eden that gave birth to Abraham Lincoln; it was 
men such as were therein described from whose loins Andrew 
Jackson sprang. Each generation has had its allotted task, 
now heavier, now lighter. In the Revolutionary War the busi- 
ness was to achieve independence. Immediately afterwards there 
was an even more momentous task; that to achieve the national 
unity and the capacity for orderly development, without which 
our liberty, our independence, would have been a curse and not a 
blessing. In each of these two contests, while there were many 
great leaders from many different states, it is but fair to say that 
the foremost place was taken by the soldiers and the statesmen of 
Virginia; and to Virginia was reserved the honor of producing 
the hero of both movements, the hero of the war, and of the 
peace that made good the results of the war — George Washing- 
ton; while the two great political tendencies of the time can be 
symbolized by the names of two other great Virginians — Jeffer- 
son and Marshall — from one of whom we inherit the abiding 
trust in the people which is the foundation stone of democracy. 
and from the other the power to develop on behalf of the people 
a coherent, powerful government, a representative nationality. 



5if 



WO generations passed before the second great 
crisis of our history had to be faced. Then came the 
a *■ Civil War, terrible and bitter in itself and in its after- 

fi H math, but a struggle from which the Nation finally 

^^j^ / emerged united in fact as well as in name, united f or- 
^Bl^P ever. Oh, my hearers, my fellow countrymen, great 
indeed has been our good fortune ; for as time clears 
away the mists that once shrouded brother from brother and made 
each look "as through a glass darkly" at the other, we can all feel 
the same pride in the valor, the devotion and the fealty toward the 
right as it was given to each to see the right, shown alike by the 
men who wore the blue and by the men who wore the gray. 
Rich and prosperous though we are as a people, the proudest 
heritage that each of us has, no matter where he may dwell, North 
or South, East or West, is the immaterial heritage of feeling, 
the right to claim as his own all the valor and all the steadfast 
devotion to duty shown by the men of both the great armies, 
of the soldiers whose leader was Grant and the soldiers 
whose leader was Lee. The men and the women of the 
Civil War did their duty bravely and well in the days that were 
dark and terrible and splendid. We, their descendants, who pay 
proud homage to their memories, and glory in the feats of might 
of one side no less than of the other, need to keep steadily in 
mind that the homage which counts is the homage of heart and 
of hand, and not of the lips, the homage of deeds and not of 
words only. We, too, in our turn, must prove our truth by our 
endeavor. We must show ourselves worthy sons of the men of 
the mighty days by the way in which we meet the problems of 
our own time. We carry our heads high because our fathers did 
well in the years that tried men's souls ; and we must in our turn 
so bear ourselves that the children who come after us may feel 
that we too have done our duty. 

We cannot afford to forget the maxim upon which Washing- 
ton insisted, that the surest way to avert war is to be prepared 
to meet it. Nevertheless, the duties that most concern us of this 
generation are not military, but social and industrial. Each com- 
munity must always dread the evils which spring up as attendant 
upon the very qualities which give it success. We of this mighty 
western Republic have to grapple with the dangers that spring 
from popular self-government tried on a scale incomparably 
vaster than ever before in the history of mankind, and from an 
abounding material prosperity greater also than anything which 
the world has hitherto seen. 

As regards the first set of dangers, it behooves us to remem- 
ber that men can never escape being governed. Either they must 
govern themselves or they must submit to being governed by 
others. If from lawlessness or fickleness, from folly or self- 
indulgence, they refuse to govern themselves, then most assur- 
edly in the end they will have to be governed from the outside. 
They can prevent the need of government from without only by 
showing that they possess the power of government from within. 



/^k SOVEREIGN cannot make excuses for his failures ; a 

gjflL sovereign must accept the responsibility for the 

^ J m exercise of the power that inheres in him; and 

IMA where, as is true in our Republic, the people are 

^^ ^^, sovereign, then the people must show a sober 

^^r W^ understanding and a sane and steadfast purpose 

if they are to preserve that orderly liberty upon 

which as a foundation every republic must rest. 

In industrial matters our enormous prosperity has brought 
with it certain grave evils. It is our duty to try to cut out these 
eyils without at the same time destroying our well-being itself. 
This is an era of combination alike in the world of capital and in 
the world of labor. Each kind of combination can dp good, and 
yet each, however powerful, must be opposed when it does ill. 
At the moment the greatest problem before us is how to exercise 
such control over the business use of vast wealth, individual, but 
especially corporate, as will insure its not being used against the 
interest of the public, while yet permitting such ample legitimate 
profits as will encourage individual initiative. It is our business 
to put a stop to abuses and to prevent their recurrence, without 
showing a spirit of mere vindictiveness for what has been done in 
the past. In John Morley's brilliant sketch of Burke he lays espe- 
cial stress upon the fact that Burke more than almost any other 
thinker or politician of his time realized the profound lesson that 
in politics we are concerned not with barren rights but with 
duties ; not with abstract truth, but with practical morality. He 
especially eulogizes the way in which in his efforts for economic 
reform, Burke combined unshakable resolution in pressing the 
reform with a profound temperateness of spirit which made him, 
while bent on the extirpation of the evil system, refuse to cherish 
an unreasoning and vindictive ill-will toward the men who had 
benefited by it. Said Burke, "If I cannot reform with equity I 
will not reform at all. * * * (There is) a state to preserve 
as well as a state to reform." 

This is the exact spirit in which this country should move to 
the reform of abuses of corporate wealth. The wrong-doer, the 
man who swindles and cheats, whether on a big scale or a little 
one, shall receive at our hands mercy as scant as if he committed 
crimes of violence or brutality. We are unalterably determined 
to prevent wrongdoing in the future; we have no intention of 
trying to wreak such an indiscriminate vengeance for wrongs 
done in the past as would confound the innocent with the guilty. 
Our purpose is to build up rather than to tear down. We show 
ourselves the truest friends of property when we make it evident 
that we will not tolerate the abuses of property. We are steadily 
bent on preserving the institution of private property ; we combat 
every tendency toward reducing the people to economic servi- 
tude; and we care not whether the tendency is due to a sinister 
agitation directed against all property, or whether it is due to the 
actions of those members of the predatory classes whose anti- 
social power is immeasurably increased because of the very fact 
that they possess wealth. 



dflft BOVE all, we insist that while facing changed condi- 
^Brm tions and new problems, we must face them in the 

L-tMl spirit which our forefathers showed when they 

/ ^ ^ founded and preserved this Republic. The corner- 
^m^ ^ r stone of the Republic lies in our treating each man 
on his worth as a man, paying no heed to his 
creed, his birthplace, or his occupation, asking not 
whether he is rich or poor, whether he labors with head or 
hand; asking only whether he acts decently and honorably 
in the various relations of his life, whether he behaves 
well to his family, to his neighbors, to the state. We base 
our regard for each man on the essentials and not the acci- 
dents. We judge him not by his profession, but by his deeds ; by 
his conduct, not by what he has acquired of this world's goods. 
Other republics have fallen, because the citizens gradually grew 
to consider the interests of a class before the interests of the 
whole; for when such was the case it mattered little whether it 
was the poor who plundered the rich or the rich who exploited 
the poor; in either event the end of the Republic was at hand- 
We are resolute in our purpose not to fall into such a pit. This 
great Republic of ours shall never become the government of a 
plutocracy, and it shall never become the government of a mob. 
God willing, it shall remain what our fathers who founded it 
meant it to be — a government in which each man stands on his 
worth as a man, where each is given the largest personal liberty 
consistent with securing the well-being of the whole, and where, 
so far as in us lies, we strive continually to secure for each man 
such equality of opportunity that in the strife of life he may have 
a fair chance to show the stuff that is in him. We are proud of 
our schools and of the trained intelligence they give our children 
the opportunity to acquire. But what we care for most is the 
character of the average man ; for we believe that if the average 
of character in the individual citizen is sufficiently high, if he 
possesses those qualities which make him worthy of respect in his 
family life and in his work outside, as well as the qualities which 
fit him for success in the hard struggle of actual existence — that 
if such is the character of our individual citizenship, there is liter- 
ally no height of triumph unattainable in this vast experiment of 
government by, of, and for a free people. 



EXPERIENCES OF A MINISTER'S WIFE IN 
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



SUFFERING OF REBECCA FOOTE OF BRANFORD, CON- 
NECTICUT, WHO MARRIED A CLERGYMAN WHOSE 
ZEAL IN THE CAUSE OF AMERICAN LIBERTY SUB- 
JECTED HER TO THE BRUTALITY OF THE HESSIANS— 
WITH HER CHILDREN HUDDLED ABOUT HER SHE 
WATCHED THE BATTLE IN FRONT OF THE PARSONAGE 



BY 



REVEREND RODERICK TERRY 



, D.D. 



MANUSCRIPT CONTRIBUTED 

BY 

FREDERICK T. PEET 



IN the year 1755 there was living 
in one of the finest houses of the 
village of Branford, Connecti- 
cut, a family, consisting of a 
mother, two daughters and a son. 
The father was with the Northern 
Army under General Johnson, resist- 
ing the approach of the French from 
Canada in their war against the Brit- 
ish Colonies. He was the leader of 
the Connecticut troops in this war and 
noted for his bravery and devotion to 
his native colony as for his religion 
and his devotion to his God. 

During the month of September of 
this year, from this distant warrior — 
Major Isaac Foote — there came four 
letters to his family in Branford. 
These letters, written in the exuberant 
religious style so common at that 
period, proved the earnestness and 
depth of his Christian faith, and in 
their tenderness and affectionate tone 
proved the devotion which existed be- 
tween the members of this family. 
But alas, they were written with ever- 
increasing weakness and the last of 
the four had scarcely been discharged 
upon its mission of love to the dis- 
tant home when the writer, worn out 
by a painful debilitating illness, 
breathed his last in the house of his 
friend, General Schuyler, near Albany; 



and in General Schuyler's burial-plot, 
his grave with its simple tomb-stone 
remains to this day. To a passage 
from one of these letters, I desire to 
call your attention, that it may intro- 
duce to us her who is to be the sub- 
ject of our paper. 

This young girl, Rebecca Foote, 
now sixteen years of age, who had 
been brought up in the most religious 
atmosphere, because she had not as yet 
openly made a profession of religion, 
caused this good father a great deal of 
anxiety. In writing to his wife, he 
says: "My dearest friend, I feel in 
general resigned to the disposal of 
Divine Providence, and if it should be 
my lot to fall in battle, or otherwise 
die here, let me recommend you, as 
your dying husband, to live entirely 
devoted to God and his purpose. 
. . . The great object of your care 
must be in bringing up the dear chil- 
dren. Use vour every endeavor to 
instruct then! in the principles of re- 
ligion. Talk much to dear Rebecca of 
the most important things : tell her 
how awful is her state while out of 
Christ, (this to an innocent, relig- 
iously-minded girl of sixteen ), put her 
upon secret prayer; I should advise 
you to take her often with you in your 
closet, and let her join with you in 

i»3 



S2 4 EXPERIENCES OF REBECCA FOOTE OF CONNECTICUT 



secret prayer. ... I should choose 
that she does not keep any company 
these two or three years, but if she 
should marry, do all that lies in your 
power, and take especial care that she 
marries into a religious family ; and if 
possible to a religious partner." 

That this dying father's religious 
desires for his young daughter were 
fulfilled, the next picture to which I 
will point you, abundantly proves. In 
the eastern part of the state of New 
Jersey, where it is separated from 
Staten Island by a narrow body of 
water known in the neighborhood as 
the "Sound" upon the plain which 
stretches to the West, about three 
miles from one of the ferries — used 
even in those olden times most fre- 
quently by persons traveling from 
Staten Island through the state — upon 
the main road leading from that ferry, 
which was indeed during that period 
the best road between New York and 
Philadelphia, there stood, and still 
stands, though much altered, a house 
of considerable pretensions among its 
neighbors. It was the parsonage of 
the Presbyterian Church of the town 
of Woodbridge. Into this parsonage 
in the month of September, 1763, Re- 
becca Foote, formerly the young girl 
of Branford, Connecticut (now 
twenty-four years old) and a widow, 
was led as a wife by the Reverend 
Azel Roe, who was but one year older. 
This young minister was a native of 
Long Island. In his youth he had 
studied in New York and afterwards 
in the house of the Reverend Mr. 
Smith of Orange; and he had mani- 
fested such ability in his profession 
that he had just been settled as pastor 
of this church of Woodbridge — one of 
the most important in that time, in the 
state. Inasmuch as our story is to be 
laid in this town, let us recall in a few 
words what is known of its condition 
at that time. 

Just one hundred years before there 
had come from New England a colony 
of men who had settled themselves 
upon these level plains between the 



Orange hills and the waters of Staten 
Island Sound. From the time their 
axes first resounded through the wil- 
derness as they cleared for themselves 
a space for their homes, their New 
England energy and thrift had shown 
itself and their influence throughout 
all of the then inhabited parts of New 
Jersey constantly increased. In the 
year seventeen hundred and fifty-one 
the first printing-press established in 
the state was set up in this little town, 
and in seventeen hundred and fifty- 
three the first magazine was pub- 
lished, which, being issued many 
months for many years, carried the 
name and reputation of Woodbridge 
to all parts of the colonies. Of the 
general appearance of the village but 
little is told us; we know, however, 
that it stretched almost two miles 
along the main road, and that, con- 
spicuous among its buildings, was not 
only this -nrinting-house of which it 
was so proud, but also one or more 
stores of considerable importance. 
Inns, which ranked high among those 
of the neighborhood, as well as prom- 
inent industrial undertakings, such as 
tanneries and different forms of man- 
ufactories. At the eastern end of the 
village, about three miles from the 
boat landing, upon Staten Island, 
stood the Presbyterian Church of 
which the young husband of Rebecca 
Foote was the pastor. Although of 
this church no description has come 
down to us, yet we have a careful ac- 
count of a sister church, some five 
miles away under care of the same 
pastor, which may not have been un- 
like it: "the number of seats in the 
lower part of the church was forty- 
two, and in the gallery, twenty-two; 
an aisle ran east and west, with rows 
of seats upon each side, at the head of 
which was the high pulpit with its 
sounding-board, and a place a little to 
the left for the clerk of the singing, 
as the leader was then called. 

"An aisle ran along in front of the 
pulpit, at the south end of which was 
the only church door, this being the 



A MINISTER'S WIFE IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 525 



front of the church. Besides the cen- 
ter aisle running east and west, two 
narrow side aisles parallel with it ran 
down each side a little distance from 
the wall, leaving side slips against 
the wall lengthwise, which were called 
pews as distinguished from the other 
seats. Each gallery on the side, ex- 
tending over one-quarter of the width 
of the church, and the gallery oppo- 
site the pulpit was of the same depth. 
The number of seats from the pulpit 
back was seven, and the width, four 
seats and two pews. The size of the 
church was thus probably about 
thirty-six feet by twenty-five feet. 
There was no place for stoves, these 
not being used, and the good people 
depended for warmth on the foot- 
stools which they brought with them; 
the meeting-house had a single en- 
closure, was unpainted,had no steeple, 
and the roof was four-sided, or as it 
is now called "mansard," ("The 
Churches of Metuchen," by E. M. 
Hunt). Some three hundred feet 
farther on, the traveler would pass 
the parsonage, to which we have 
already referred. This was a square 
building larger than the church; it 
faced towards the south, looking over 
the open meadow to the Staten Island 
hills. It was a square plain struct- 
ure, with no attempt at adornment, as 
was so common among our ancestors, 
but the interior was unusually attract- 
ive. 

The large south parlor stood upon 
the left to one entering the front door, 
and is thus described by one who fre- 
quently visited the house: "I often 
think of that pleasant south parlor, 
its three windows, the south one with 
a few choice plants scenting the whole 
room, that corner cupboard with its 
scarlet-colored back and shelves, and 
the well-polished silver and glasses, 
the round marble table with its rim 
of polished brass, the large fire-place 
with the crackling wood-fire, the shin- 
ing andirons and fender. Indeed, I 
have hardly ever seen anywhere such 
an air of comfort and prosperity as 



pervaded that whole house." — (Letter 
of Azel S. Roe, 1869..) 

A second period of twelve years has 
passed. The bride and groom have 
reached middle life; four children are 
in the family — two sons and two 
daughters. The time of the Revolu- 
tion is near at hand, and at every 
gathering of the people, whether in 
the tavern or on the street, or even at 
church after the hour of service, the 
aggressions of England form the 
topic of conversation, and wherever 
such subjects are discussed, Parson 
Roe's voice is always heard speaking 
with the utmost vehemence, for, from 
the first, he was a most devoted patriot 
— by word and action urging the 
cause of liberty. And now, upon 
Wednesday, the twenty-third of April, 
1775, the town is stirred to its depths 
by the news just received at the hands 
of a mounted courier — who has torn 
through the streets on his way to Phil- 
adelphia—that the first patriot blood 
has been shed upon the green at Lex- 
ington, Massachusetts. 

The people are gathered about the 
public places to discuss this latest 
news. The village is thronged; the 
words of the pastor proclaiming the 
right of freedom are eagerly passed 
from mouth to mouth. But as he in 
his zeal goes about among his parish- 
ioners, kindling in their bosom some 
of his enthusiasm, the wife sits at 
home with her children about her. re- 
calling those former days, when in the 
time of the French War, in her home 
at Branford, she witnessed such anxi- 
ety and such final grief, and realizing 
that all this excitement means war 
and suffering and death. Away from 
the enthusiasm of the gathering oi 
men cannot we imagine her anguish 
of mind as she thinks of the future? 
But fortunate it is for her that the 
future cannot be completely known. 
for could she foresee the years of suf- 
fering, sorrow and wearing suspense 
into which she is about to enter, 
hardly could her brave soul bear the 
anticipation. 



526 EXPERIENCES OF REBECCA FOOTE OF CONNECTICUT 



Within three months after this, the 
evidence of war appears in the village ; 
committees of correspondence and 
safety are organized in many towns, 
that of Woodbridge being particularly 
active; the young men were trained 
in the use of arms, and preparation 
on every side for war was made. 

In the midst of this excitement, 
there is born another daughter in the 
parsonage, and during all that sum- 
mer, as the preparations for war in- 
crease throughout the village, the 
mother anxiously v/atched from her 
window the passing and re-passing of 
the young men preparing themselves 
for the conflict. 

Upon the seventeenth of the fol- 
lowing January, 1776, these men 
marched forth from Woodbridge for 
their first taste of actual fighting. 
And although, after six weeks, they 
returned, having experienced nothing 
more serious than a few hostile meet- 
ings with the Tories of Long Island, 
yet it was borne home upon her mind 
that war with all its horrors had be- 
gun. 

A few months after, as the opening 
spring brought a new life amid all the 
beauties of nature, sitting in her win- 
dow and looking over the meadows, 
she could see the hills of Staten 
Island dotted with the white tents of 
the great English Army, which, hav- 
ing abandoned Boston, was hence- 
forth to make this neighborhood the 
center of their action during the 
whole of the war, and for seven years 
to make this peaceful village the 
scene of the most terrible suffering 
witnessed in any part of the colonies. 

During the summer of 1776 the ac- 
counts of the battles of Long Island, 
White Plains and Fort Washington, 
with their sad results to the American 
Armies, followed each other in quick 
succession. The American Army in 
retreat came nearer and nearer, and 
even hastened past the town to Tren- 
ton and across the Delaware ; in its 
wake came the exultant English and 
the wild Hessians, who were ready to 



exercise the rights of the victors and 
to despoil both the land and the peo- 
ple; and when, soon after, by the bat- 
tles of Trenton and Princeton, the 
English were driven back to the east- 
ern part of the state, it only made the 
condition of those dwelling in this vil- 
lage still more sad, for the enemy 
dwelt during the winter in the neigh- 
borhood, a number of them having a 
camp within the boundaries of this 
village, and during this entire time, 
says a local historian' (Dally) "the 
important road which passes through 
Woodbridge was crowded by British 
troops; and from various points 
scouts were frequently sent out and 
raids made ; the crossing and re-cross- 
ing and the skirmishing of the de- 
tachments of either army through 
this immediate neighborhood occurred 
with great frequency, and our people 
suffered much from fear, foraging 
and personal molestation. Five regi- 
ments of British troops were en- 
camped in the village of Wood- 
bridge." 

An old inhabitant of the town, in 
relating some years ago his recol- 
lection of these times, has said that he 
well remembered, when a child, being 
in an old barn near the school-house 
with numbers of women and children 
who had fled there for safety while 
a detachment of the British troops 
were passing, and, while playing with 
the other children, his attention was 
arrested by a woman saying to 
another: "How little these children 
know of our danger !" 

Soon after, a cannon ball passed 
through the building and hushed even 
the children to silence. The hiding- 
place was not discovered and they es- 
caped unharmed. During this winter 
the British came on one occasion to a 
house, and being informed that two 
of the sons of the family were in the 
American Army, they took possession 
of six horses, thirty head of cattle 
and fifty sheep, leaving the venerable 
old gray horse and wagon, and telling 
the family to load it with the bed and 



A MINISTERS WIFE IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



27 



furniture and the children, giving 
them just time to leave before setting 
fire to the building. At another time 
a man was taken from a sick bed, 
placed on horseback behind the cav- 
alrymen and taken to the British en- 
campment. 

Thus passed the first year of actual 
war. The young mother with her six 
children, one in her first year, was 
frequently called to witness such 
scenes, and to minister with words of 
comfort and deeds of love to her 
stricken neighbors, ignorant probably 
of the severe personal affliction which 
the war was later to bring to herself. 
Meanwhile, the husband, true to his 
country, as to his God, Sunday after 
Sunday thundered forth from his pul- 
pit the most bitter denunciations of 
the enemy. Although warned re- 
peatedly of the danger which he thus 
Drought upon himself, nothing could 
restrain his fiery ardor. 

We can imagine the shuddering and 
fear of this delicate woman, both for 
her husband and for herself and for 
her children, as she heard these strong 
speeches uttered from the pulpit, and 
was told again and again by her 
neighbors that the feeling against her 
husband was getting continually more 
bitter. That not only the British, but 
their own neighbors, who had taken 
the side of the British, were con- 
stantly threatening that unless his 
mouth was stopped by his own cau- 
tion, they would take measures to do 
so by force. 

In the summer of 1777 the Brit- 
ish withdrew to Staten Island and 
the patriots were again in nomi- 
nal control of this region, yet but a 
few miles of level country separated 
this exposed house with its helpless 
inhabitants from their enemies, whose 
tents they could see upon the heights 
of Staten Island, and from this sum- 
mer until the end of the war, they 
were in daily danger of attacks, either 
by night or by day, from the foraging 
parties who made their home thus 
within sight of the parsonage. Gen- 



eral Livingston, in a speech before 
the Assembly this year, 1777, declared 
that "the English soldiers in New Jer- 
sey war upon decrepit age and de- 
fenseless youth, plunder foes and 
friends, destroy public records, disfig- 
ure private dwellings and profane edi- 
fices dedicated to Almighty God." 

Dunlap, the art historian, then a 
small boy, thus describes the scene - 
witnessed at Woodbridge upon one of 
these occasions : / 

"The men of tfhe village retired 
upon the approach of the enemy and 
some women and children were left. 
I heard their lamentations as the sol- 
diers carried off their furniture, scat- 
tering the feathers of their beds to the 
winds, piling up everything — pan-, 
looking-glasses, etc. The soldiers 
would then place a female camp fol- 
lower as a guard upon the spoils while 
they returned to add to the treasure." 

General Green, in writing to his 
wife from New Jersey, says of the 
sufferings of the inhabitants : "T 
are the cursedest rascals among 
and most wicked, villainous and op- 
pressive. They lead the r 
followers to the houses of their 
bors and strip the poor women and 
children of everything they have to 
eat and wear; and many even of the 
mothers and daughters have been - 
rificed in the presence of their 
and sons." That this la* 1 not 

overdrawn, the following report of a 
Congressional Committe 
the eighteenth of April. 
Continental Congress, 
the most wanton destruc rop- 

erty, particularly in N< Elisa- 

beth, Woodbridge and the □ 
hood. Above all, pi Wp : 

ministers and other religious pen 
of certain sects seem to have been 
treated with most r s hatred 

and the highest contempt" 
counts of two evenl 
from the newspapers of that 
The Freeman's Jour v York, 

on March 20, 1777, says: " Hus morn- 
ing a young woman pass 



528 EXPERIENCES OF REBECCA FOOTE OF CONNECTICUT 



house in Woodbridge, New Jersey, 
saw through the window a drunken 
Hessian soldier who had straggled 
from his party. There being no men 
within less than a mile of the town, 
she went home, dressed herself in 
men's apparel and armed with an old 
firelock, returned to the house and 
entered it, and took the Hessian a 
prisoner, whom she soon stripped of 
his arms and was leading him off 
when she fell in with a patrol of the 
American Army stationed near Wood- 
bridge to whom she delivered her 
prisoner." While the contest was 
thus raging around the home of the 
young mother and little children, 
events were rapidly bringing about in 
her own family the results which any 
one might have foreseen. The earn- 
est words of the young minister in the 
councils of his townsmen had made 
him a leader and an object of intense 
hatred to the foe. 

But such a nature could not ex- 
pend itself in words ; his ardent spirit 
was only waiting until circumstances 
should call for action, and in the sum- 
mer of 1778 the call for action came. 
Upon a hot afternoon that summer 
the news was spread rapidly through 
the village that a party of British sol- 
diers from Staten Island intended to 
land near Woodbridge in order that 
they might forage the country. Cap- 
tain Randolph, the head of the Militia, 
summoned what men he could muster, 
but as most of the men of bravery 
were absent with the army it was diffi- 
cult to persuade the young men who 
were at home to go forth to meet this 
enemy of unknown force. 

In this extremity Captain Randolph 
called on Mr. Roe, and not without re- 
sult. "I myself," he said, "will 
arouse the young men and will go 
with them to the battle." 

Early the following morning they 
marched to the bushes and small trees 
about five hundred yards from the 
river-bank and there formed their 
line, hidden from the view of those 
approaching. In a short time the 



British reached the shore; as they 
were landing their forces, the Ameri- 
cans opened fire on them. The Brit- 
ish, though taken by surprise, re- 
turned their fire, and when the young 
men saw their minister, in his impetu- 
osity, putting himself in the place of 
greatest danger, they urged and en- 
treated him to return home, which 
finally he did. 

The British were speedily repulsed 
and made no more attempts to ravage 
the country. They lost three men 
killed, whom they left on the ground, 
and the Americans captured many of 
their arms. Unfortunately, Dr. Roe 
had been recognized by the enemy, 
and his taking an active part in the 
battle made their feelings more in- 
tense, and now began a series of des- 
perate efforts to capture him. As it 
was well known that these attempts 
were to be made, his neighbors, being 
unable to persuade him to depart from 
the neighborhood, did everything they 
could to save him by watchfulness 
and giving timely warning of the 
approach of any body of the enemy. 

Many times, we are told, in the mid- 
dle of the night was the family 
aroused by a sudden call from with- 
out — "the Red Coats are coming" — 
when the minister and a slave, the 
only two men of the household, would 
hastily dress themselves and escape to 
the woods. But though thus for a 
long time avoiding the capture, yet 
the family were subjected to many 
indignities. As soon as the English- 
men came to the house, whatever 
hour of the day or night, they would 
always insist upon searching from the 
garret to the cellar, entering most un- 
ceremoniously even to the rooms 
where the mother and the children 
were sleeping. 

Several incidents connected with 
these events have been preserved in 
the records of the family. Upon one 
occasion we are told that the British 
followed so soon after the warning 
that, though the minister escaped, the 
colored man was not so fortunate, 



A MINISTER'S WIFE IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 529 



but as the enemy were climbing the 
stairs to his garret room, he hastily se- 
creted himself under the eaves, and as 
they prodded with their bayonets into 
every corner of the room, one of them 
penetrated his clothing and his flesh, 
but his fear of being taken captive 
prevented him from making any out- 
cry, and they departed without him. 
Upon another occasion, as they were 
searching in all the recesses of the 
room in which two of his daughters 
slept, the oldest — fourteen years of 
age — who had a very striking head of 
red hair, while denouncing the ene- 
mies most bitterly for their intrusion 
upon her privacy as she sat up in her 
bed, was laughed at by the leader of 
the English, who said: "The very 
color of your head shows your fond- 
ness for the Red Coats," upon which 
she seized a slipper and struck him a 
severe blow in the eye, from which, 
we see, that the martial spirit of the 
father was well developed in the chil- 
dren. 

Again, we are told, as the father 
was hiding one day in the neighboring 
woods, an English officer was enter- 
taining the terrified wife in the par- 
lor, and with graceful phrases was 
assuring her that the English made no 
war upon defenseless women and chil- 
dren, and she might rest assured that 
nothing of hers would be injured, their 
only desire being to capture her hus- 
band, but even while he was speaking 
these polite phrases, his men were 
driving off all the live stock which 
they could find. At last, however, the 
efforts of the English were successful. 
Coming suddenly to the parsonage be- 
fore any alarm could be given they 
surrounded the house and took the 
minister prisoner. When upbraided 
by the neighbors for such a breach of 
custom, they said: "He is the most 
bitter enemy about here ; we hate him 
as we hate the devil, and we must 
stop his mouth." They carried him 
across Staten Island and by boat to 
New York, and confined him in the 
Sugar House Prison. The story is 



told that, as they were landing, his 
dignified and reverend aspect made its 
impression upon the soldiers ; one of 
them offered to carry him from the 
boat to the shore through the shallow 
water, and Dr. Roe caused much 
amusement to the soldier upon whose 
shoulders he was sitting: "You can 
never again say that you have not 
been priest-ridden." Of the suffer- 
ings of the American prisoners con- 
fined in the Sugar House it is hardly 
necessary to speak— f-so much has been 
written in all the histories. 

We would simply quote from an 
affidavit made by a lieutenant of the 
Long Island Militia, giving a dis- 
tressing account of the treatment of 
himself and others, in which he de- 
clares that "they were allowed no fuel, 
and the provisions were so scanty, and 
of such inferior quality that, as he 
expressed it, 'he doth verily believe 
that most of them would have died if 
they had not been supported by the 
kindness of some prisoners who took 
pity upon their miserable situation 
and alleviated it.'" (The story of an 
old Farm.) It is an accepted tradi- 
tion in the family that Dr. Roe. dur- 
ing his imprisonment, was kept alive 
by food brought to him daily by the 
father of Washington Irving. 

The date of his capture and the 
length of his imprisonment are alike 
unknown, but there seems to be every 
reason to believe that it was during 
the period of her enforced loneliness, 
when she was burdened with the care 
of her six little children— the oldest 
fourteen and the youngest four- 
another child was born in the parson- 
age, increasing the cares and anxie- 
ties of the mother. Still another 
cause of anxiety was added during 
this period. Even uncertainty rcg 
ing her own fate, for events 
transpiring about her daily, evincing 
such fiendish cruelty and butchery 
upon the part of the enemy as n 
her personal safety a matter of 
doubt. The ministerial neighbor of 
the Roes was the pastor of the 



S3o EXPERIENCES OF REBECCA FOOTE OF CONNECTICUT 



terian Church, of Elizabethtown. 

While the lonely mother at Wood- 
bridge was in weakness watching over 
her children, let us read what was 
transpiring a few miles away. In the 
year 1779, a party of the Hessians 
were so incensed against the natives 
for offering any resistance to their 
plundering that not only did dwell- 
ings, churches and common people 
alike fall prey to the frenzied sol- 
diers, but no weak or unfortunate 
woman was saved from their venge- 
ful slaughter, for as the troops passed 
the parsonage of this good man, the 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church at 
Elizabethtown, one of them jumped 
over the fence, and, pointing his gun 
in the window, deliberately fired two 
balls through the body of the pastor's 
wife. The brutal murder of this esti- 
mable lady, who was the mother of 
nine little children, caused a great cry 
of horror to go from the entire coun- 
try. 

What anguish of mind and fear it 
must have brought to Mrs. Roe as 
she saw these same troops passing 
continually the windows of her house, 
and knew that neither the sacred 
office of her husband, nor her sex, nor 
the group of children about her, was 
any protection from their atrocious 
cruelty. 

The narrative of such incidents 
might be continued indefinitely, but it 
is enough to say that the scenes en- 
acted in this town, in which dwelt 
during all the years of the Revolu- 
tion this tender woman, are not 
equaled in brutality and in number in 
any part of the colonies, and we can- 
not put the matter too strongly, if in 
regard to the condition of affairs we 
quote the language of a distinguished 
clergyman concerning the sufferings 
of another part of our land similarly 
situated during the same period. 
"The unhappy inhabitants," he says, 
"were exposed to the deprivations of 
both parties." Often they were actu- 
ally plundered and always were liable 
to this calamity. They feared every- 



body whom they saw and loved no- 
body. It was melancholy to hear 
their conversation. To every ques- 
tion they gave such an answer as 
would please the inquirer, or if they 
despaired of pleasing, gave such a one 
as would not provoke him. 

Fear was the only passion by which 
they were animated. The power of 
volition seemed to have deserted them. 
They were civil, but obsequious ; not 
obliging but subservient; the}' yielded 
with a sort of apathy to what was 
asked of them ; both their countenance 
and emotions had lost every trace of 
ambition and feeling. The features 
were smoothed not into serenity, but 
apathy, and instead of being settled 
into an attitude of quiet, their counte- 
nance indicating that that which was 
quiet had left their minds iltogether. 
Their houses were scenes of desola- 
tion; their furniture was extensively 
plundered or broken, the walls and 
floors were injured and were not re- 
paired because they had not the means 
to repair, and because they were ex- 
posed to a repetition of the same in- 
jury. Their cattle were gone, their 
enclosures were burned, and their 
fields were covered with a rank 
growth of grass. Amid this deso- 
lation, nothing struck me more 
forcibly than the sight of a high- 
road where I had heretofore seen 
a succession of horses and car- 
riages traveling along. Not a sin- 
gle solitary traveler was seen from 
week to week or from month to 
month. The world seemed motion- 
less and silent except when one of 
these unhappy people ventured upon 
a rare and lonely excursion to a house 
or a neighbor equally unhappy, or a 
scouting party alarmed the inhabi- 
tants of new injuries and sufferings. 
The grass in the highways was of full 
height for the scythe and strongly 
realized to my own mind for the first 
time the proper importance of that 
picturesque declaration in the "Son 
of Deborah:" "In the days of Sham- 
gar the son of Anath, in the days of 



A MINISTER'S WIFE IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 531 



Jael, the highways were unoccupied, 
and the travelers walked through by- 
paths. The inhabitants of the vil- 
lages ceased, they ceased in Israel." 

In another similar account, likewise 
from an eye-witness, we read a large 
proportion of the proprietors, having 
abandoned their farms, the few that 
remained found it impossible to har- 
vest the products. Numerous in- 
stances have been related of the ene- 
my subjecting defenseless persons to 
cruel tortures to compel them to de- 
liver up their money, or to disclose the 
place where it had been secreted. It 
is not uncommon to hang a man by 
the neck until apparently dead and 
then restore him and repeat the ex- 
periment and leave him for dead. One 
of these unhappy persons informed 
me that while suffering this cruel 
treatment, the last sensation he experi- 
enced was a flashing heat over him 
like that which would be occasioned 
by pouring tar over his body ; he was, 
however, cut down, and how long he 
remained on the ground insensible he 
knew not. A peaceable, unresisting 
Quaker of considerable respectability 
was demanded his money ; after it was 
delivered, they suspected him of hav- 
ing more concealed and inflicted him 
the most savage cruelties in order to 
extort it from him. They began with 
what they call scourging — covering 
his naked body with hot ashes and re- 
peating the application till the skin 
was covered with blisters ; after this 
they resorted to the halter and hung 
the poor man on the tree by the neck, 
then took him and repeated it the sec- 
ond and even the third time, and 
finally left him almost lifeless. 

The history of Woodbridge is full 
of incidents similar to these. To re- 
cord them all would take far too much 
time. "For the time being," says a 
local historian ('The Story of an old 
Farm'), New Jersey was a captured 
province. The cruelties perpetrated 
upon the inhabitants by the camping 
army were such as to greatly increase 



the feeling of hatred toward the Brit- 
ish rule. The sufferings of the people 
were not only caused by their tx 
forced to impoverish themselves in 
furnishing billets and forages to the 
British, but by such marauding and 
plundering by the troops as would 
have disgraced the followers of an 
Eastern satrap. General Ho 
army was at this time given up to in- 
discriminate and universal thieving, 
the officers not only/ countenancing the 
outrages, but participate • ■veil. 

The men were licentious and com- 
mitted every manner of violence and 
cruelty." 

The bitter enmity of the British 
continued and the attempts to 
jure the people of this part of the 
country did not cease until the with- 
drawal of the British Army r 
Staten Island in seventeen hund 
and eighty-three. Two events of a 
personal character occurred just be- 
fore the end of the war ; one was the 
birth of another daughter; the other 
occurring very soon after nail 

battle which took place within sight 
of the parsonage, in which, though 
she saw the Americans victorious, her 
heart must have been greatly pained 
at the sight of the wounded and dy- 
ing, many of whom 
bars, parishioners of her husband. At 
last came the dawn of | The 

sounds and sights of war end 
with her family of eight e there 

began for her a period 
contentment, which ' more 

than ten years, when she DJ 
quickly away to be burie ' ittle 

graveyard behind her h 
church. 

The portrait which is I to 

us of Mrs. Rebecca I 
sents her as a woman 
and gentle < 

perhaps even beautiful, but 
tainly attractive in its lanly 

tenderness. Her careful train 
and superior educa ended to 

make her oi in this 



532 EXPERIENCES OF REBECCA FOOTE OF CONNECTICUT 



village, to which as a young woman, 
the wife of a minister, she came to 
make her home. All of them were 
honorable in their lives, and some 
illustrious, and we, who are her de- 
scendants, look back with pride, not 
only to the patience and strength of 
character with which all these trials 
were borne, but also to the Christian 
fortitude and earnest faith in God 
which manifested themselves through- 
out her whole history. In thus 
briefly reviewing the life which a re- 
fined and tender woman must have led 
in the midst of such terrible scenes, 
and through such periods of anguish 
and anxiety, it is impossible not to 
appreciate more deeply the blessings 
which, through their sufferings and 
trials, have been brought to us; and 
well is it for us^ if the recollections of 
such lives fill us at once with gratitude 
for the inheritance which our ances- 
tors have left to us, and with a deter- 
mination to live worthily of such an 
inheritance. 

It may not be uninteresting to 
add a word concerning the Rev- 
erend Dr. Roe, who survived her 
twenty-one years. A portrait pre- 
served of him represents him as a 
man of commanding presence, as we 
know that he was of pleasing personal 
address. Of a most upright and 
sturdy character, he was truly a 
leader among the people with whom 
he spent his life, while as a preacher, 
his style was argumentative and very 
effective. According to our method 
of regarding religious things, how- 
ever, certain characteristics which 
he shared in common with other 
clergymen of his time, while they may 
not effect our respect for his true 
Christian character, cannot but cause 
one of this generation to smile. He 
was, as were his contemporaries, most 
bitter in his denunciation of theater- 
going — then in its infancy and 
frowned upon by all the religious peo- 
ple — as well as of dancing, card-play- 



ing, and other frivolous amusements 
upon which we look so leniently. But 
on the other hand, certain character- 
istics of his would scarcely be looked 
upon with favor to-day. He ap- 
proved of, and himself engaged in, the 
lotteries which were then so frequent. 
In a letter to his son, he writes : "It is 
the duty, and equally the privilege and 
comfort of the good men with a con- 
stant dependence upon providence. I 
look upon a lottery with the same 
principles and views with which I re- 
gard a venture to sea; I believe that 
'the lot is cast into the lap, and the 
disposal thereof is of the Lord.' I 
willingly submit to this whenever I 
cast my lot into the lap of a lottery; 
which, however, I seldom do, from 
having been so long and so often an 
adventurer without success. I never 
take but one ticket at a time ; and you 
may mark one for me if you please, 
and I will send you the money by the 
first safe conveyance." 

Another characteristic of Dr. Roe, 
equally illustrative of the customs 
of those times, is recorded in a 
manuscript of one of his neigh- 
bors, who has said: "He well re- 
members one cold blustering day 
when his mother came to the door 
and calling to his father, said: 
'Dougall, don't you know that Parson 
Roe is to be here to-night, and we 
have not got a drop of spirits in the 
house?' 'Well then/ said father, 'one 
of the boys will have to go and get 
some.' And sure enough, one of 
them was posted off that afternoon 
away to Bricktown, and brought back 
the desired spirits." These were, 
however, characteristics of his age. 
His position in the intellectual life of 
his time is sufficiently evident from 
his reception from Yale College of 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and 
his high standing among his contem- 
poraries. 



A CONNECTICUT WOMAN'S JOURNEY TO 
THE "FAR WEST" IN 1833 

BAROUCHE FROM EAST GUILFORD TO NEW HAVEN- 
STAGE TO BRIDGEPORT-STEAMBOAT TO ALBANY- 
CANAL TO BUFFALO-STEAMER TO CLEVELAND-ACROSS 
COUNTRY IN WAGON AND ON HORSEBACK-MEMORIES 
OF OLD LOG CABIN DAYS IN THE WILDERNESS 

BY 



ANNIE KELSEY MAHER 

Niece or the Narrator op the Journey 



{TOOK from my atfnt's lips, a 
few months before she died at 
the age of eighty-seven years, 
the story of her "long" journey 
from Connecticut into the "far West" 
to make her home in Illinois in 1833. 
Mrs. Abigail Graves Wildman was 
born in Guilford, Connecticut, in 
1813, and died in 1904. I have won- 
dered if her journey from Madison — 
she called it East Guilford — would 
have some interest to the present gen- 
eration. This is a true story, and I 
am going to tell it just as Aunt Abbie 
told it to me. 

I was taking dinner with her the 
day she told it, and as I looked 
across the table at the old, bent, 
wayworn figure on which the storm 
and stress of eighty-seven years had 
left many a mark, I recalled the fam- 
ily tradition of the time when she had 
been the vivacious village beauty, and 
of the brave hopes with which, hardly 
more than a child herself, she had 
traveled across the country with her 
husband and very young baby to 
make a new home on an Illinois 
prairie, the "Far West" of those 
days. 

That was about the year 1833, when 
the journey from Long Island Sound 
to the Mississippi river was a very 
serious undertaking, and I wondered 
how it compared with the thirty hours 
in a Pullman car which accomplish 
the trip to-day. This is what led me 
to ask, as we prepared for a cozy 
visit over our second cup of tea : 



/ 

how 



"Aunt Abbie, how much do you 
remember of your trip to Illinois ?" 

The bright old eyes lighted up as 
she answered: 

"Remember! Why, I remember 
every foot of the journey, and a great 
deal better than I remember what 
happened yesterday." 

Then I said : "I wish you would tell 
me about it." 

"Well," she began, "we went from 
East Guilford to New Haven in a 
barouche." 

"What was a barouche?" I re- 
called the old, yellow stage-coach 
which was the daily event of my very 
youthful years, as it lumbered by on 
its trip between New Haven and Say- 
brook, and I suggested: "You mean 
you went by the stage?" 

But Aunt Abbie had no intention 
of abating anything of the pomp and 
circumstance of her setting forth. 

"No, I don't," she said, with em- 
phasis. "We went in a two-seated 
barouche. We stayed that night in 
New Haven and went the next day to 
Bridgeport by stage. We there took 
a steamboat to New York, and went 
by another steamer to Albany." 

"I suppose you went from Albany 
to Buffalo by canal ?" 

"Yes." 

"How many were there of your 
party?" 

"There were sixteen of us." 

"How many could the boat carry? 
Were there other passengers?" 

"I don't quite remember as to that, 
but I know there were two cabins. 



534 A CONNECTICUT WOMAN'S JOURNEY IN "FAR WEST' 



one for the men and one for the 
women, and ours was crowded. The 
first night, when I got my baby ready 
for bed, every berth was taken. I 
called for the chambermaid, and she 
put a mattress on the floor and I slept 
on that. The next night I went into 
the men's cabin with my husband and 
I slept there with my baby for the 
rest of the trip." 

"From Buffalo how did you go ?" 
"We crossed the lake to Cleveland 
on a steamer. There we left our 
party and went down to Atwater to 
visit my husband's brother. We went 
as far as Ravenna by stage, and from 
there we and our trunks went in a big 
lumber wagon that was without 
springs. Mother Benton and sister 
Delia got in first, so they had a seat 
with a back to it. I sat on a board 
laid across the wagon, with my baby 
in my lap and my knees braced 
against the trunks, so crowded that I 
could hardly shift the baby from one 
arm to the other. Delia kept saying: 
'Oh, I shall die ; I shall die,' but finally 
mother Benton said to her: 'Now, 
you shut up ! Just look at Abbie, 
with that great heavy baby in her 
arms, and not saying a word !' 

"Well, we got there about midnight. 
My husband took the baby and went 
to his brother's bed-room window and 
called out : .'Here, Jim, come and take 
this baby.' You never saw so sur- 
prised a man in your life. When I 
got out of the wagon I was so stiff I 
could not stand alone." 

"How old were you, then, Aunt 
Abbie?" 

"Twenty. I was twenty-one the 
next August." 

"Where did you go next?" 
"To Massillon, by wagon, and then 
by canal to Portsmouth. From there 
we went on the Ohio river till we 
reached the Mississippi, and up that 
river to Quincy, Illinois." 

"Did you have friends in Quincy?" 

"No, we spent the night in a log 

hotel. The next day we sent word 

to my husband's brother and he came 



down and took us to Mendon. And, 
Annie, never in my life did anything 
look so beautiful to me as did that 
prairie, with its rich, green grass and 
thousands of flowers of every imag- 
inable color." 

"Was a house ready for you ?" 

"Oh, no; we stayed with brother 
Erastus, but our first night was at 
Colonel Baldwin's. The next morn- 
ing we went over to brother Eras- 
tus'." 

"How did you go?" • 

"There was only one way to go — - 
on horseback. They asked me if I 
had ever been on a horse and I said: 
'No, but if I was going to break my 
neck riding horseback I might as well 
do it then as ever.' So I went and 
dressed myself up for the ride. I 
wanted to look very fine, so I put on 
my new black satin riding-coat. How 
they did laugh! Said Mrs. Baldwin: 
'You go and put on the oldest calico 
dress you have got and a sun-bonnet.' 
I did as she said and off we went; I 
on one horse, my husband and baby 
on another. 

"After that we stayed with Erastus 
until our own house was ready. He 
had a log-house, with one room fit to 
live in. The spaces between the logs 
were still open, but before cold 
weather they wet up clay and chinked 
them. That room was only fourteen 
feet square and I have seen seventeen 
people sleep in it at one time, and I 
was one of them. There was no floor 
and the roof was only boarded. It 
rained every night for three weeks 
and my husband had to sit up in bed 
and hold an umbrella over the baby 
and me." 

"How soon was your house built?" 

"My husband went right to work 
and soon finished one." 

"What was it like?" 

"There were two large rooms, with 
a hall between, but this hall was open 
at both ends. One room was a living- 
room and bed-room combined; the 
other had two spare beds in it. My 
pantry was a large box set up on one 



MEMORIES OF LOG CABIN DAYS IN WILDERNESS 535 



of its sides, at the end of the hall. It 
had some shelves and a curtain before 
it. The chimney was built of sticks 
and clay on the outside of the house, 
with a large fireplace in the living- 
room. 

" In front of the fireplace we dug 
a hole about two feet square, put a 
trap-door over it, and this was our 
cellar where we kept our vegetables. 
I stood before that fireplace and 
ironed, one winter night, when the 
clothes froze as I took them out of the 
basket." 

"You were going to tell me about 
moving into your house ?" 

"Yes; well, the house was finished 
and the next day my husband and 
John Chittenden went up to Quincy 
to bring home our goods. We had 
two big wagon-loads." 

"How did they come ?" 

"They went by boat from New 
York to New Orleans and then were 
transferred to the Mississippi river. 

"As soon as my husband had gone 
I sent word to brother Abe to come 
and get us, and when my husband 
came home there we were. 

"Said he: 'What in the world are 
you here for? I wasn't ready for 
you/ 'Well/ said I, T wanted to 
come, and here I am, and here I mean 
to stay/ 'Then,' said he, 'if you're 
bound to stay, I suppose we must get 
you something to eat.' 

"So we set to work to get supper. 
Mrs. Chittenden had brought a tea- 
kettle filled with dry tea. We emptied 
that out and put the kettle over the 
fire to boil. Abe went out and got 
some ham and eggs. There were 
always eggs enough to be had, and 
they were only five cents a dozen. 
I made some biscuits and baked them 
in a tin reflector before the fire. 
There was a little, round table among 
the goods and we set that for supper. 

"John had driven the wagon that 
the box of crockery was in ; he 
always was the most unlucky fellow 
on the face of the earth and he had 
managed to upset the box and break 



most of the china. However, we 
contrived to get enough to set the 
table with. By this time it was dark, 
so I looked up a piece of a broken 
wash-bowl, put some lard in it, put 
one end of a strip of cloth in the lard, 
lighted the other end, and that was 
our light. 

"When supper was ready, we had 
no chairs. There were two bed- 
steads in the other room made of 
black walnut rails;, the men carried 
the table into that room and we sat 
on the beds and ate our supper — our 
first meal in our own house. And 
didn't it taste good! After supper 
they brought in some short ends of 
logs and set them up about the fire- 
place. These were our chairs and 
we sat around the fire and talked, 
and what a good time we did have !" 

"Were your floors of the bare 
earth ?" 

"No, some of the houses had earth 
floors, but we had green maple 
boards. They were rough, just as 
they came from the saw-mill, but be- 
fore I came away, scouring had made 
them as smooth as satin. But they 
shrunk and left great cracks, and if a 
fork or spoon dropped down one of 
these cracks that was the end of it ; 
you never got it again. Some of the 
houses had puncheon floors. Now, I 
don't believe you know what pun- 
cheon floors are like?" 

"I certainly don't; you will have to 
tell me." 

"They were made of logs split in 
two and laid with the rough side 
down. The doors of my house were 
made of black walnut, with wooden 
hinges and latches. Black walnut 
furniture always makes me think ox 
them." 

"How far were von from neigh- 
bors ?" 

"There was no house nearer than 
two miles." 

"Then you could not have had a 
very gay, social time." 

"Indeed, we did! We were all 
brothers and sisters. We hardly 



536 A CONNECTICUT WOMAN'S JOURNEY IN "FAR WEST 



ever sat down to a meal alone. Once 
a year there were great land sales, 
and then our house was crowded. 
People came from far and near. 
Why, Annie, I baked three loaves of 
bread every day that went over my 
head, and six on Saturdays. The 
first year I was there I baked thir- 
teen barrels of flour. And every 
pound of it in a tin reflector before 
an open fire." 

"What did you have for fuel?" 

"Wood; hickory wood. Of course 
there was none on the prairie, but 
there were woods all around it. We 
would burn a cord in four days and 
would often rake a bushel of live coals 
out of the fireplace in the morning." 

"Was there a church near?" 

"Not at first. Before I came away 
they built a union meeting-house of 
legs, but at first we had meetings in 
the different houses. I shall never 
forget the first Sunday in our new 
house. We had meeting there — a 
kind of house warming, you know, 
and in the middle of the service it be- 
gan to rain. Our roof was only 
boards laid across the rafters, and 
they kept out the rain about as well as 
a sieve would have done. Every- 
body scrambled for a dry place, some 
on the bed, some on the table, and 
some on trunks. There was one old 
woman in a funny black bonnet and 
I thought I'd be very polite to her; 
so I said: 'If you will wait till the 
rain stops, my husband will harness 
up and take you home/ 'Thank ye/ 
said she, 'but my old man is here with 
a critter/ I was ashamed of myself, 
but I couldn't help it ; I laughed right 
out in her face." 

"What sort of a "critter" did they 
have ?" 

"I wondered if she had come with 
an ox or a cow, but the critter proved 
to be an old horse." 

"How long did you live in the log 
house?" 



"A year and a half. When we had 
been there a year my husband said to 
me : 'Which would you rather do, live 
in a log-house five years, and then go 
back East, or have a better house and 
settle down here?' I said: 'You can 
build your house as soon as you 
please; I have no desire to go back to 
Connecticut/ The new house was 
ready to move into when he was taken 
sick and died." 

"Did you come back to Connecticut 
at once?" 

"No, I couldn't travel alone with 
my baby and I had to wait a year 
before I found some one with whom 
I could come." 

"How long did it take you to come 
back?" 

"Seventeen days. We were four 
weeks going." 

"Did you come back by the same 
route?" 

"No; I don't recall some parts of 
the home journey very well, but I 
know we came by steamer to Ports- 
mouth, and we crossed the Allegheny 
mountains in cars worked by great 
cables. Then some part of the jour- 
ney was by canal and the boats were 
like little palaces. I am sure we came 
from New York to New Haven by 
steamer and to East Guilford by 
stage-coach. We were a tired and 
sorrowful mother and baby that the 
stage brought up to the door from 
which three happy people had set out 
a few years before. ' 

"Well, that was nearly seventy 
years ago, and here I am. I have 
been through a great deal since then, 
and many a storm has gone over my 
head, but some of the happiest, and 
some of the saddest days of my life 
were spent in that little log-house on 
the prairie." 



The Aunt Abbie here quoted was Mrs. 
Abigail Graves Wildman, of Guilford, Con- 
necticut; born 1813; died 1900. 




RIBUTE TO PEACE— Lunette on McKinley Memorial at Canton, Ohio— Central figure of "Peace" bearing the ancient breast 
2 designating the protection, wisdom, fame and guardian peace which distinguished McKinley's administration— The two figure 
sr her mantle are "War," a youth full of ardor laying down his arms at her feet, and "Industry"— By C. H. Niehaus, Sculpto 



j&ntlptur? tti America 



J^k MERICA is witnessing the 
j|^A dawn of its Age of 

^/ ^ Art. The foundation 

IWil has been strongly laid 

^^^ ^L, for its magnificent ma- 
^^w ^w terial upbuilding; the 
ugly lines in its struct- 
ure of finance are being remodelled 
and its great pillars of civic purity are 
re-set on solid rock. It is the begin- 
ning of an epoch of poets who will 
sing of strength of American man- 
hood ; of painters whose brushes will 
tell the story of American virtue ; of 
sculptors whose genius will create 
from stone tributes to Fidelity, to 
Truth, and to Justice — to all lives 



consecrated to the service of God and 
Man. Americans are feeling the in- 
spiration of Art. The voice of the 
people — North, South. East and West 
— is calling upon the genius of the 
sculptor to idealize their conception 
of courage and daring and achi 
ment. The year now closing 
given truer encouragement to sculp- 
ture than any other twelve-month in 
American life. In recognition oi this 
new sestheticism, especially as it re- 
lates to men ami events i^\ historic 
eminence, reproductions oi some ol 
the year's work oi sculpture in Amer- 
ica are presented in these page- and 
dedicated to the mission of Art. 




PROSPERITY— Pediment by C. H. Niehaus at Kentucky Stat* 




TO THE MEMORY OF THE AMERICAN SAILOR- 
By Finn H. Frolich, Sculptor— For the Monument 
to Soldiers and Sailors at Webster, 
Massachusetts 




TO THE MEMORY OF THE AMERICAN SOLDIRR- 
By Finn H. Frolich, Sculptor— For the Monument 
to Soldiers and Sailors at Webster, 
Massachusetts 




TO THE MEMORY OF THE MARTYRED PRESIDENT-William McKinley- 
By Charles H. Niehaus, Sculptor— Erected in bronze in front 
of the National Memorial at Canton, Ohio 




TO THE MEMORY OF A ROUGH RIDER WITH ROOSEVELT AT 
SANTIAGO -Captain "Buckey" O'Neill— Killed in 
Battle— By Solon H. Borglum, Sculptor- 
Erected at Prescott, Arizona 









\ 




M 






^ 

^ 


: '-' : ;'"':•:- ••'■"'.' 




^P"*^ 




mmm 



TO THE MEMORY OF A GREAT AMERICAN MATERIALIST-Colonel John A. 
Roebling, First Engineer of Brooklyn Bridge— Builder of the Great Span 
across Niagara Falls— By "William Couper, Sculptor— 
For Erection at Trenton, New Jersey 



^m0^ 



m* 



\ 




\ 



\ 



MEMORY OP A GERMAN-AM ERICAN SOI.1ME R tienrral *™ ^^ 




TO THE MEMORY OF AMERICAN SACRIFICE-By Bela Lyon Pratt, 
Sculptor— Erected at the old Andersonville Prison 
Grounds in Georgia 



vtie0< 




I 



mi 



THE MEMORY OF THE DISPATCH RIDER OP THE WAR FOR AMERICAN tNDBPBNDB 




TO THE MEMORY OF THE FIRST FALLEN IN SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR- 
Ensign Worth Bagley, U. S. N., the only Naval Officer killed during 
that war— By F. H. Packer. Sculptor— Erected in 
Capitol Square, Raleigh, North Carolina 




THE MEMORY OP A SOUTHERN WARRIOR-General John B. Gordon-By Solon ft 
flum, Sculptor— Erected at State Capitol Grounds at Atlanta, Georgia 






O THE MEMORY OP THE HEART OF THE SOUTH— An Allegorical Figure 
;aring a Palm of Peace and Branch of Laurel covering the Sword, 



MEMORY OF THE TEXAS RANGERS- 
it the State House in Austin, Texas 



■By Pompeo Coppini, Sculptor 



TO THE MEMORY OF AN AMERICAN WARRIOR-General George Brinton McClellan- 
By Frederick MacMonnies, Sculptor-Erected at Washington, District of Columbia 






) THE MEMORY OF THE FIRST AMERICANS-Statue of the Indian Chief, 
ihaska— By S. E. Fry, Sculptor— Now being exhibited in the Salon 
Paris— To be erected at Oskaloosa, Iowa 



On this Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of the Mother of Washington, this Ancient Engraving 
is Dedicated to Her Memory— The Original is in the Collection of John M. Crampton, 
and is known as " Washington's Last Interview with His Mother." 



WHITTIER IN CONNECTICUT-CENTENARY 
OF BIRTH OF AMERICAN POET 

HIS FIRST REAL INSIGHT INTO WORLD OF MEN AND AFFAIRS 
WAS WHEN HE LEFT HIS HOME SCENES AND CAME AMONG 
STRANGERS IN A STRANGE COMMONWEALTH — WHITTIER'S 
LITERARY CAREER FOUND ITS FIRST IMPETUS FOR NATIONAL 
GREATNESS IN THE LITERARY ATMOSPHERE OF HARTFORD 



BY 



SARAH GERTRUDE POMEROY 



THIS is the centenary of the 
birth of John Greenleaf 
Whittier, the beloved Ameri- 
can poet whose literary ca- 
reer may be said to have really begun 
in Connecticut. As a youth he had 
literary aspirations and wrote occa- 
sional verse in his home town, but not 
until he came to Connecticut was he 
definitely launched on the trouble- 
some sea of letters. It is therefore 
especially appropriate on this anniver- 
sary occasion to meet the youth as he 
came to Connecticut, a sincere, schol- 
arly fellow who looked upon the 
world with prophetic eyes and a pure 
heart. 

It is probable that the first real in- 
sight into the world of men and af- 
fairs came to him when he left the 
surroundings of his birth and came 
for the first time among strangers in 
a strange commonwealth. He was 
literally "just off the farm." Up to 
his eighteenth year he had known 
only the soil, the woodlands and 
meadows, and his experiences had 
been confined to the "sunrise to sun- 
set" routine of the farmer's boy. That 
there were hidden riches in him is 
proven by his first courageous decis- 
ion to "go to school," and for two 
years, until he was twenty years old, 
he attended an academy and literally 
absorbed the simple truths of life and 
learning. 

John Greenleaf Whittier is most 
naturally associated with the Merri- 
mac Valley — that bit of country 
which he made peculiarly his own. It 



is appropriately termed Whittier-land, 
for it was the dearest spot on earth to 
the poet. Still it is not the only local- 
ity in New England which' holds 
memories of him, for Connecticut 
holds strong claims to the Quaker 
bard. 

The towns and cities which are per- 
sonally associated with the poet are 
few in number and about them cen- 
ters an especial interest in view of his 
centenary. Haverhill, his birthplace, 
Amesbury, the site of his cherished 
homestead, and Danvers, where he 
spent his declining years are the Mas- 
sachusetts towns most closely con- 
nected with his life. Philadelphia 
and New York were the scenes of his 
dramatic career in anti-slavery da vs. 
Hartford gave him his first lift 
toward the heights of greatness. Here 
he passed several months during the 
early years of his manhood when the 
fire of youth and enthusiasm burned 
strongly within him. The story of 
his sojourn here is devoid of excit- 
ing incidents, but the fact that it was 
a factor in the molding of his future 
is peculiarly significant at this time. 

In the summer of 1830, George D. 
Prentice, the editor of the New Eng- 
land Weekly Review s found it neces- 
sary to leave Hartford for a time and 
offered his position to Whittier. 
Whittier was then scarcely twejity- 
two years old and had finished his 
school days two years previous. In 
the interval he had devoted himself 
entirely to literature and had received 
some editorial experience on the 

IN 



57° 



WHITTIER'S RESIDENCE IN CONNECTICUT 



Haverhill Gazette and The American 
Manufacturer. This prospect of ed- 
iting a leading Connecticut paper 
opened the way to a broader field. At 
that time the Review was one of the 
most popular newspapers in New 
England and attracted attention by its 
strong literary department as well as 
by its politics. Three years later it 
was developed into The Daily Review 
and thus became the first daily paper 
in Hartford. 

Mr. Prentice had never met Whit- 
tier, but he had early recognized the 
merits of his poetry and predicted his 
fame. He printed a poem in his pa- 
per which Whittier had written while 
he was a student at Haverhill Acad- 
emy with the editorial comment : "We 
consider it a prodigy of precocious 
talent." Later he accepted many 
other contributions and a friendly 
correspondence sprang up between 
the two young men. In one of his 
letters Prentice said: "Would to for- 
tune that I could come to Haverhill, 
but the thing is impossible. I am run- 
ning short both of time and money. 
Well, we can live on and love as we 
have done. Once or twice I have even 
thought that my feelings towards you 
had more of romance in them than 
they possibly could have if we were 
acquainted with each other." 

It was certainly unusual for the edi- 
tor of a prominent paper to call to his 
chair a young man whom he had 
never seen and whose literary fortune 
had yet to be made. Years afterward 
Whittier referred to this unexpected 
summons to Hartford saying that "he 
told his mother, but no one else, 
thinking that they would laugh at 
him, and he lay awake all night try- 
ing to decide what to do." The re- 
cent death of his father made him 
feel that he ought not to leave home, 
but on the other hand, the salary of 
five hundred dollars a year seemed a 
great sum in his eyes and he believed 
that he would be able to pay off the 
debt on the farm. It was this con- 
sideration which decided him and it is 
interesting to read that he actually 



accomplished his ambition and paid 
the debt. 

Whittier's travels had been limited 
and when he set forth for Hartford 
it was a new experience for him to go 
far away from home. The journey 
seems a small undertaking in these 
days of fast train service and conven- 
ient electric transit, but in 1830 it was 
regarded quite differently. The Hart- 
ford of that period presented a 
marked contrast to the busy city of 
the present day. It was only the semi- 
capital of the state, sharing its honors 
with New Haven and, according to a 
writer of that generation, was 
"strongly impressed with a plodding 
mercantile and mechanical character." 
It was, in reality, a small commercial 
town of a few thousand inhabitants 
"dealing in lumber and smelling of 
molasses and old Jamaica, for it still 
had some trade with the West In- 
dies." It had not a single institution 
nor a single monument that marked 
it as even a provincial metropolis of 
taste in literature, art, or refinement." 
Yet the little city was proud of its lit- 
erary period, just past, when it had 
been the literary center of the New 
World, second not even to Boston and 
Philadelphia. The fame of the Hart- 
ford wits was yet universal and the 
influence of John Trumbull, Timothy 
Dwight and Joel Barlow was still felt. 

If Whittier was somewhat disap- 
pointed at finding the literary glories 
of the place somewhat faded, he was 
pleased to enter a social circle of intel- 
ligent people. Two years later — 
after his return home — he wrote to 
friends there: "Hartford is by no 
means a literary place . . . but I 
left it with regret, for I had formed 
friendships there and established 
friendships which had become, as it 
were, a part of my being." 

The young stranger took up his 
quarters at the old Lunt tavern and 
began his duties. He had already 
been introduced to the public through 
an editorial in which Prentice said: 
"I cannot do less than congratulate 
my readers on the prospect of their 



CENTENARY OF BIRTH OF THE AMERICAN POET 



57* 



more familiar acquaintance with a 
gentleman of such powerful energies 
and such exalted purity and sweet- 
ness of character. I have made some 
enemies among those whose good 
opinion I value, but no rational man 
can ever be the enemy of Mr. Whit- 
tier." Whittier followed this edito- 
rial by a declaration of his own prin- 
ciples in his leader under the title of 
"Egotism Extra." He described 
himself as "A disciple of Penn, there- 
fore, no duellist. A cold-water man 
and disposed to eschew Jackson as 
he would a pestilence." He was soon 
recognized as an "honest, earnest and 
intelligent" young man. He acknowl- 
edged in after-life that he did not 
know in the least what to do, at first, 
but concealed his ignorance and read 
up carefully on any subject which he 
wrote upon. He soon mastered the 
details of local politics and became 
acquainted with the party leaders who 
made his office their rendezvous. 

He was dreadfully hurt at first by 
the harsh criticism of him and his 
editorship which he read in the Cat- 
skill Recorder, but the subsequent 
kindly words of the New York 
Courier and Enquirer and the Even- 
ing Post renewed his courage and he 
wrote on as fearlessly as before. He 
was recognized as a rising young pol- 
itician and carried on some spirited 
political discussions with Mr. Gideon 
Welles, afterward Abraham Lincoln's 
Secretary of the Navy, who was then 
editor of the Hartford Times and a 
prominent leader in the state. 

He did not remain long at the old 
Lunt Tavern, for he was invited to 
board in the family of Jonathan Law, 
an educated and scholarly man who 
had just retired after twenty-nine 
years of active service as postmaster 
of the city. Mr. Law had a large 
house and a fine library, among whose 
books Whittier continued his student 
life. A warm friendship sprang up 
between them and Whittier often ex- 
pressed his indebtedness to the elder 
man. The young Quaker was early 
asked to join a club composed of 



young men of the first families, but 
he never attended but once as he did 
not approve of their dissipation. He 
took an active part in the social life 
of the city and it is doubtful if he 
ever went into society so much in any 
other city, for shortly after leaving 
Hartford his health began to fail and 
he was deorived of social excitements 
throughout his life. Mr. Law intro- 
duced him to some of the best people 
and the young Quaker became a great 
favorite. His bright eyes and hand- 
some face soon attracted attention. 
He was a sprightly conversationalist, 
although apt to hold his peace among 
strangers. 

Among his friends he numbered 
Judge Russ, Honorable Mr. Trum- 
bull, Honorable Martin Welles, and 
Dr. Todd. Charles Emerson and 
Isaac E. Crary, then young lawyers, 
wrote for his paper and it was the 
latter who accompanied him on his 
first trip to New York. Perhaps his 
most intimate friend was Frederick 
A. P. Barnard, a teacher in the Asy- 
lum for the Deaf and Dumb. He had 
literary ambitions and once or twice 
took Whittier's place as editor of the 
Review when the latter was out of the 
city. The friendship between them 
was very pleasant and they found a 
common interest in Eastern history 
and romance. Strange to say, they 
lost sight of each other when both 
had left the city, only to renew the 
acquaintance more than thirty-five 
years later when Barnard had become 
president of Columbia College and the 
fame of Whittier's poetry had spread 
over the land. 

In one of his letters, written in 
these after years Whittier said to 
Barnard: "I often think of thee and 
of the pleasant Hartford days and 
wish I could meet thee again. What 
a way we have traveled since we met 
beneath the Charter Oak! We have 
both reason to be thankful to the good 
Providence which has brought OS 
thus far." He voiced the same senti- 
ment for these days of their youth in 
the following lines of the prelude to 



572 



WHITTIER'S RESIDENCE IN CONNECTICUT 



Miriam, the Eastern poem which he 
had dedicated to this old friend and 
fellow-lover of Eastern literature: 

The years are many since, in youth and 

hope, 
Under the Charter Oak, our horoscope 
We drew, thick-studded with all-favoring 

stars. 
Now, with gray beards, and faces seamed 

with scars, 
From life's hard battle meeting once again, 
We smile, half sadly, over dreams so vain; 
Knowing, at last, that it is not in man 
Who walketh to direct his steps or plan 
His permanent house of life. Alike we 

loved 
The muses' haunts, and all our fancies 

moved 
To measures of old song. How, since that 

day, 
Our feet have parted from the path that lay 
So fair before us ! 

There are traditions of Whittier's 
popularity with the fair sex during 
'his life in Hartford and that he was 
dubbed by them "The young and gal- 
lant stranger." There were pleasant 
excusions to Talcott Mountain and to 
Litchfield and other places when 
Whittier was a member of the gay 
parties. In a letter written in old 
age, he recalls these joyous holidays. 
There is no record, however, of any 
special maiden to whom the young 
poet was devoted and Mrs. Sigour- 
ney is the only Hartford woman 
whose correspondence with him has 
been preserved. 

This gracious and gifted woman 
was many years the poet's senior and 
at that time the mistress of a man- 
sion which was one of Hartford's so- 
cial centers. Mrs. Sigourney became 
the literarv confidante of the young 
Quaker and the friendship thus 
formed continued long after the 
young editor had left Hartford. 
More than once, in his letters, the 
poet expressed appreciation of Mrs. 
Sigourney and her work. Long after 
her death he wrote : "I knew her well, 
when, as a boy, I came to Hartford. 
Her kindness to the young rustic 
stranger I shall never forget." He 
composed the appreciative lines in her 
memory which are inscribed on the 
tablet near her pew in Christ Church : 



She sang alone, 'ere womanhood had 
known 
The gift of song which fills the air to- 
day; 
Tender and sweet, a music all her own 
May fitly linger where she knelt to pray. 

The reason for Mr. Prentice's ab- 
sence from the Review and of Whit- 
tier's subsequent editorship was due 
to the fact that the former had accept- 
ed an invitation from Henry Clay to 
come to Lexington, Kentucky, and 
write his biography in anticipation of 
a nomination for the presidency in 
1832. When the book lacked only a 
few chapters of completion, Prentice 
wrote Whittier to go to New York to 
procure the necessary data to finish 
it. Accordingly, the first of January, 
1831, Mr. Whittier and his friend, 
Isaac Crary, afterwards General 
Crary and member of Congress from 
Michigan, started for New York. 

It was a two-days' journey and they 
went to New Haven, and from there 
to New York by boat, encountering a 
severe storm on the way. Whittier 
referred to the boat as "that floating 
pandemonium — that pestilential hos- 
pital ship." They boarded for two 
weeks at the tumble-down old Ton- 
tine Hotel in Wall street, and accord- 
ing to Whittier, devoted themselves 
strictly to their researches. "We 
have," he wrote, "ransacked every 
street; we have turned over the huee 
folios of every library; we have read, 
inquired, cogitated and written and 
re-written until our brains are in a 
worse state than Ovid's chaos." He 
amused himself with some sight-see- 
ing and was invited to several clubs, 
but only attended one where he saw 
oysters for the first time. On the 
whole, he did not altogether enjoy his 
novel experiences, for he wrote to 
Jonathan Law, when his stay was half 
over : "I am yet in the land of the liv- 
ing and would give half a kingdom 
to be in your goodly city of Hartford. 
We have had a wearisome time of it 
and the end has not yet come." 

Whittier's pen was seldom idle dur- 
ing his sojourn in Hartford, but he 



CENTENARY OF BIRTH OF THE AMERICAN POET 



573 



always considered the work of this 
period crude and rich only in promise. 
He printed many of his poems in the 
columns of the Review, but few of 
these were preserved in his collected 
works. His first book appeared dur- 
ing his stay in Hartford, being pub- 
lished by Havener and Phelps and 
printed in the office of the Review. 
"Legends of New England," as it was 
called, contained many poems and 
prose sketches, but only two of the 
former, and none of the prose works 
have been preserved in his collected 
works. Yet the little volume shows 
characteristics of the future poet, es- 
pecially in the choice of subjects, for 
he showed partiality for Indian and 
colonial legends. The following lines 
written at this period were suppressed 
by Whittier as being too ambitious, 
but were printed in his biography. 
They are worthy of note because, 
although dedicated to New England, 
Hartford was the city of their birth 
and also, doubtless, the scene of their 
inspiration. 

Land of my fathers, if my name, 
Now humble and unwed to fame, 
Hereafter burn upon the lip, 
As one of those which may not die, 
Linked in eternal fellowship , 

With visions pure and strong and high; 
If the wild dreams which quicken now 
The throbbing pulse of heart and brow, 
Hereafter take a real form 
Like spectres changed to being warm; 
And over temples worn and gray 
The star-like crown of glory shine, — 
Thine be the bard's undying lay,. 
The murmur of his praise be thine! 

Whittier's health was precarious and 
he was obliged to make more than one 
trip to his home for rest and recupe- 
ration. In the second winter of his 
editorship he left on one of these va- 
cations with no thought of giving up 
his editorial duties, but he was obliged 
to do so and severed his connection 
with the Review in January, 1832. 
Recognizing his ability, the National 
Republican party had appointed him 
delegate to their convention at Balti- 



more, but he was unable to attend 
and as he had political ambitions it 
must have been a sore trial to him to 
relinquish the opportunity. 

The next few years were strenuous 
ones and his work as an Abolitionist 
called Whittier far away from Hart- 
ford. There is no record of his ever 
again visiting the city, but the mem- 
ory of his residence there remained a 
pleasure to him throughout his life. 
It is this memory which is treasured in 
the literary history /of Hartford. In 
this year of his centennial anniversary 
it is Connecticut's pride to recall the 
ambitious Quaker boy who lived his 
life within her borders and dreamed 
his dreams of rich fulfilment. The 
anniversary of the birth of Whittier 
comes on the seventeenth of Decem- 
ber. He was born in Haverhill, Mas- 
sachusetts, on that day one hundred 
years ago (December 17, 1807), and 
died at Hampden Falls, New Hamp- 
shire, September 7, 1892, sixty-two 
years after his early literary start in 
Hartford, Connecticut, and eighty- 
five years of fullest honor and labor. 

Shortly before his death, he told a 
friend that he had written about five 
hundred poems. The first collected 
edition of Whittier's poems was pub- 
lished just fifty years ago. To his 
memory these lines from his own pen 
are recalled : 

But still I wait with ear and eye 

For something gone which should be nigh, 

A loss in all familiar things. 

In flower that blooms and bird that sings. 

And yet, dear heart! remembering thee. 

Am I not richer than of old ? 

Safe in thy immortality. 
What change can reach the wealth 1 hold? 
What chance can mar the pearl and gold 
Thy love hath left in trust with me? 
And while in life's late afternoon. 

Where cool and long the shadows crow. 
I walk to meet the night that soon 

Shall shape and shadow overflow. 
I cannot feel that thou art far. 
Since near at need the angels are : 
And when the sunset gates unbar. 

Shall I not see thee waiting Stand, 
And white against the evening star. 

The welcome of thy beckoning hand? 



OLD BOOKS PRINTED IN CONNECTICUT 



CONNECTICUT HAS GIVEN TO AMERICAN LITERATURE 
MORE AUTHORS IN PRORATA TO POPULATION THAN ANY 
OTHER STATE IN THE UNION— A NEW VOLUME FROM 
A PRIVATE BOOKSHELF BEARING THE IMPRINT OF 
HARTFORD AS A PUBLISHING CENTER— BIBLIOGRAPHY 

BY 

W. E. GRUMMAN 

Georgetown, Connecticut 

Connecticut has been the most prolific contributor to American letters. This claim is based on the 
proportion of product to population; not from the manufacturing point of view, but from the literary. 

Connecticut has given to our national literature more authors, prorata to its population, than any other 
state in the Union— most of whom were Connecticut-born and some of whom worked within its borders. 

Connecticut at one time was also a manufacturing center for literature— and there have been decades 
when more books of wide popularity were published in Connecticut than in New York or Boston.— Editor 



WHILE re-arranging the 
contents of a book-case 
recently, the writer's at- 
tention was attracted by 
the frequent recurrence of the imprint 
of Hartford publishers, covering a pe- 
riod of more than half a century. Ev- 
idently there was a time when Hart- 
ford was a very active publishing cen- 
ter, and its product was of excellent 
quality. A complete list of Hartford 
publications, if it could be compiled, 
might prove valuable to book-lovers 
and students from a literary stand- 
point, and a description of the own- 
er's limited collection is offered as a 
first contribution to that object. 

The earliest work in the list is "A 
View of All Religions, and the Re- 
ligious Ceremonies of All Nations at 
the Present Day," by Thomas Rob- 
bins, Minister of the Gospel in East 
Windsor, Connecticut; Second edi- 
tion; 428 pages; published by Oliver 
D. Cooke & Sons, 1824. The work 
includes the history of all then-exist- 
ing Christian denominations. From 
Roman Catholics to Deists; Jewish 
customs, Mahometan doctrines and 
Pagan beliefs and practices. It con- 
tains about twenty-five wood-cut illus- 
trations, which merit the descriptive 
term "curious." It represents a pe- 
riod when religious reading was more 
generally patronized than at present. 

"Rudiments of Geography," by 
William C. Woodbridge, a small vol- 
ume of 208 pages, is a fair sample of 



the text-books in use in the early 
years of the nineteenth century. It 
is fully illustrated with stiff-looking 
wood-cuts, and was originally accom- 
panied by an atlas, which has not 
fallen into the writer's possession. 
Third edition ; published by Oliver D. 
Cooke & Co., 1828. Upon the fly- 
leaf appears, in a bold hand, "Sally 
Calendar's Book, November, 1829." 

"Lectures to Young Men," by Joel 
Hawes, pastor of the First Church of 
Hartford, is regarded as one of the 
gems of the collection. This little 
volume, three and a half by six inches 
in size, contains six lectures within 
the compass of its 172 pages, and its 
precepts have as much value for the 
present generation as for that to 
which it was originally addressed. It 
is most handsomely bound in leather, 
with gilt ornamentation, and printed 
in heavy type. Third edition; pub- 
lished by Cooke & Co., 1830. 

"The Life and Heroic Exploits of 
Israel Putnam," by Colonel David 
Humphreys, is too well known to stu- 
dents of Revolutionary history to re- 
quire description. It was published 
by Silas Andrus & Son in 1833, and is 
the earliest publication of that firm 
which was added to the collection. 
Of the same date is a "History of the 
United States of America," by 
Charles A. Goodrich, issued by H. F. 
Sumner & Co. 

"A Pictorial History of the United 
States of America," by R. Thomas, 



574 



OLD BOOKS PRINTED IN CONNECTICUT 



575 



A. M., was issued by E. Strong in 
1844. Though evidently the work of 
a scholar, the book is remarkable for 
one astonishing error. The author 
states that while Tyron was making 
his raid upon the Continental stores 
at Danbury, Putnam was performing 
his famous feat of riding down the 
slope of Horseneck — a mistake all the 
more surprising because the story of 
those events would seem to have been 
necessarily well-known to students of 
that day. 

"Life in tfa Wilds," by Harriet 
Martineau — a presentation of the 
principles of political economy under 
the guise of fiction — was brought out 
by S. Andrus & Son in 1845, m a v °l - 
ume similar in size to Hawes' Lec- 
tures. In the following year the 
same firm produced "A Complete 
History of the Marquis de Lafayette," 
which includes the story of his mili- 
tary career in America and in France, 
and an account of his tour in this 
country in 1824, not the least interest- 
ing portion of which relates in detail 
the story of his reception in Hartford. 
At this time (1846) appeared a "Book 
of the United States," edited by Gren- 
ville Mellen, and published by Sum- 
ner & Goodman ; a work of 847 pages, 
comprising physical and political ge- 
ography, biography and history. 

"The Life of Sir William Wal- 
lace," by Peter Donaldson — 132 
pages, boards — was issued in 1849 by 
S. Andrus & Son, and handsomely 
bound editions of the "Poems of John 
G. C. Brainard" and Pollok's "Course 
of Time," — the latter of special ele- 
gance — and a half-leather edition of 
Bunyan's "Holy War" formed part 
of the output of the same firm in that 
year. TLe "Holy War" contains a 
folding frontispiece of the "famous 
battle between the inhabitants of the 
Town of Mansoul and the Diabolo- 
nians," which is probably unlike any 
other battle scene ever published. 

In 1850 Andrus published "Tales 
of the Devils," by J. P. Brace, A. M. 
— a peculiar book — in a handsome 



leather binding, and fortunately, this 
copy contains a list of the publica- 
tions of Andrus & Son, showing that 
up to this time the firm had produced 
editions of fully one hundred different 
works in various lines of literature. 
"Poets of America," by George B. 
Cheever, completes the writer's list 
of Andrus' publications up to 1854. 

"The American Generals," by J ohn 
Frost, LL.D. (Case, Tiffany & Co.), 
1852, is a valuable biographical worl: 
containing portraits and sketches of 
noted American officers, from Wash- 
ington to Jefferson Davis. It is pro- 
fusely embellished with curious wood- 
cuts, initials, head and tail pieces, etc., 
and suitably introduces the remainder 
of the collection, which is entirely of 
a military character, composed of 
works relating to the great conflict 
which resulted in the abolition of ne- 
gro slavery. 

The first of these books is "Nurss 
and Spy," by S. Emma E. Edmonds, 
whose varied experiences in the 
double capacity indicated by the tit! 2 
are of unusual interest, as she fre- 
quently served in the field as a soldier, 
wearing the Union blue. The vol- 
ume was brought out by S. Williams 
& Co. in 1864, and is said to have 
been the first Civil War book pub- 
lished in Hartford. 

"Life and Death in Rebel Prisons." 
by Robert H. Kellogg, Sergeant- 
Major 1 6th Connecticut Volunteers, 
is a narrative of experience in the 
military prisons of the South, chiefly 
at Andersonville, that charnel-h 
of fearful memory. The book 
one which ought seemingly to fa 
attained the widest popularity, but 
the publisher (L. Stebbins. 1865) ap- 
peals to the public in behalf 01 
work, confessing a loss of $6,000 in 
the publishing business daring the 
war period. The volume was so. 
subscription and the price appears to 
have been $1.75. Two Other * 
which appeared in the same year — 
"Four Years in Secesaa," by Ju 
Henri Browne (O. D. Case ft 



576 CONNECTICUT'S CONTRIBUTION TO LITERATURE 



and "The Field, Dungeon and Es- 
cape," by Albert D. Richardson 
(American Publishing Co.), both 
official correspondents of the New 
York Tribune, who were captured be- 
fore Vicksburg, and spent many 
months in rebel prisons before mak- 
ing their escape — give the history of 
many exciting events along the Mis- 
sissippi, and much detail of prison ex- 
perience. 

"Anecdotes and Incidents of the 
War of the Rebellion," by Frazer 
Kirkland (Hartford Publishing Co., 
1866), contains numerous brief anec- 
dotes of war experience, with many 
portraits of prominent officers. The 
indexes contain a valuable list of bat- 
tles, with dates, and names of war- 
vessels and of Northern and South- 
ern commanders. 

"The South," by J. T. Trowbridge, 
a well-known author (L. Stebbins, 
1866) was published after the war 
was over, and contains graphic de- 
scriptions of the various fields of 
strife, as they appeared not long after 
the close of hostilities. Any course 
of reading on the Civil War should 
include this volume. 

"The Capture, Prison Pen and Es- 
cape," by Captain Willard W. Glazier 
(H. E. Goodwin, 1869), is another 
narrative of prison life by a cavalry 
officer. The appendix contains a list 
of officers who were confined in Libby 
Prison. 

"The Woman in Battle," by Mme. 
L. J. Velazquez, otherwise known as 
Lieut. Harry T. Buford, C. S. A. 
(L. Belknap, 1876), is like "Nurse 
and Spy," the narrative of a woman, 
who, in male attire, participated in the 
experiences of the battlefield, and 
also, in her proper character, aided 
the "Lost Cause" as a secret service 
agent. The reader would do well to 
peruse her story in connection with 
that of Miss Edmonds. Strangely 
enough, neither of these women was 
a native of the country in whose civil 
conflict she bore a part, but each 
faithfully and conscientiously, and 



with womanly enthusiasm, served the 
cause which she espoused. 

"My Story of the War," by Mary 
A. Livermore (A. D. Worthington & 
Co., 1890), completes the collection, 
and presents a view of the war from 
still another standpoint, that of hos- 
pital experience. The book is most 
handsomely gotten up, printed in 
clear type, illustrated with fine steel 
engravings and colored plates of bat- 
tleflags, some of which will be readily 
recognized by visitors to our state 
capitol. The possessor of even a few 
of these remarkable volumes will 
have a library of war history from 
which an unfailing store of entertain- 
ment and instruction may be derived. 

My list is, of course, very incom- 
plete. I have mentioned only the vol- 
umes on my own book shelves and 
they are but suggestions of the hun- 
dreds of others that bear Hartford 
imprints. The libraries at the Wads- 
worth Atheneum might do an emi- 
nent service by collecting every book 
that can be found that bears the im- 
print of Hartford. Later this could 
be enlarged by including every book 
that bears the imprint of Connecticut. 
While these institutions are doing this 
with occasional volumes I do not 
know that they have organized any 
systematic plan for immediately mak- 
ing any complete collection, which 
will include every volume, in exist- 
ence and securable, that ever came 
from a Hartford printing-press. To 
this should be added the modern 
works that are coming from the 
presses every year. 

Hartford appears to have achieved 
no inconsiderable reputation for lit- 
erary enterprise and talent, and it is 
to be hoped that some enthusiastic 
bibliographer will undertake the col- 
lection of a complete line of her pro- 
ductions, before the "rag man" 
and the pulp-mill have obliterated the 
last traces of the early literary his- 
tory of the capital city of Connecti- 
cut. 



FIRST COURT TRIALS IN CONNECTICUT 

FIRST CASE TRIED IN NEW ENGLAND WAS JOHN BIL- 
LINGTON, OF OLD PLYMOUTH, IN 1621— FIRST GEN- 
ERAL COURT ON RECORD IN CONNECTICUT CONVENED 
AT HARTFORD IN 1636 IN WHICH CONSTABLES WERE 
SWORN TO PROTECT THE PEACE OF THE COLONY- 
JURY SYSTEM IS REVEALED IN 1637— INVESTIGATION 

BY 

JOEL NELSON ENO, M.A. 

Yalb University Library, New Ha vex, Connecticut 



IN my library work I recently re- 
ceived an inquiry regarding the 
first lawyers and the first court 
trials in Connecticut. While law 
and justice are of that honorable an- 
tiquity known to jurisprudence as 
"the time whereof the memory of man 
runneth not to the contrary," the law- 
yer is a comparatively recent product 
of society. Legal administration in 
the first years in America was in the 
hands of the laymen. The first colo- 
nial magistrate united in his power the 
executive, legislative and judicial 
functions, and the tribunal was termed 
the "General Court." 

The first courts in America, that is, 
in the thirteen colonies, were coeval 
with the first crime. The first trial in 
New England seems to have been that 
of John Billington. The first lawyer 
in Connecticut, and previously one of 
the first in New England, was Roger 
Ludlow, who was called from Eng- 
land to become assistant to the gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts in 1630. The 
firs u barrister in Massachusetts, and 
doubtless the first in New England, 
was Thomas Newton. He was born 
and trained to the law in England, 
settling in Boston in 1688 where he 
became attorney-general of the col- 
ony. Roger Williams, founder of 
Rhode Island, studied law under 
Coke, one of the eminent English au- 
thorities. 

In Connecticut, Ludlow was well 
versed in English law and entered in- 
to its practice, but the parties to a suit 
usually pleaded their own cases, un- 
less it was of unusual gravity. It was 



not until 1766 that regulation was 
made requiring thrie years' study to 
become an attorney; two years more 
to become a counsellor-at-law ; fol- 
lowed by two more years to become a 
barrister, making a prescribed seven 
years to prepare a layman for full 
practice in the higher courts. 

It is the spirit of law in the heart, 
not the mere letter of the law on the 
statute book, which makes an orderly, 
law-abiding" community, fit for self- 
government because its individual 
members are self-governed. The 
early New England colonists brought 
to America a strong sense of orderli- 
ness, a keen sense of duty and re- 
sponsibility, a strong reverence for 
the Bible, and lastly, a strong sense of 
the rights of an Englishman, which 
led finally to an independent nation. 

From the despotic over-govern- 
ment of the Old World to the pure 
democratic self-government of the 
Pilgrim compact at Cape Cod, was a 
long step. To the first case tried in 
New England, that of John Billing- 
ton of Plymouth, March 26, l6ai, 
"the whole company was s um mo ne d 
for the purpose of judging of his 
offense, the first committed among 
them." In the Bay colony, from 
1630 to 1634, all the freemen assem- 
bled at stated times to decide matter- 
of government. As settlement ex- 
tended this became inconvenient, 
hence representation by deputies from 
each town was adopted. The three 
Connecticut towns used a system oi 
rotation, the first General Court on 
the record being at Newton (kmW 

$77 



578 



FIRST COURT TRIALS IN CONNECTICUT 



Hartford) April 26, 1636, and com- 
posed of "Roger Ludlowe, Esqr., 
Mr. Steele, Mr. Phelps, Mr. West- 
ward, Mr. Warde." As self-preser- 
vation is the first law of life, so is it 
the first law of Connecticut colony 
on record. The Saybrook allies of 
the Pequot Indians had already 
treacherously murdered Captain Stone 
and his crew anchored in the Con- 
necticut and taken off their guard 
by the apparent friendliness of the In- 
dians. One of the colonists was com- 
plained of "for trading a peece wth 
the Indians for corne." "It is or- 
dered yt from henceforth none yt are 
wthin the Jurisdiction] of this Cort 
shall trade with the natives or Indians 
any peece, or pistoll or gunn or pow- 
der or shott vnder such heavie penal- 
tie as vppon such misdemeanor the 
Corte shall thinke meete." Second, 
constables were sworn "for the next 
yeare and vntill new be chosen; 
Henry Walcott for Dorchester, Sam- 
uell Wakeman for Newtowne, Daniel 
Finch for Watertown ;" the three 
towns being originally named each 
from the mother town in Massachu- 
setts from whence it was settled. At 
the next court, February 21, 1637, 
boundaries between the towns were 
fixed, and Dorchester named Wind- 
sor, Newtown named Hartford, and 
Watertown, Wethersfield. 

The next court, March 28, 1637, 
reveals the existence of the jury sys- 
tem of trial in an "order yt every 
Juryman shall haue sixe pence for 
every Accon that is given to them 
vppon evidence, to be paide by him 
the Accon goes against." A General 
Court, May 1, 1637, "ordered offen- 
sive war agt the Pequoitt and that 
there shal be 90 men levied out of the 
three plantacions; Hartford, 42, 
Windsor 30, Wethersfield 18; the In- 
dians having killed several of their 
number, and captured others; and in 
July 1636, John Oldhom was mur- 
dered by Pequots." The New Eng- 
land colonists brought with them the 
essential principles of the common 



law of England, and adopted them as 
far as applicable to their conditions. 
Yet in their ideas of what constituted 
a capital crime they struck out a dis- 
tinct code drawn from the Mosaic; 
in 1642, in Connecticut colony, death 
was thought due to twelve crimes, 
viz., in brief: 1. Worship of other 
than the true God ; Deut. xiii, 6, and 
xvii, 2 ; Ex. xxii, 20. 2. Witchcraft ; 
Exod. xxii, 18. 3. Blasphemy against 
God; Lev. xxiv, 15, 16. 4. Malicious 
murder ; Ex. xxi, 12, 14. 5. Murder 
by guile or poison; Ex., xxi, 14. 

6. Bestiality; Lev. xx, 15, 16. 

7. Sodomy; Lev. xx, 13. 8. Adul- 
tery; Exod. xx, 10. 9. Rape; Deut. 
xxii, 25. 10. Stealing a man or man- 
kind; Ex. xxi, 16. 11. False witness 
to take away life; Deut. xix, 16, 18, 
19; Ex. xxi, 14. 12. Invasion, insur- 
rection or rebellion against the Com- 
monwealth. England, but a sample 
of Europe at this time, had some two 
hundred offenses punishable with 
death. 

In my researches I find this 
Code of laws, established by the 
General Court, May, 1650; drawn up 
by Roger Ludlow, as voted, 1646: 
"Forasmuch as the free fruition of 
such Libberties, Immunities, Privi- 
leges, as Humanity, Civillity and 
Christianity call for, as due to every 
man in his place and proportion, with- 
out Impeachmt and infringement, hath 
euer beene and euer will bee the Tran- 
quillity and Stabillity of Churches and 
Common wealths, and the denyall or 
deprivall thereof, the disturbance if 
not ruine of both : — It is therefore or- 
dered by this Courte and Authority 
thereof, that no mans life shall bee 
taken away, no mans honor or good 
name shall bee stained, no mans per- 
son shall be arrested, restrained, ban- 
ished, dismembered nor any pun- 
ished ; no man shall bee deprived of 
his wife or children, no mans goods or 
estate shall bee taken away from him, 
nor anv waves indamaged, vnder col- 
our of Law or countenance of Au- 
thority, vnless it bee by the vertue or 



BEGINNING OF JURISPRUDENCE IN AMERICA 



579 



equity of some express Law of the 
Country warranting the same estab- 
lished by a Generall Courte, and suf- 
ficiently published, or in case of the 
defect of a Law in any perticular case, 
by the word of God/ 

ABILLITY. 

It is ordered by this Courte, that 
all persons of [the age] of twenty one 
years and of right vnderstanding, 
whether excommunicated, condemned 
or other, [shall] haue full power and 
libber ty to make their [Weills and] 
Testaments, and other lawfull aliena- 
tions of theire [lands] and estates, 
and may bee Plaintiffs in a civill case. 

ACTIONS. 

It is further ordered and decreed, 
that in all Actions brought to any 
Courte, the Plaintiff shall haue lib- 
berty to withdraw his Action, or to 
bee non suted, before the Jury haue 
given in theire verdict, in wch case 
hee shall allwayes pay full costs and 
charges to the Defendt, and may 
afterward renew his suite at another 
Courte, the former non suite being 
first recorded. 

AGE. 

It is ordered by this Court and the 
Authority thereof, that the Age for 
passing away of Lands or such 
kinde of Hereditaments, or for giuing 
of voates, verdicts or sentences in any 
civill Courtees or causes shall bee 
twenty and one yeares, but in case of 
chusing of Guardians, fourteene 
yeares. 

ARRESTS. 

It is ordered and decreed by this 
Courte and Authority thereof, that no 
person shall bee arrested or impris- 
oned for any debt or fyne, if Law can 
finde any competent meanes of satis- 
faction otherwise from his estate ; and 
if not, his person may bee arrested, 
and imprisoned, where hee shall bee 
kept at his owne charge, not the 
Plaintiffs, till satisfaction bee made, 
vnless the Courte that had cognisance 
of the cause or some Superior Courte 
shall otherwise determine; provided 
nevertheless that no mans person 



shall bee kept in prison for debt but 
when there appeares some estate wch 
hee will not produce." 

Here follow articles on Attach- 
ment of property, Ballast, Barratry, 
Bills (those assigned by endorsement 
to be valid), Bounds of Townes and 
particular lands (heap of stones or 
trench 6 foott long and 2 foott broad) 
to be attended to yearly, "the most 
Ancient Towne (wch for the Riuer 
is determined by the Courte to bee 
Wethersfield)." Bulrglary and Theft; 
"the person so offending shall for the 
first offence be branded on the fore- 
head with the Letter B. If hee shall 
offend in the same kind the second 
time hee shall bee branded as before, 
and allso bee severely whipped ; and 
if hee shall fall [into the same offence] 
the third time hee shall bee put to 
death [as being incorridg]able. 

"2. Secondly, for the preuention of 
Pillfring and Theft, It is ordered by 
this Courte and Authority thereof, 
that if any person, whether Children, 
Servants or others, shall bee taken or 
knowne to Robb any orchyards or 
garden, that shall hurte or steale away 
any grafts or fruite trees, fruites, lin- 
nen, woollen, or any other goods left 
out in orchyards, gardens, backsides, 
or other place in Howse or Feilds, or 
shall steale any wood or other goods 
from the Waterside, from mens 
dores or yards, hee shall forteitt 
treble damage to the owners ther 
and such severe punishment as the 
Courte shall thinke meete." 

To the capital laws of 1642 were 
added. "13. If any Childe or Children 
aboue sixteene yeares old and of suf- 
ficient vnderstanding, shall curse or 
smite theire natural] father or mother. 
hee or they shall bee put to death, vn- 
less it can bee sufficiently testified that 
the Parents haue beene very vnchris- 
tianly negligent in the education oi 
such Children, or so prouoakc than 
by extreme and cruell correction that 
they haue beene forced therevnto to 
preserue themselves from death 
maiming. Ex. xxi, 15. 17. 



5 8o 



FIRST COURT TRIALS IN CONNECTICUT 



"14. If a man haue a stubborne and 
rebellious sonne of sufficient yeares 
and vnderstanding, viz: sixteene 
yeares of age, wch will not obey the 
voice of his father or the voice of his 
mother, and that when they haue 
chastened him, will nt hearken vnto 
them, then may his Father and 
Mother, being his naturall parents, 
lay hold on him and bring him to the 
Magistrates assembled in Courte, and 
testifie vnto them that theire Sonne is 
stubborne and rebellious and will not 
obey theire voice and chastisement, 
but Hues in sundry notorious crim s, 
such a Sonne shall bee put to death. 
Deut. xxi, 20, 21." 

(Then follow titles. Cosck and 
Cooper; Cattle, Cornfeilds, Fences; 
Cattle to bee marked; Common 
Fields; Caveats entred; Disorder in 
Court (fine twelve pence for talking, 
two or three together) ; Secrets in 
Courte (ten pounds fine for divulg- 
ing)- 

CHILDREN. 

Forasmuch as the good Education 
of Children is of singular behoofe and 
benefitt to any Common wealth, and 
whereas many parents and masters 
are too indulgent and negligent of 
theire duty in that kinder- 
It is therefore ordered by this 
Courte and Authority thereof, that 
the Select men of euery Towne, in the 
seuerall precincts and quarters where 
they dwell, shall haue a vigilant eye 
ouer theire brethren and neighbours, 
to see first, that none of them shall 
suffer so much Barbarism in any of 
theire familyes as not to indeavor to 
teach by themselues or others theire 
Children and Apprentices so much 
Learning as may inable them per- 
fectly to read the Inglish tounge, and 
knowledge of the Capitall Lawes, 
vppon penalty of twenty shillings for 
each neglect therein; Allso, that all 
Masters of familyes doe once a weeke 
at least, catechise theire children and 
servants in the grounds and princi- 
ples of religion; and if any bee vn- 
able to doe so much, that then at the 



least they procure such Children or 
Apprentices to learn some shorte or- 
thodox Catechisme. . . , And 
further that all Parents and Masters 
doe breed and bring up theire Chil- 
dren and Apprentices in some honest 
lawfull [calling], labour or imploy- 
ment. . . . 

CONSTABLES. 

. . . It is ordered by the Au- 
thority of this Courte, that euery Con- 
stable within our Jurisdiction shall 
henceforth haue full power to make, 
sign and put forth pursuits or Hue 
and Cryes, after Murtherers, Male- 
factors, Peacebreakers, Theeves, Rob- 
bers, Burglaurs and all other Capitall 
offenders where no magistrate is 
neare hand. Allso, to apprehend 
without warrant such as are over- 
taken with drinke, swearing, Saboath 
breaking, slighting of the ordinances, 
lying, vagrant persons, night walkers, 
or any other that shall offend in any 
of these, provided they be taken in the 
manner, either by sight of the Con- 
stable, or by present information from 
others. . . . Provided, that when 
a[ny Constajb'le is imployed by any 
of the Magistrates for [apprehend- 
ing of any person, hee shall not doe it 
[without] warrant in writing. . . . 
Next title, Conveyances fraudulent, 
invalid. 

CRUELTY. 

It is ordered by this Courte and 
Authority thereof, that no man shall 
exercise any tiranny or cruelty 
towards any brute creatures wch are 
usually kept for the vse of man. 
Damages pretended, liable to fine. 

Death vntimely, jury of 6 or 12 to 
inquire of the cause. 

Delinquents, fined 2s. 6d. 

Ecclesiastic all; one who interrupts 
preaching or charges minister falsely 
with error, reproved openly by Mag- 
istrate, and bound to good behavior. 
Second offence fined 5 pounds or to 
stand two hours on block or stoole 
foure foott high with paper on his 
breast written with capital Letters, 
An open and obstinate contempt of 



BEGINNING OF JURISPRUDENCE IN AMERICA 



58. 



God's holy ordinances 

Every person withdrawing himself 
from church attendance without just 
and necessary cause, five shillings for- 
feit for each absence. Forasmuch as 
the peace and prosperity of Churches 
and members thereof, as well as Civill 
rights and Libberties are carefully to 
bee maintained, — It is ordered by 
this Courte and decreed, that the Civ- 
ill Authority heere established hath 
power and libberty to see the peace, 
ordinances and rules of Christ bee ob- 
serued in euery Church according to 
his word; as allso to deale with any 
Churdh member in a way of Civill 
[justice] notwithstanding any Church 
relation, office or interest, so it bee 
done in a Civill and not in an Ecclesi- 
astical! way; nor shall any Church 
censure or degrade or depose any 
man from any Civill dignitye, office 
or authority, hee shall haue in the 
Commonwealth. {Escheats, Execu- 
tions, Executions vppon Delinquents, 
Fences, Fynes.) 

FYRE. 

It is ordered by this Courte and the 
Authority thereof, that whosoever 
shall kindle any fire in woods [or] 
grounds lying common or inclosed, so 
the same shall runn into such Corne 
grounds or Inclosures, before the 
tenth of the first month, or after the 
last of the second month, or on the 
last day of the week, or on the Lord's 
day, shall pay all damages, and half 
so much for a fyne ; or if not able to 
pay, then to bee corporally punished 
by a warrant from one Magistrate or 
more, as the offence shall deserue, not 
exceeding twenty stripes for one 
offence; provided that any man may 
kindle fyre vppon his owne grounde 
at any time so that no damage come 
thereby either to the country or to any 
particular person. And whosoever 
shall wittingly and willingly burne or 
destroy any frame, timber, hewne, 
sawne or riuen, heaps of wood, char- 
coal, corne, hay, strawe, hempe, flaxe, 
pitch or tarr, hee shall pay double 
damages. 



FORGERIE. 

Forger to stand in the pillory 3 lec- 
ture days, render double damage^ to 
the party wronged, and allso bee dis- 
abled to giue any evidence or verdict 
to any Courte or Magistrate. Forni- 
cation, punished by enjoining to mar- 
riage, or by fyne or corporall punish- 
ment or all of these. 

Ganning [shuffle boards] fine 20s. 
for each offence. Guards at meeting. 
Highways; surveyors have power to 
call out carts and rncn fit for labor, at 
least 2 days in each year ; fine for re- 
fusal or neglect 2s. a day for a man, 
6s. for team. Idleness, punishable. 

Indians forbidden to handle swords 
and peeces in English houses, and for 
injury to render life for life, limb for 
limb, and to pay for healing of wound 
or other damage : to pay double for 
things stolen from whites. The eld- 
ers of the church to make known to 
the Indians through Thomas Stanton, 
interpreter, the Councells of the Lord 
twice at least every year. Inn- 
keepers. Indictment: a person refus- 
ing or withdrawing after 3 procla- 
mations at intervals of one month, 
his lands and goods are liable to 
seizure and his withdrawing shall 
stand instead of one witness to prove 
his crime. Judges and Jurors; Grand 
Jury; Lands, Free lands, Levies, Ly- 
ing; every person 14 years old or 
over, lying to public or private injury, 
when it is proved before a court or 
magistrate; fine 10s. for the first 
offence; 20s. and not over 20 stripes 
for 26. offence : 40.?. and not 30 stripes 
for 3d offence ; 10s. added and op to 
40 stripes for each subsequent offence. 
Masters, Servants, Sojourners. Man- 
slaughter, justifiable in defence of 
one's own or another's life, and 
against highway robbery or burglary. 
Magistrates; defamation of them 
or their official acts, punishable. Mar- 
riage must be published at least 8 
days previous to the act. Persons 
under parent or guardians not to 
marry without their knowledge and 
consent. Marshall. Measures and 



5»2 



FIRST COURT TRIALS IN CONNECTICUT 



weights; must be sealed by the 
"Clarke," who shall destroy those de- 
fective. Military affairs. Ministers 
maintenance; those who are taught in 
the Word, every man voluntarily to 
sett down what he is willing to allow 
to that end. If he refuse, he is to be 
rated by authority in some [just] or 
equall way. Oaths. Peage. Poore; 
maintained by direction of the magis- 
trate. Pound. Profane swearing; 
fine ios. for each offence or to stand 
in the stocks I to 3 hours. Rates, i. e. 
taxes. Records of births, deaths and 
marriages to be rendered by parents, 
masters, and new-married men, who 
are to bring certificate of marriage; 
or pay 6d. fine. Schooles. Every 
townshipp within this Jurisdiction 
after the Lord hath increased them to 
the number of fifty householders shall 
then forthwith appoint one within 
theire towne to teach all such children 
as shall resorte to him to write and 
read; whose wages shall be paid 
either by the parents or masters of 
such children or by the Inhabitants in 
generall by way of supplye as the 
maior parte of those who order the 
prudentialls of the towne shall ap- 
pointe: provided that those who send 
theire children bee not oppressed by 
more than they can have them taught 
for in other Townes. Town of 100 
families or householders to maintain 
a grammar school able to prepare 
youth for the University, or pay £5 
per annum to next such school. Two 
men to make collections yearly for 
[Harvard] University. Secretary. 
Strayes. Swine. .Timber. Tobacco, 
use forbidden to persons under 20 
years; and for others unaccustomed 
to its use, a certificate from a physi- 
cian, or a license from Court. Treas- 
urer. 

VOATES. 

It is ordered by this Corte and de- 
creed that if any person within these 
Libberties haue beene or shall bee 
fyned or whipped, for any scandalous 
offence, hee shall not bee admitted 
after such time to haue any voate in 



Towne or Common wealth, nor to 
serue on the Jury vntill the Court 
shall manifest theire satisfaction. 
Verdicts. Wyne or Strong water, not 
to be sold without license. Watches 
(i. e. watchmen) to be maintained. 
Wolues; 10s. reward to any English 
or Indian proved to have killed a wolf 
within 10 miles of any plantacon in 
this Jurisdiction, for each wolf. 
Wrecks of the Sea. Vessels. For- 
eigners, not to retayle goods for one 
year. Home lotts must be built on, 
not sold. 

At the end of the code are given the 
standard "prices of corne" for the 
year. Wheat, 4s. 6d. a bu. Pease 
3s. 6d. Rye, 3.?. 6d. Indian, 3$. a 
bu. ; one third may be paid in wam- 
pum. 

Among the foregoing there is no 
Sabbath or Sunday law ; nor was suf- 
frage in this colony restricted to 
church members. The pretended 
"Blue Laws" were ascribed to New 
Haven Colony. 

I have been especially interested in 
noting that there are no Sabbath nor 
Sunday laws recorded in these first 
"statutes ;" neither do I find that they 
restrict suffrage to church members. 

Law in its broadest sense is but cus- 
tom favored by the people. These first 
"statutes" therefore give a clear in- 
sight into the moral standards of the 
first Americans, reflecting their mod- 
els of good living. There is not dis- 
cernible in them the hand of the op- 
pressor nor the "politician." The re- 
ligious fanaticism, which is so fre- 
quently charged against the early 
New Englanders, is not apparent. 
There is nothing suggestive of the 
much-abused "blue laws" which de- 
veloped in New Haven Colony in a 
much milder form than legend gives 
them. 

The early laws in Connecticut 
were the efforts of conscientious 
men. The real test is "justice," and 
when they were put to the test they 
generally fulfilled the obligation. 



AN EARLY CONNECTICUT GENIUS 

FIRST AMERICAN ASTRONOMER TO OBSERVE 
TRANSIT OF VENUS-FIRST WHITE MAN TO REACH 
SUMMIT OF MT. WASHINGTON-MANASSEH CUTLER, 
ENGINEER, LAWYER, PHYSICIAN, STATESMAN 



BY 

WILLIAM ELROY CURTIS 

In Chicago Record-Herald 



THE real father of Ohio was 
Manasseh Cutler, a native of 
Connecticut, a graduate of 
Yale in the class of 1765, and 
a genius of wonderful versatility. 
He began his career by being a 
teacher at Dedham, Massachusetts, 
where he married the daughter of the 
pastor; he then went to Martha's 
Vineyard, where he established him- 
self as a merchant at Edgartown. 
While selling calico and codfish he 
studied law, was admitted to the bar 
and began to practice at that place. 
The leisure afforded him by a lack of 
clients tempted him to the study of 
theology, and two years later he was 
ordained and installed pastor of the 
Congregational Church of what has 
since become the town of Hamilton, 
Massachusetts. He was an engineer 
in the patriotic army during the Rev- 
olution, and afterward manufactured 
powder, which was very much need- 
ed. In 1778 he became chaplain of 
General Titcomb's Brigade, and at the 
close of the Revolution began the 
study of medicine and ultimately se- 
cured a wide reputation as a safe and 
skilful practitioner. In 1782 he 
opened a school, which continued for 
more than twenty-five years to in- 
struct would-be seamen in the art of 
navigation, in astronomy and lunar 
observations, and instructed other 
students in botany, geology and the 
other natural sciences. 

He was the first American astrono- 
mer to observe the transit of Venus; 
he was the first white man to reach 
the summit of Mount Washington. 
In 1800 he was chosen a member of 
the Massachusetts legislature ; in 1801 



he was elected representative in Con- 
gress as a radical federalist and, after 
serving four years, /declined re-elec- 
tion on account of ill-health. He 
also declined a commission as judge 
of the Supreme Court of Ohio Terri- 
tory, and as surveyor-general. I do 
not know of any other man whose ex- 
periences and public services are so 
varied and useful. 

But the greatest service he per- 
formed for his country was to secure 
the passage of what is known in his- 
tory as "The Ordinance of Eighty- 
seven," which was introduced in Con- 
gress by Nathan Dane, a member 
from Massachusetts, which guaran- 
teed complete religious liberty, the 
public support of schools and the pro- 
hibition of slavery for the Northwest. 
The title of the bill was "An Ordi- 
nance for the Government of the Ter- 
ritory of the United States Northwest 
of the River Ohio," and its sixth sec- 
tion reads: "There shall be neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude in 
the said territory." 

The ordinance of 1784, which was 
drawn by Thomas Jefferson, as chair- 
man of a committee appointed by 
Congress to devise a plan for the or- 
ganization and government of the ter- 
ritory, contains a similar clause, but 
it was defeated by a single vote. The 
draft of the report of the committee 
in Jefferson's own handwriting is still 
preserved in the library of the state 
department at Washington, and "it is 
as completely Jefferson's own work." 
says George Bancroft, "as the Decla- 
ration of Independence." Jefferson, 
who saw more clearly than any other 
man of his time the probable conse- 

583 



584 AN EARLY CONNECTICUT GENIUS— MAN ASSEH CUTLER 



quences of slavery, said of the vote 
in 1784: "The voice of a single in- 
dividual would have prevented this 
abominable crime. Heaven will not 
always be silent. The friends of the 
rights of human beings will in the 
end prevail." 

Manasseh Cutler became that 
friend. Early in 1787 he and Rufus 
Putnam, with a number of Revolu- 
tionary officers, organized "The Ohio 
Company" to promote the settlement 
of the Northwest Territory and pur- 
chased 1,500,000 acres of public land. 
But, with slavery possible, they found 
it difficult to induce settlers to go 
West. Thereupon, Mr. Cutler went 
down to New York in 1787 to secure 
the necessary protection from Con- 
gress. The ordinance of 1784 was 
revised and amended and passed July 
13, 1787, through his influence. 

Mr. Cutler immediately returned 
to Massachusetts, organized a party 
of settlers, including one of his own 
sons, aged 19, and started from his 
home at Hamilton, Massachusetts, in 
big covered wagons with black canvas 
inscribed in white letters : 

FOR THE OHIO 
AT THE MUSKINGUM 
The expedition decided to locate at 
the present site of the City of Mari- 



etta. Mr. Cutler followed them the 
next year, traveling seven hundred 
and fifty miles in a sulky with one 
horse in twenty-nine days. 

He seemed to have been quite as 
much infatuated with high-sounding 
classical names as Mr. Jefferson, who, 
in his report to Congress, divided the 
noithwest into ten states to be named 
Sylvania, Michigana, Assenisipia, Ill- 
inois, Polypotamia, Chersonesus, 
Metropotamia, Saratoga, Pelisipia 
and Washington. The defeat of his 
report was not entirely without its 
compensations. Mr. Cutler wanted 
to name the new town Adelphia, but 
the settlers objected and called it 
Marietta in honor of Marie Antoi- 
nette, or, as some authors say, in 
honor of Cutler's two daughters, 
Mary and Etta. However, he man- 
aged to christen the public square 
"the Capitolium," the main street 
from the river Sacra Via, and the land 
that surrounded the block-house Cam- 
pus Martius. 

Daniel Webster, George F. Hoar 
and other famous men have delivered 
eulogies upon Manasseh Cutler and 
have pronounced his achievement in 
securing the adoption of the ordi- 
nance of 1787 second only to the Dec- 
laration of Independence. 



MY OLD HOME 

BY 

S. WARD LOPER 

CUBATOB AT WESLBYAN UNIVERSITY 



No home like the old home- 

The place of my birth; 
Ever the happiest, 

The dearest on earth; 
The old home that I love 

Down deep in my heart, 
Home of sweet memories 

Which never depart. 

No home like the old home, 

Wherever I rove! 
In its freshness of life, 

Its pureness of love, 



Its pains and its sorrows 

Are sacred to me, 
Its cares and its labors 

As blessings I see. 

No home like the old home, 

With the loved ones there 
The home of my childhood, 

When life was so fair. 
All the wide world over — 

Wherever I roam, 
I ever shall love it, 

That dearest old home. 



Cbe most Ualuable Collection of historic 
Pbotograpbs in America 

CONNECTICUT HOLDS SEVEN THOUSAND ORIGINAL 
NEGATIVES TAKEN ON THE BATTLEFIELDS DURING 
THE CIVIL WAR-FIRST KNOWN COLLECTION OF 
ITS SIZE ON THE WESTERN CONTINENT-BELIEVED 
TO BE THE FIRST TIME THAT THE CAMERA WAS 
USED SO EXTENSIVELY AND PRACTICALLY IN WAR 

BY 

FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER 

Editor of "The Journal of American History," "The Connecticut Magazine/" "The Eaton Pi 
graphic Histories of the Civil War" and othek Wokk-' 




DEAD ARTILLERYMEN AT DUNKER'S CHURCH, ANTIETAM 



CONNECTICUT has the most 
valuable collection of historic 
photographs in America. It 
is the first known collection 
of its size on the Western Continent 
and it is the only witness of the scenes 
enacted during the greatest crisis in 
the annals of the American nation. 
It is believed to be the first time that 
the camera was used so extensively 
and practically on the battlefield. 
As a contribution to history it occu- 



pies a position that the higher art of 
painting, or scholarly research and lit- 
eral description, can never usurp. It 
records a tragedy that neither the 
imagination of the painter nor the 
skill of the historian can so dramati- 
cally relate. 

While I have known of the 
ence of this collection for some time, 
it is not until within a few months that 
I have given it a thorough invesl 
tion. It has since been my privil 



^PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN ON BATTLEFIELDS IN CIVIL WAR 



to prepare its "history" for the first 
published volume of the collection and 
it gives me pleasure to here again re- 
cord the significant facts which then 
came under my observation. 

The existence of this collection is 
unknown by the public at large. Even 
while this book has been in prepara- 
tion, eminent photographers have pro- 
nounced it impossible, declaring that 
photography was not sufficiently ad- 
vanced at that period to prove of such 
practical use in war. Distinguished 
veterans of the Civil War have in- 
formed me that they knew positively 
that there were no cameras in the 
wake of the army. This incredulity 
of men in a position to know the truth 
enhances the value of the collection 
inasmuch that its genuineness is offi- 
cially proven by the testimony of those 
who saw the pictures taken, by the 
personal statement of the man who 
took them, and by the Government 
Records. For forty-two years the 
original negatives have been in stor- 
age, secreted from public view, ex- 
cept as an occasional proof is drawn 
for some special use. How these neg- 
atives came to be taken under most 
hazardous conditions in the storm and 
stress of a war that threatened to 
change the entire history of the world, 
is itself an interesting historical inci- 
dent. Moreover, it is one of the 
tragedies of genius. 

While the clouds were gathering, 
-which finally broke into the Civil War 
in the United States, there died in 
London one named Scott-Archer, a 
man who had found one of the great 
factors in civilization, but died poor 
and before his time because he had 
overstrained his powers in the cause 
of science. It was necessary to raise 
a subscription for his widow, and the 
Government settled upon the children 
a pension of fifty pounds per annum 
on the ground that their father was 
"the discoverer of a scientific process 
of great value to the nation, from 
which the inventor had reaped little 
or no benefit." 



This was in 1857, an d four years 
later, when the American Republic be- 
came rent by a conflict of brother 
against brother, Mathew B. Brady of 
Washington and New York, asked the 
permission of the Government and the 
protection of the Secret Service to 
demonstrate . the practicability of 
Scott-Archer's discovery in the sever- 
est test that the invention had ever 
been given. Brady was an artist by 
temperament and gained his technical 
knowledge of portraiture in the ren- 
dezvous of Paris. He had been in- 
terested in the discoveries of Niepce 
and Daguerre and Fox-Talbot along 
the crude lines of photography, but 
with the introduction of the collodion 
process of Scott-Archer he accepted 
the science as a profession and, dur- 
ing twenty-five years of labor as a pio- 
neer photographer, took the likenesses 
of the political celebrities of the epoch 
and of eminent men • and women 
throughout the country. 

Brady's request was granted and he 
invested heavily in cameras which 
were made especially for the hard 
usage of warfare. These cameras 
were cumbersome and were operated 
by what is known as the old wet-plate 
process, requiring a dark room which 
was carried with them onto the battle- 
fields. The experimental operations 
under Brady proved so successful 
that they attracted the immediate 
attention of President Lincoln, Gen- 
eral Grant and Allan Pinkerton, 
known as Major Allen and chief of 
the Secret Service. Equipments were 
hurried to all divisions of the great 
army and some of them found their 
way into the Confederate ranks. 

The secret never has been divulged. 
How Mr. Brady gained the confidence 
of such men as Jefferson Davis and 
General Robert E. Lee, and was 
passed through the Confederate lines, 
may never be known. It is certain 
that he never betrayed the confidence 
reposed in him and that the negatives 
were not used for Secret Service in- 
formation, and this despite the fact, 




OR-GENERAL JOHN SEDGWICK AND STAFF— SEDGWICK WAS KILLED AT SPOTTSYLVANI A I\ 



The Eaton collection of original photographic 
negatives taken on the battlefields under the pro- 
tection of the secret service, during the Civil War 
in the United States, contains more than a thousand 
groups and portraits of generals, their staffs, and 
companies whose heroism has endeared them to the 
hearts of the American People. As these negatives 
were taken in the heat of the conflict they are the 
truest likenesses of these warriors in existence 



,t| 



SSSPHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN ON BATTLEFIELDS IN CIVIL WAR 



that Allan Pinkerton and the Artist 
Brady were intimate. Neither of 
these men had any idea of the years 
which the conflict was to rage and 
Mr. Brady expended all his available 
funds upon paraphernalia. The gov- 
ernment was strained to its utmost re- 
sources in keeping its defenders in 
food and ammunition. It was not 
concerned in the development of a 
new science nor the preservation of 
historical record. It faced a mighty 
foe of its own blood. It must either 
fall or rise in a decisive blow. 

It was indeed a sorry time for an 
aesthete. Mr. Brady was unable to 
secure money. His only recourse 
was credit. This he secured from 
Anthony, who was importing photo- 
graphic materials into America and 
was a founder of the trade on this 
continent. The next obstacle was the 
securing of men competent to operate 
a camera. Nearly every able-bodied 
man was engaged in warfare. The 
science was new and required a 
knowledge of chemistry. Brady was 
a man of speculative disposition and 
plunged into the apparently impossi- 
ble undertaking of preserving on 
glass the scenes of action during one 
of the most tremendous conflicts that 
the world has known. Pressing 
toward the firing-line, planting his 
camera on the field almost before the 
smoke of artillery and musket had 
cleared, he came out of the war with 
his thousands of negatives, perpetu- 
ating scenes that human eyes never 
expected to look upon again. There 
can be but very few important move- 
ments that failed to become imprinted 



on these glass records. 



With the close of the war, Brady 
was in the direst financial straits. He 
had spent every dollar of the money 
accumulated in early portraiture and 
was heavily in debt. Seven thousand 
of his negatives were sent to New 
York as security for Anthony, his 
largest creditor. The remaining six 
thousand negatives were placed in a 
warehouse in Washington. Brady 



then began negotiations for replenish- 
ing his funds by disposing of the 
property. He exhibited proofs of his 
negatives in galleries of the- New 
York Historical Society the year fol- 
lowing the cessation of the conflict. 
On the twenty-ninth of January of 
that same year, 1866, the Council of 
the National Academy of Design 
adopted a resolution in which it ac- 
knowledged the value of the Brady 
collection as a reliable authority for 
art and an important contribution to 
American history. It endorsed the 
proposal to place the collection perma- 
nently with the New York Historical 
Society. General Ulysses S. Grant 
had been much interested in the work 
of Brady on the battle-field, and in a 
letter written on February 3, 1866, 
spoke of it as "a collection of photo- 
graphic views of battle-fields taken on 
the spot, while the occurrences repre- 
sented were taking place." General 
Grant added: "I knew when many of 
these representations were being taken 
and I can say that the scenes are not 
only spirited and correct, but also 
well-chosen. The collection will be 
valuable to the student and artist of 
the present generation, but how much 
more valuable it will be to future gen- 
erations?" 

These were days of reconstruction. 
It was almost impossible to interest 
men in matters pertaining to the 
re-establishment of Commerce and 
Trade. Brady had spent twenty-five 
years in collecting the portraits of dis- 
tinguished personages and endeav- 
ored to dispose of these to the Govern- 
ment. The joint committee on libra- 
ries, on March 3, 1871, recommended 
the purchase of some two thousand 
portraits which they called : "A Na- 
tional Collection of Portraits of Emi- 
nent Americans." The congressmen, 
however, faced problems too great to 
allow them to give attention to pic- 
torial art and took no final action on 
the subject. In the meantime Brady 
was unable to meet the bill for stor- 
age and the negatives in Washington 




ADMIRAL FARRAGUT ON THE FLAGSHIP "HARTFORD' 



This photograph was taken while Admiral 
Farragut was standing on the deck of the flagship 
"Hartford" as it entered the deltas of the Missis- 
sippi River on April 18, 1862, in command of the 
most powerful fleet that had ever sailed under the 
American Flag. 

The war photographers took hundreds of nega- 
tives during the naval bombardments all along the 
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts and the originals are now 
in the Eaton collection at Hartford, Connecticut 



SgoPHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN ON BATTLEFIELDS IN CIVIL WAR 



were offered at auction. William W. 
Belknap, the Secretary of War, was 
advised of the conditions and in July, 
1874, he paid the storage bill and the 
negatives fell into possession of the 
Government. The purchase was 
made at a public auction and the Gov- 
ernment bid was $2840 from money 
accumulated by Provost Marshals and 
turned in to the Adjutant-General at 
the close of the Civil War. The Gov- 
ernment records fail to give a list of 
the negatives made either at the time 
of the purchase or for many subse- 
quent years. The original voucher 
dated July 31, 1874, is silent as to the 
number of negatives received by the 
Government. 

General James A. Garfield was 
fully acquainted with the conditions 
under which the negatives were taken 
and the subsequent impoverishment of 
Mathew Brady. He insisted that 
something should be done for the man 
who risked all he had in the world 
and through misfortune lost the re- 
sults of his labors. General Benja- 
min Butler, Congressman from Mas- 
sachusetts, also felt the injustice, and 
on his motion a paragraph was in- 
serted in the Sundry Civil Appropri- 
ation Bill for $25,000 "to enable the 
Secretary of War to acquire a full and 
perfect title to the Brady collection of 
photographs of the War." The busi- 
ness element in Congress was inclined 
to question the material value of the 
negatives. They were but little con- 
cerned with the art value and the dis- 
cussion became a matter of business 
inventory. Generals Garfield and 
Butler in reply to the economists de- 
clared : "The commercial value of the 
entire collection is at least $150,000.'' 
Ten years after the War, but too late 
to save him a vestige of business 
credit, the Government came to 
Brady's relief and on April 15, 1875, 
the sum of $25,000 was paid to him. 
During these years of waiting, Brady 
had been unable to satisfy the de- 
mands of his creditors and an attach- 
ment was placed on the negatives in 



storage in New York. Judgment was 
rendered to his creditor, Anthony, 
and the negatives became his prop- 
erty. 

Army officers who knew of the ex- 
istence of the negatives urged the 
Government to publish them as a part 
of the Official Records of the War. 
The Government stated in reply : "The 
photographic views of the War show- 
ing the battle-fields, military divis- 
ions, fortifications, etc., are among the 
most authentic and valuable records 
of the Rebellion. The preservation of 
these interesting records of the War 
is too important to be intrusted in 
glass plates so easily destroyed by 
accident or design and no more effect- 
ive means than printing can be de- 
vised to save them from destruction." 
While a few proofs were taken for 
the purpose of official records, the 
public still remained unacquainted 
with the scenes so graphically pre- 
served. One who is acquainted with 
the conditions says : "From different 
sources verbal and unofficial, it was 
learned that quite a number of the 
negatives were broken through care- 
less handling of the employees of the 
War Department." The negatives 
were transferred to the War Records 
Office and placed under the careful 
supervision of Colonel R. N. Scott. 

Twenty-five years ago, in 1882, 
Bierstadt, a chemist, informed the 
Government: "The breakableness of 
the glass and the fugitive character of 
photograph chemicals will in a short 
time obliterate all traces of the scenes 
these represent. Unless they are re- 
produced in some permanent form 
they will soon be lost." Fifty-two 
negatives were sent to him and he re- 
produced six of these by a photo- 
graphic mechanical process. The 
Government, however, decided that 
the cost was prohibitive, the expense 
of making the prints was seventy-five 
dollars a thousand and would not 
allow any general circulation. 

Honorable John C. Taylor, of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, a veteran of the 




THE DEAD ALONG HAGERSTOWN ROAD AFTER BATTLE OF ANTIETAM 



This photograph was taken a few hours after 
the Battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862, while 
the war cameras were passing down the Hagers- 
town Road. It shows the dead soldiers lying along 
the fence. It is but a glimpse of the many groups 
of dead on that field of carnage. About forty 
different views were taken by the war cameras just 
as soon as the smoke had lifted over the battle- 
ground at Antietam and the original negatives are 
now owned by Edward B. Eaton of Hartford 



S92PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN ON BATTLEFIELDS IN CIVIL WAR 



Civil War, believed that the heroes of 
the conflict should be allowed to look 
upon the scenes in which they partici- 
pated, and made a thorough investiga- 
tion. Mr. Taylor is now Secretary 
of the Connecticut Prison Association 
and Past Commander of Post No. 50, 
Grand Army of the Republic. In re- 
lating his experiences to me a few 
days ago he said: "I found the seven 
thousand negatives in New York 
stored in an old garret. Anthony, 
the creditor, had drawn prints from 
some of them and I purchased all that 
were in his possession. I also made 
a deal with him to allow me to use the 
prints exclusively. General Albert 
Ordway of the Loyal Legion became 
acquainted with the conditions and, 
with Colonel Rand of Boston, he pur- 
chased the negatives from Anthony 
who had a clear title through court 
procedure. I met these gentlemen 
and contracted to continue my ar- 
rangement with them for the exclu- 
sive use of the prints. I finally pur- 
chased the Brady negatives from Gen- 
eral Ordway and Colonel Rand with 
the intention of bringing them before 
the eyes of all the old soldiers so that 
they might see that the lens had for- 
ever perpetuated their struggle for 
the Union. The Government collec- 
tion had for nine years remained com- 
paratively neglected but through or- 
dinary breakage, lax supervision, and 
disregard of orders, nearly three hun- 
dred of their negatives were broken 
or lost. To assist them in securing 
the prints for Government Records, I 
loaned my seven thousand negatives 
to the Navy Department and shipped 
them to Washington where they were 
placed in a fire-proof warehouse at 
920 E Street, North West. I did all 
that was possible to facilitate the im- 
portant work." 

Endeavors to reveal these nega- 
tives have been futile as far as rank 
and file of the army and the public at 
large are concerned. The Govern- 
ment, as the years passed, became 
impressed with the value of this won- 



derful record but has now officially 
stated with positive finality : "It is evi- 
dent that these invaluable negatives 
are rapidly disappearing and in order 
to insure their preservation it is or- 
dered that hereafter negatives shall 
not be loaned to private parties for 
exploitation or to subserve private in- 
terest in any manner." 

The genius, Brady, in possession of 
$25,000, which came from the Gov- 
ernment too late to save his property, 
entirely lost track of his collection. 
Misfortune seemed to follow him and 
his Government money was soon ex- 
hausted. In speaking of him a few 
days ago, John N. Stewart, Past Vice- 
Commander of the Department of 
Illinois, Grand Army of the Republic, 
told me : "I was with the Army of the 
Potomac as telegraph operator. I 
knew that views of battle-fields were 
taken by men with a cumbersome out- 
fit as compared with the modern field 
photographer. I have often won- 
dered what became of their product. 
I saw Mr. Brady in Washington, 
shortly before his death, and I made 
inquiry of him as to the whereabouts 
of his war scenes. I asked him if the 
negatives were still in existence and 
where proofs could be procured. He 
replied: 'I do not know!' The vast 
collection must possess great value 
and be of remarkable historical inter- 
est at this late date." 

In talking with Mr. Taylor, in his 
office at the State Capitol at Hartford, 
Connecticut, recently, he recalled his 
acquaintance with Brady, and said: 
"I met him frequently. He was a 
man of artistic appearance and of very 
slight physique. I should judge that 
he was about five feet, six inches tall. 
He generally wore a broad-brimmed 
hat similar to those worn by the art 
students in Paris. His hair was long 
and bushy. The last time I met him 
was about twenty-five years after the 
W r ar and he appeared to be a man of 
about sixty-five years of age. Despite 
his financial reverses he was still true 
to his love for art. I told him that I 




ANDERSONVILLE PRISON WITH ITS "DEAD LINE 1 ' AND "BROOK' - 



This photograph was taken at the "dead line" 
at Andersonville Prison while it was crowded with 
Northern prisoners. Another negative in the 
Eaton collection shows the inner stockade and 
guard towers. It is interesting to recall that at one 
time there were 33,000 hungry and dying men con- 
fined in this prison pen, leaving a space of only 
about four feet square to each man. Connecticut 
has recently erected a monument to the memory of 
the Connecticut soldiers who sacrificed their lives 
at Andersonville. There are also several negatives 
taken at the hanging of Wirtz, the keeper of 
Andersonville. They are considered among the 
most remarkable in the valuable Eaton collection 



SwPHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN ON BATTLEFIELDS IN CIVIL WAR 



owned seven thousand of his nega- 
tives and he seemed to be pleased. 
He became reminiscent and among 
the things that he told me I especially 
remember these words: 'No one will 
ever know what I went through in se- 
curing those negatives. The world 
can never appreciate it. It changed 
the whole course of my life. By per- 
sistence and all the political influence 
that I could control I finally secured 
permission from Stanton, the Secre- 
tary of War, to go on the battle-fields 
with my cameras. Some of those neg- 
atives nearly cost me my life.'" Mr. 
Brady told Mr. Taylor of his diffi- 
culty in finding men to operate his 
cameras. 

Brady said he always made two ex- 
posures of the same scene, sometimes 
with a shift of the camera which gave 
a slight change in the same general 
view. He related several interesting 
incidents of his early experiences in 
photography in America. It is gen- 
erally conceded that Mr. Brady should 
be recognized as one of the great 
figures of the epoch in which he 
worked. 

It is here my duty to record an un- 
fortunate incident that is not unusual 
in the annals of art and literature. 
Brady's life, which seems to have 
been burdened with more ill luck than 
the ordinary lot of man, found little 
relief in its venerable years. Misfor- 
tune followed him to the very thresh- 
old of his last hour. He died about 
eight years ago in New York, with 
a few staunch friends, but without 
money, and without public recogni- 
tion for his services to mankind. 
Since Brady's death some of those 
who knew and esteemed him have 
been interested in making a last en- 
deavor to bring his work before the 
world. Mr. Taylor has worked un- 
ceasingly to accomplish this result. 
The late Daniel S. Lamont, Secretary 
of War in President Cleveland's Cabi- 
net, was much interested. Brigadier- 
General A. W. Greeley, in super- 
visory charge of the Government col- 



lection, said : "This collection cost the 
United States originally the sum of 
$27,840, and it is a matter of general 
regret that these invaluable reproduc- 
tions of scenes and faces connected 
with the late civil conflict should re- 
main inaccessible to the general pub- 
lic. The features of most of the per- 
manent actors connected with the 
W r ar for the Union have been pre- 
served in these negatives, where also 
are portrayed certain physical aspects 
of the War that are of interest and of 
historic value . . . graphic rep- 
resentations of the greatest of Amer- 
ican, if not of all, wars." 

The Government, however, has 
stated positively that their negatives 
must not be exploited for commercial 
purposes. They are the historic 
treasures of the whole people and the' 
Government has justly refused to es- 
tablish a dangerous system of "special 
privilege" by granting permission for 
publication to individuals. As the 
property of the people the Govern- 
ment negatives are held in sacred 
trust. 

Mr. Edward B. Eaton, the first 
president of The Connecticut Mag- 
azine, one of the few historical 
publications in this country, became 
interested in the historical significance 
of the Brady collection and conferred 
with the War Department at Wash- 
ington about the Brady negatives. 
He found that the only possible way 
to bring the scenes before the public 
was through the private collection 
which not only includes practically 
all of the six thousand Government 
negatives, but is supplemented by a 
thousand negatives not in the Govern- 
ment collection. 

Mr. Johann Olsen of Hartford, 
who was one of the first operators of 
the old wet-plate process used by 
Brady, personally examined many of 
the negatives in storage in Washing- 
ton and stated that some action 
should be taken immediately. He 
says : "Many of the negatives are 
undergoing chemical action which 




RAILROAD BATTERY IN FRONT OF PETERSBURG DURING SIEGE 



This photograph was taken as the "railroad 
battery" stood on the lines before Petersburg dur- 
ing the seige in the last days of 1864. The Eaton 
collection also contains a large negative of the 
famous "Petersburg Express," mounted on a flat 
freight car on the military railroad which moved 
continually along the lines, throwing the huge 
shells into the beseiged city. The historic old 
mortar now stands in beautiful Bushnell Park 
near the state capitol at Hartford, Connecticut 



595 



^PHOTOGRAPHS. TAKEN ON BATTLEFIELDS IN CIVIL WAR 



will soon destroy them. Others are 
in a remarkable state of preservation. 
I have found among them some of 
the finest specimens of photography 
that this country has ever seen. The 
modern development of the art is 
placed at a disadvantage when com- 
pared with some of these wonderful 
negatives. I do not believe that Gen- 
eral Garfield over-estimated their 
value when he said they were worth 
$150,000. I do not believe that their 
value to American History can be 
estimated in dollars. I was person- 
ally acquainted with one of Brady's 
men at the time these pictures were 
taken and I know something of the 
tremendous difficulties in securing 
them." A few months ago Mr. 
Eaton secured a clear title to the 
seven thousand negatives owned 
by Mr. Taylor with a full under- 
standing that he would immediately 
place the scenes before the public. 
The delicate glass plates were 
fully protected and removed from 
Washington to Hartford, where they 
are to-day in storage in a fire-proof 
vault. 

Modern photographers have experi- 
enced some difficulty in securing 
proofs from the collodion negatives, 
due both to the years that the nega- 
tives have been neglected and their 
inexperience with the peculiar wet- 
plate process. Mr. Olsen is still 
working over them and has succeeded 
in stopping the chemical action that 
threatened to destroy many of them. 
Six thousand of the negatives are 
pronounced to be in as good condi- 
tion to-day as on the day they were 
taken, nearly a half-century ago. 
Accompanying the collection is found 
an occasional negative that seems to 
have been made by Alexander Gard- 
ner or Samuel Cooley. Gardner was 
one of the photographers employed by 
Brady, but he later left him and en- 
tered into competition. Cooley was 
an early photographer who conceived 
a plan similar to Brady's, but operated 
on a very limited scale. Most of his 



negatives were taken in South Caro- 
lina. 

From this remarkable collection, 
witnessing the darkest days on the 
American continent and the first days 
of modern American photography, 
the prints have been selected for the 
new volume here dedicated to the 
American people. Until recent years 
there has been no mechanical process 
by which these negatives could be re- 
produced for general observation. 
The negatives are accurately present- 
ed from the originals by the modern 
half-tone process with only the slight- 
est retouching where chemical action 
has made it absolutely necessary. 

It is the first volume of original 
photographs of the Civil War ever 
published, and consequently proves 
the worthlessness of the inaccurate 
and imaginary drawings that have 
been so extravagantly used in illus- 
trating the histories of that great con- 
flict. I must confess that I really did 
not comprehend the true, meaning of 
that great struggle until I looked upon 
these old negatives. They fairly 
speak in their tragic eloquence. I do 
not believe that any man can fully 
comprehend that terrific conflict until 
he has been taken, by these rare nega- 
tives, into the interiors of the fortifi- 
cations, along the marches of the arm- 
ies, and onto the scene of battle. It is 
the key which unlocks the full under- 
standing of the thousands of printed 
pages on the war in the public and 
private libraries of the country. 

Among the rarest of the negatives 
is the Battle of Antietam, and Lincoln 
in the tent with McClellan on the bat- 
tle-field a few days before the general 
was deposed. There are interior 
views of Andersonville Prison; the 
actual scene of the hanging of Mrs. 
Surrat and the conspirators of the 
Lincoln assassination in the court- 
yard at Washington. Another re- 
markable negative is the hanging of 
Wirtz, the keeper of Andersonville 
Prison. There are many views of the 
dead heroes at Gettysburg, Cold Har- 




EARTHWORKS IN FRONT OF PETERSBURG— FEDERAL LINES AT FORT MORTON 



This photograph was taken in the earthworks 
along the Federal lines outside of Petersburg. The 
Eaton collection contains negatives taken inside 
nearly all the permanent, and many of the tempor- 
ary, fortifications throughout the conflict. It also 
includes many negatives of the maneuvers around 
Petersburg and Richmond, including the burning 
of the Confederate capital, in the critical hours 
after the flight of Jefferson Davis and leading up 
to Lee's surrender to Grant at Arpcmattox 



^PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN ON BATTLEFIELDS IN CIVIL WAR 



bor, Fredericksburg, and other hard- 
fought battlegrounds. The burning 
of Richmond and the ruins of many of 
the cities of the Confederacy give one 
the first full understanding of the de- 
vastation sown by shot and shell from 
1861 to 1865. 

In selecting these prints it has been 
the desire of the editor to present, as 
nearly as possible, a chronological pic- 
torial record of the Civil War in the 
United States. At points where the 
large cameras could not be drawn into 
the conflict, Brady used a smaller and 
lighter camera that allowed him to get 
very close to the field of action. Many 
of the most critical moments in the 
long siege are embodied in these small 
negatives. They link the larger pic- 
tures into one strong chain of indis- 
putable evidence. It would require 
forty volumes to present the entire 
collection. This book can be but a 
kaleidoscopic vision of the great con- 
flict. Thousands of remarkable 
scenes must for the present, at least, 
remain veiled. That the public may 
know just what these negatives con- 
ceal, a partial record has been com- 
piled. 

The drama here revealed by the 
lens is one of intense realism. In it 
one can almost hear the beat of the 
drum and the call of the bugle. It 
throbs with all the passions known to 
humanity. It brings one face to face 
with the madness of battle, the thrill 
of victory, the broken heart of defeat. 
There is in it the loyalty of comrade- 
ship, the tenderness of brotherhood, 
the pathos of the soldier's last hour; 
the willingness to sacrifice, the fidelity 
to principle, the love of country. 

Far be it from the power of these 
old negatives to bring back the mem- 
ory of forgotten dissensions or long- 
gone contentions. Whatever may 
have been the differences that threw 
a million of America's strongest man- 
hood into bloody combat, each one 



offered his life for what he believed 
to be the right. The American peo- 
ple to-day are more strongly united 
than ever before — North, South, East 
and West, all are working for the 
moral, the intellectual, the industrial 
and political upbuilding of our be- 
loved land. 

The path of progress has been 
blazed by fire. Strong men with 
strong purposes have thrown their 
lives on the altar of civilization that 
their children and their children's 
children might live and work in the 
light of a new epoch that found its 
birth in the agonizing throes of hu- 
man sacrifice. From the beginning 
of all ages the soldier has been, and 
always must be, a mighty man. 

Fie who will step deliberately into 
the demon's jaws to defend a princi- 
ple or to save his country must be 
among the greatest of men. His is 
the heroic heart to whom the world 
must look for the dawn of the Age 
of Universal Peace. It is his cour- 
ageous arm that must force the world 
to halt. The citizenship of the future 
must be moulded and dominated by 
the men with the willingness to sac- 
rifice for the sake of justice and such 
men are soldiers, whether it be in war 
or peace. 

There is a longing in the hearts of 
men, and especially those who have 
felt the ravages of battle, for the day 
when there shall be no more war; 
when force will be dethroned and rea- 
son will rule triumphant. The great 
Washington, who led the conflict for 
our national independence, longed for 
the epoch of peace. "My first wish," 
he exclaimed, "is to see this plague 
to mankind banished from the earth." 

The mission of the negatives is one 
of peace — that all may look upon the 
horrors of war and pledge their man- 
hood to "Peace on earth, good will 
toward men !" 




WRECKED INTERIOR OF FORT SUMTER 



i 






. 
















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si ^i ; 


Kw*^* s^^Tij 


m 


jw . S - '' ■fc^^' ~^Q^ m^^******! a 




y 


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~~"^^^^BH B5»kJ 






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DISMOUNTED CANNON AT FORT SUMTER 
These photographs were taken immediately after the second bom- 
bardment of Fort Sumter in 1863, when the war cameras were admitted 
into the fortification. The Eaton collection at Hartford, Connecticut, 
also contains negatives from practically all the forts in the greatu.it 



500 



SERMON by a CONNECTICUT CLERGYMAN in 1693 



Cbe Duty of a Politician in early America 

MANUSCRIPT BY THE REVEREND JOSEPH WEBB. BORN 
IN 1666, OCCASIONED BY THE DEMISE OF MAJOR NATHAN 
GOLD OF FAIRFIELD, CONNECTICUT— HE CHARAC- 
TERIZES A POLITICIAN AS "A FATHER OF THE 
PEOPLE—A PROTECTOR FROM EVIL" — TRANSCRIBED 

BY 
MRS. ELIZABETH HUBBELL SCHENCK 

Author of "The History of Fairfield, Connecticut" 



AT this time when "politicians" 
are meeting the disapproba- 
tion of the American people, 
it is interesting to note the es- 
teem in which they were originally 
held in the first days of the nation. 
The change has undoubtedly come, 
not throueh any fickleness of Ameri- 
can character, but by the failure of the 
"politician" to live up to the high 
moral standard which was appor- 
tioned to him. 

When Noah Webster wrote his dic- 
tionary in Connecticut, it is evident 
that the tendency to prostitute the 
high calling of the "politician" had 
begun, for he divided it into two 
meanings: first, "one versed or expe- 
rienced in the science of government; 
one devoted to politics ; a statesman ;" 
and second, "one primarily devoted to 
his own advancement in public office, 
or to the success of a political party; 
one addicted or attached to politics as 
managed by parties ; a schemer ; an in- 
triguer." 

That the "politician" is not alone 
the product of self-government is 
proven by the remarks of the littera- 
teurs that flourished long before the 
republic. Shakespeare symbolizes low 
character by this trenchant compari- 
son : "Like a scurvy politician." Mil- 
ton speaks of "ill-meaning political 
lords" Dryden sees little hope 
"while empiric politicians use deceit" 
Southey says in disdain: "The politi- 
cian . . . ready to do anything 
that he apprehends for his advantage." 



The high moral status of the "poli- 
tician" in the first years in America is 
well outlined by an old sermon 
preached over the remains of a de- 
ceased "politician" in 1693. It is the 
afternoon sermon preached at the 
funeral of a political leader of Litch- 
field County, Connecticut — Major 
Nathan Gold. The loss to the com- 
munity was such that the Reverend 
Joseph Webb, the village pastor, 
preached two sermons, one in the 
morning, and another in the afternoon. 
The morning sermon has already been 
recorded in Number 1, Volume XI, of 
The Connecticut Magazine. 

As stated in the introduction, it 
is an interesting study in homiletics, 
its real worth is as a witness of the 
thought and spirit of its generation, 
revealing the tendencies and leading 
characteristics of the age and life of 
which it was a part. It views death as 
a calamity — as a rebuke from God — 
and there is in it an eccentric strain 
of perplexity that a pious man should 
die, and was here presented as a basis 
for the study of the intellectual and 
religious movement in America, es- 
pecially in relation to the final dispo- 
sition of mankind. 

The afternoon sermon, which is 
here recorded, is a studied analysis of 
the value of political services to the 
community, and a political leader or 
magistrate is spoken of as a "father 
of the people" — one who watches 
over them and protects them from 
evil. It is interesting to read this 



602 



THE DUTY OF A POLITICIAN IN EARLY AMERICA 



ancient document in the light of the 
present day standard of political mor- 
als. In possession of Mrs. Elizabeth 
B. Gould of Fairfield, Connecticut, is 
the original age-seared manuscript. 
Major Nathan Gold was for fifty 
years a compatriot of the Burrs and 
the Ludlows, foremost in ecclesiasti- 
cal, political and military affairs, and 
the progenitor of the Gould family in 
America, one branch of which has be- 
come eminent through its accumula- 
tion of great riches and the philan- 
thropy of one of its daughters. Major 
Gold died on March 4, 1693. 

2D. Sermon. 

2. Doct. Pious and holy men in a 
publick capacity are ye fathers, the 
glory and strength, stay and defence 
of ye people among wm they live and 
over wm they are. O my father, my 
father, ye chariots of Israel and ye 
horsemen yreof. Such a relation doe 
godly magistrates and ministers stand 
in and such an advantage and benefit 
they are to yr people. As for great 
men in civill power they are in Scrip- 
ture termed Fathers. 45 Gen: 8. 
Saith Joseph yre God hath made me 
a father to Pharaoh and Lord of all 
his house and ruler thro-out all ye 
land of Egypt, again in ye 2. Kings, 
5. 13, we find yt ye servants of Nao- 
man address ym selves unto him, un- 
der ye title of Father. And his 
Serv'ts. came near and spake to him 
saying my father if ye prophet had 
bid thee doe &c, And yn doth not 
Job looking unto this office of a judge 
call himselfe a father to ye poor. 
29. Job 16. I was a father to ye poor, 
and ye cause wch I knew not I 
searched out. Add to this yt in ye 
49 Isai. 23, Kings are said to be nurs- 
ing fathers and Queens nursing moth- 
ers unto ye people of God. Thus 
they are termed in ye word of God. 
And thus they have bin esteemed by 
men. The Romans called yr Senators 
patres conscripti. 

And yn as to those whose function 
is sacred, Godly ministers they are 
Fathers unto ye people among wm 



they are. Thus they are styled in ye 
text. And they are ye glory and stay 
of a peple. The same phrases yt are 
applied to ym here are applied to ym 
in 2. chapt. 12, of this 2nd book of ye 
Kings. 

1. Quest. How and in wt respect 
are holy ones of publick place and use 
ye fathers of a people? Answ. They 
are fathers not litterally but figura- 
tively, not properly but metaphori- 
cally, not fathers by nature but by 
office. They are instead of Fathers 
performing ye love, care and duty of 
those who are in such a relation. 

(1) Fathers give being unto those 
yt are children. They are the next 
secondary causes of the lives and ex- 
istence of such. There is something 
like unto this to be said of pious rul- 
ers in church and State, not yt they 
doe really beget and soe give being 
unto ye people yt are under ym, but 
yet they give being to ym as sub- 
jects. I think it may be said yt we 
can not call this or yt a common- 
wealth, call those and those subjects 
wthout yrein supposing some over ym 
governing ym and to wm they are in 
subjection. 

But yn as to ministers those are in 
an especiall manner causes not of ye 
naturall but of ye Spirituall beings of 
men. Tis very plain yt they are ye 
spirituall Fathers of a people as they 
are adjuvant causes of yr conversion. 
They are under God and Christ ye 
helping causes of yr being created 
anew in Christ Jesus, hence they are 
called co-op er arii or workers together 
wth Christ. 2. Cor. 6. 1, hence allsoe 
they are said to beget men wch is ye 
property of those who are Fathers, 
hence allsoe those wm they have bin 
thus instrumentall to convert are 
called yr Sons. 10 vs. of Epist. to 
Philemon. I beseech thee for my Son 
Onesimus wm I have begotten in my 
bonds. Upon this account Paul doth 
oft-times call Timothy his son. 
I. Tim I. 2. Unto Timothy my own 
Son in ye faith. 2. Tim. 1 : 2, and 
2: ch: 1. vs. thou yrefore my Son. 



SERMON BY A CONNECTICUT CLERGYMAN IN 1693 6o 3 



Paul calls him son not in respect of 
ye naterall, but in &c, Upon this 
account Paul calls himself ye Father 
of the Corinthians because he had be- 
gotten ym 1 Cor: 4: 15. For tho ye 
have ten thousand instructers in 
Christ, yet have ye not many Fathers : 
for in Christ Jesus I have begotten 
you thro ye Gospell. 

2. Fathers are obliged to take care 
of yr children and those who rightly 
discharge yr duty in yt relation take 
care to promote the well being and 
happiness of their children by all 
lawfull wayes and means wtsoever. 
Thus magistrates and ministers have 
ye care of ye commonwealth and 
churches committed to ym hence 
those rulers who doe yr duty are 
called nursing Fathers to denote ye 
tender care they ought to take of yr 
people in 49. Isai 23. And hence 
ministers are termed overseers of the 
Flock of Christ. 20. Acts 28. hence 
those in civill and ecclesiasticall au- 
tority are termed Shepherds 44. Isai 
28. That saith of Cyrus he is my 
shepherd. 1. Kings 22: 17, and II. 
Zeck: 17. 

Good magistrates and ministers 
take care and provide for ye best good 
of those over wm they are set. 
Fathers govern yr children and fami- 
lies, soe doe magistrates and ministers 
ye commonwealth and ye churches. 
These keep things in order here. Take 
care yt every one move in his proper 
sphere, soe as may make most for ye 
comon good. 

Again fathers take care for ye in- 
struction of yr children, soe doe good 
magistrates and ministers. The for- 
mer by encouraging and promoting 
Schools of learning for good mannrs 
&c. and allsoe by promoting and fur- 
thering preaching of ye gospell &c. 
The latter doe personally teach men 
ye mysteries of salvation. In this re- 
spect they are said to feed ye cch of 
Christ 20 Acts 28 and to feed 
ym wth knowledge and understand- 
ing. 3 Jer: 15. Again fathers doe 
protect and defend yr children from 



evill soe far as they are capable, thus 
magistrates and ministers endeavour 
to keep off evill from yr people, but 
more of this hereafter, under ye last 
thing. 

Lastly. Fathers correct yr chil- 
dren this is yr duty and belongs to ym 
in ye relation in wch they are. Thus 
it belongs to rulers in ye comon 
wealth and churches to punish offend- 
ers such as come under yr jurisdic- 
tion. And this is a favr as it is nec- 
essary and tends tcf ye good of church 
and state. Those yt are and design 
to be offendrs will not it may be prize 
rulers upon such an account. But 
others, those at least who are sensible 
how necessary such punishments ap- 
pointed to and inflicted upon trans- 
gressrs are to keep and preserve all 
from ruine and confusion will upon 
this account love and honour ym as 
fathers. 2. Quest. In wt respect are 
godly magistrates and ministers ye 
glory of a people? Answ. They are 
soe in respect of ye excellency of yr 
office and persons. Their office is 
high and honorable. They are as we 
have heard but now fathers to ye peo- 
ple who are ye children and in this re- 
spect they are a glory to ym 17 Prov. 
6. — is ye glory of children are yr 
Fathers. They are advanced by God 
above the people, are set over ym to 
lead ym and goe before ym as the 
phrase is in 27. Numb. 16. Hence 
civill governrs are called ye heads and 
chiefest of a people 10. Judges. 18. 
he shall be head over all ye inhabi- 
tants of Gilead and in 11 chapt. 8, 9 
and 1. Cron: 11. 6. Moreover they 
are dignifyed wth this famous and 
excellent title of Gods. 82: Ps: 6. 
I have said ye are Gods, and all of 
you are children of ye most high. 
And yn as to yr persons usually they 
are excellent allsoe. In this respect 
they may be said to be choice ones as 
they have greater gifts given ym by 
God than others; as they have more 
excellent endowmts wreby they are 
qualifyed for soe great a charge. 
And yn holiness wch is ye crown of 



604 



THE DUTY OF A POLITICIAN IN EARLY AMERICA 



all this renders ym worthy indeed. 
We are speaking concerning holy 
ones in such a capacity, and such are 
honorable ones; wn men are not only 
good rulers, but good and holy men 
they are choice ones indeed. The 
Psalmist calls Saints yt is pious per- 
sons ye excellent ones of ye earth. 
16. Ps:3. 

Now wn such honorable persons 
stand related to a people wn they are 
amongst ym and over ym in ye rela- 
tion of magistrates and ministers 
they must needs be an ornamt, a 
crown, a glory to ym Magistrates and 
ministers those who are pious espe- 
cially are ye lieutenants and Embas- 
sadrs of him who is King of Kings 
and Lord of Lords. And surely they 
must yn needs be ye glory of a people 
wn God threatens to take away such 
from a people he puts it in this phrase 
of turning yr glory into shame. 
4. Hosea. 7. 

3. Quest. How doth it appear yt 
pious magistrates and ministers are 
the strength, stay and defence of a 
people and in wt respect are they soe? 
Answ. It appears from those meta- 
phors signifying this wch are applied 
to ym in Scripture. They are called 
pillars of ye earth. 1. Sam : 2 : 8, and 
in ye 75. Ps : 3. The earth and all ye 
inhabitants of it are dissolved: I bear 
up ye pillars of it. These phrases are 
understood by interpreters of princes 
and rulers both civill and Ecclesiasti- 
call, especially such of ym as are vir- 
tuous and pious. These are pillars 
in church and State. Now wt are pil- 
lars to a building but ye stay and 
strength of it? Soe are pious rulers 
to a people. 

Again they are called shields 47. 
Ps : 9. The Princes of ye people are 
gathered together — for ye Shields of 
ye earth belong to God. ie ye princes, 
rulers and great ones of ye earth. 
Now why are they soe termed but be- 
cause they are ye protectrs and de- 
fendrs of yr people. The use of a 
Shield is to keep off blows, to defend 
men from injury and hurt. Soe 



pious men in a publick capacity are a 
means to save those among wm they 
live from a great deal of evill. 

As men qualifyed wth power, cour- 
age and wisdome soe they are ye 
strength of a people. They are lead- 
ers and having naturall qualifications 
for such a trust they are ye bullwarks 
of a people. It is said in ye 7. Eccl: 
12, yt wisdome is a defence. Thus 
by yr wisdome they are able to order 
things for ye best and soe yreby are a 
means to prevent evill. But consider 
ym as to yr Spirituall goodnes, as they 
are holy and pious men, as they are 
good rulers and godly men soe they 
are the greatest advantage to a people. 
And if we would know in wt respect 
they are ye strength and stay of a 
people, I answer they are not soe in 
ye first, but in a secondary respect. 
God is indeed the first, the chief, the 
best Shield of a people. Great and 
good men are soe only in subordina- 
tion unto him And here in generall 
such as we have bin speaking of are 
ye strength of a people as they are 
a means to keep Gods gracious pres- 
ence wth ym as they are a means to 
engage God to be on ye side of such a 
people. And if God be for a people 
who shall be agst them, who shall be 
able to harm them? The very pres- 
ence of such men is a great advan- 
tage to a people, it's a means to ob- 
tain Gods favourable presence, and 
this presence of God contains all good 
in it, all yt protection and preserva- 
tion wch a people stand in need of. 
God hath respect unto such precious 
servants as that, for yr sakes he can 
spare a great many great sinners. A 
few righteous ones would have done 
Sodome a great kindnes,ten righteous 
ones would have saved ym wn they 
were soe ripe for ruine. See in ye 
18. Gen: 32. But here in two re- 
spects they are a means to keep God 
wth a people and to keep off evill 
from ym. 

(1) As they are a means to keep 
out sin and to keep up religion 
amongst a people. Sin is ruining and 



SERMON BY A CONNECTICUT CLERGYMAN IN 1693 6o 5 



destructive to any people wtsoever, it 
weakens ym exceedingly, it grieves 
God who is ye rock of his people and 
provokes him to withdraw from ym, 
yea to turn his hand agst ym and to 
doe ym evill. 

On ye other hand religion is ad- 
vantagious to a people, holiness is 
profitable to secure ym from judg- 
ments. Religion is ye very life and 
preservation unto a people. 32. Deut. 
46, 47. It engageth ye presence of 
God wth and his care for those wth 
wm it is to be found. A righteous 
God loveth righteousnes 1 1. Ps: 7. 
An holy God will be wre holines is 
loved and practised. Those yrefore 
who are a means to restrain from sin, 
and who promote virtue, piety and 
godlines are in yt respect ye strength 
and security of a people ; and doe keep 
off a great deal of harm from ym. 
Now godly rulers in civil and sacred 
respects are eminently serviceable un- 
to this. 

(1) Godly magistrates keep out sin 
and uphold religion (1) by an im- 
proving ye power god hath given 
them to yt end. Such remember yt 
ye autority is from ye Lord Jesus 
Christ 8. Prov. 15. 16, and accord- 
ingly are carefull to exercise it for 
him. Holy rulers manage ye sword 
of justice put into yr hands agst sin, 
they bend ymselves to destroy yt wch 
is soe dishonourable to God and per- 
nicious to a people: they are carefull 
to make eood and wholesome laws 
agst sin and to execute ym in punish- 
ing sinnrs. And hereby a great deal 
of iniquity is prevented; sinners now 
dare not sin as otherwise they would 
doe. And soe they improve yr power 
to ye promoting ye fear, service and 
worship of God. Hence 'tis said of 
pious magistrates that they are a ter- 
rour to evill doers, and a praise to 
yose yt doe well. 13. Rom: 3, 4. 

(2) They doe it allsoe by yr own 
example. They are not only carefull 
to forbid others to sin, to comand 
others to doe well, but they are allsoe 
carefull to abstain from sin and to doe 



well ymselves. And ye example of yr 
holiness hath a great influence upon 
those they live among. "Exempla 
trahunt" examples are drawing and 
especially ye examples of great men. 
There's a great deal of truth in yt 
saying, "Regis ad exemplum totus 
componitur orbis." And it hath bin 
observed yt the generality of a people 
hath ever shaped ye same course wth 
ye rulers, yt they have inclined to fol- 
low ye virtues or vices of yre leaders. 

Wn men see yt/ yr rulers hate sin 
they'll be ashamed to profess any 
friendship to it. This will promote 
in ym an outward abstinence at least 
from iniquitie. And if they see yt 
yr rulers are friends to religion and 
godlines, they'll be ashamed but to 
profess friendship unto it allsoe. Thus 
men in power are advantaged to doe 
a great deal of good. And those who 
are truely pious are carefull to im- 
prove ye advantage put into yr hands. 

(2) And then as to God's servants 
in ye ministry are great helps to de- 
stroy sin and uphold religion. It is 
properly yr work to minister about 
holy things ; to teach men yr duty, to 
tell ym wt is to be avoided, and wt is 
to be practised by ym. They are more 
nextly to mind and manage ye con- 
cerns of religion. They are to preach 
down Sin, and to preach up holiness ; 
they are to insist upon and mostly to 
urge and press yt wch is essential! in- 
terest of religion, wch is ye interest 
of Jesus Christ and ye great interest 
of every people. 

They are to reform wt is amiss in 
ye house of God, and to oppose sin 
and promote holiness \vlh all yr 
might See yr duty in this respect 
2. Tim: 4. 2. Preach ye word, be in- 
stant in season and out of season, re- 
prove, rebuke, exhort wth all long 
suffering and doctrine. And those 
yt are pious and faithfull doe thus 
appear agst sin and on ye behalfe of 
Godliness both by yr doctrine and 
holy conversation. 

By these means both magistrates 
and ministers in yr respective Stations 



6o6 THE DUTY OF A POLITICIAN IN EARLY AMERICA 



are a means to keep out sin and soe to 
keep off judgmt. This we may see in 
yt record of ye Kings of Israel wch is 
upon file in ye word of God. Wn 
they had good governours religion 
flourished and things went well with 
them. Wn they were removed sin 
came in abundantly and judgmts ac- 
cordingly followed it. 

Good Jehojadah was a means to up- 
hold religion all his dayes, whilst he 
lived things were reformed, idolatry 
was purged out and ye true worship 
of God was restored. The King it's 
said did right all his dayes. 2. Cron: 
24. 2, and soe on. but wn he died all 
went to ruine, idolatry was restored, 
17 vs and c, and yn followed a great 
deal of misery, 23, and 24 vs. 

(2) Such pious ones are ye 
strength and defence of a people by 
yr prayers and intercession for ym. 
God's servants in ye magistracy and 
ministry bear a great affection and 
well and cannot endure to think of 
having ym afflicted and ruined by 
these and those judgmts. Therefore 
they doe (as it is yr duty) continu- 
ally spread yr case before God and en- 
treat mercy for ym, especially wn 
they have ye prospect of judgmt com- 
ing; wn they have God threatning to 
consume a people to bring this or yt 
sad calamity upon them, o how ear- 
nest and importunate are they then! 
How doth Abraham beg for Sodome ? 
How doth Moses plead for Israel wn 
God threatned ym for ye calfe 32. 
Exod. 11 and c. And the prayers of 
such precious servants of God keep 
off ruine and destruction from a peo- 
ple many times. Ungodly sinners 
would many times be cut off were it 
not for ye godly intercession for ym. 
That is a remarkable place 106. Ps: 
23. Therefore he said he would de- 
stroy ym, had not Moses his chosen 
stood before him in ye breach ; to 
turn away his wrath least he should 
destroy ym. Thus we have ye illus- 
tration and confirmation of ye truth; 
we have seen how pious men of pub- 



lick use and place are ye fathers, ye 
glory, and ye strength of a people. 

APPLICATION. 

1 vse. Is this a truth wch we have 
heard concerning God's holy ones in 
ye magistracy and ministry this doc- 
trine reproves those of great ingrati- 
tude who doe in any wise abuse and 
injure such ones. If they are such 
and soe to a people assuredly they de- 
serve well at yr hands. But how 
many of ye servants of God in pub- 
lick capacities deserve better yn they 
many times find from a people. It is 
noe unusuall thing in a sinfull world 
for those who desire and seek nothing 
but ye reall and best good of a people 
to be ill requited for yr pains. Godly 
magistrates have been abused before 
now. Moses was more than once 
murmured agst. Samuel was not a 
little unkindly dealt withall by ye Is- 
raelites wn they rejected him from 
ruling over ym. And how have ye 
holy prophets and Apostles of old bin 
treated by those among whom they 
laboured! how have they bin slan- 
dered and reproached! hurt by ye 
tongues and ye hands of men, allsoe? 
wt befell Jeremiah how oft in danger 
of his life. 26. Jer: 8, 9, was not 
Zeckariah ye son of Jehojida stoned 
by ye ungratefull King and people of 
Israel 2. Cron: 24, 21, and 22. And 
how was Paul and ye rest of ye Apos- 
tles traduced and persecuted? Now 
is not this great ingratitude Holy men 
of publick use and place we hear are 
ye fathers &c. of a people. And this 
implies yt they have a great deal of 
care lying upon them. The relation 
of a father is a relation of care and 
great thoughtfullness. And little doe 
those know wt a load of care ye fath- 
ers of ye comon wealth and church 
have; how oft they are bowed down 
and just ready to sink under it. 

Now is it not ingratitude in a high 
degree to speak evill of a father, for 
men to undervalue and act agst yr 
fathers, especially those who take soe 
much care for ym, and of wm they 



SERMON BY A CONNECTICUT CLERGYMAN IN 1603 607 



stand in soe much need. O, that 
those who are guilty in this respect 
would bethink ymselves, be ashamed 
of yr ingratitude and reform. 

(2) Let such know yt yr folly and 
wretchedness is exceeding great who 
are weary of righteous ones, espe- 
cially in such a capacity and wish ym 
away from ym. The unregenerate 
world yt lies in wickednes have all 
along manifested too much of this 
spirit. Such is yr love to sin as that 
they hate and cannot endure those 
who would destrain ym from yr be- 
loved lusts ; therefore wish those fur- 
ther who will be rebuking them and 
doubtless some are soe wretched as 
to rejoice at ye death of Godly magis- 
trates and ministers ; of yr spirrit who 
rejoiced for ye death of those two 
prophets yt tormented ym. 11. Rev. 
10. And is not this madness and 
frenzy to wish or fathers in ye grave, 
to wish ye foundations, ye pillars of 
or houses removed? Is not this to 
bring speedy destruction by ye fall of 
or houses about or eares! Who in 
his right mind would desire to have 
the walls of ye city broken down wn 
ye enemie lies before it? O the mad- 
nes yt those discover who wish ye 
Godly in yr graves and are glad wn 
they are removed from ymselves wt 
is this but to imprecate evill upon yor- 
selves. How long will ye building 
stand wn ye pillars are gone, wt will 
become of you wn there are none yt 
have any interest in God to inter- 
ceed for you? Wn or Moses's are 
gone who shall stand in ye gap to 
keep off wrath and ruine? Wn ye 



righteous ones are gone sinners must 
be employed in this work of pleading 
for the preventing of judgmt or noe 
body at all. And will sinners doe any 
good here; will sinners dare to inter- 
pose and to stand in the gap wn God 
is discharging his murdering pieces, 
or will yr intercession prevail? O 
noe God heareth not sinners! Who 
yn shall mourn and pray and plead 
for a sinning, sinking people wn ye 
excellent ones of ye earth have taken 
yr leave of it! Let such yn as have 
bin now condemned see yr folly and 
repent of it. 

(3) Is it soe yt Gods serv'ts in ye 
magistracy and ministry are such &c, 
hence see 'tis a great loss to a people 
wn such are removed and taken away 
from ym. Inconsiderate sinners may 
lightly esteem such things, and think 
it is noe great matter, nor great dam- 
age wn these and those precious 
serv'ts of Jesus Christ are called away 
out of ye world, but if they will wei?h 
and consider wt they have heard con- 
cerning the relation and advantage of 
such ones to ym, their eyes will be 
opened to see yr mistake. For chil- 
dren to lose a good Father is a great 
loss ; For a comonwealth, a church to 
lose an able, aged and well experi- 
enced magistrate or minister is a loss 
yt cannot easily be repaired, especially 
in this leaden age wrein we live. 

(4) Are holy ones of publick 
place and use such as we have heard 
unto a people, yn it's all ye reason in 
ye world yt they have yt esteem, love, 
honour, &c. wch yr being such calls 
for. 



TRUE LIVING 

BY 

GEORGE WARREN PARKER 



Not for the gain or worldly fame, 
Nor aught that men may say;, 
But that my word may help some soul 
Into a brighter day. 



Nor would I seek the multitude. 
Nor thoughtless, vain applause; 
But heart to heart, to one impart 
Some truth, some noble cause. 



"Bebold, fie £imi Cben meet) for fiim" 



I 



BY 

FRANK P. FOSTER, JR. 

NDEED, indeed, I can no longer sing. 
My voice is silenced by an awful thing 
That haunts my waking hours and at night 

Makes me to tremble with a nameless fright. 



I know not that I dozed nor that I woke, 
Yet I am certain that two dead men spoke ; 
And in their accents I could plainly hear 
A note of sadness and, I thought, of fear. 
I lay alone upon a bank in bloom, 
Long after dark descended with her gloom ; 
My thoughts were far away with former years 
When I was startled by a sound of tears — 
A sound of sobbing tears and mournful moan — 
And I had thought that I was all alone. 
I raised my head and saw a fearsome sight, 
Two ghostly figures clad in robes of light. 
I knew them for two friends who long were dead, 
My lips were sealed, my heart was turned to lead, 
And soon I found their weeping was for me. 
They did not know that I their forms could see. 
"Ah ! Brother," said the one, "Behold, he lives, 
Then weep for him as weeps the God Who gives 
The task of life to all mankind in turn, 
Yet follows with the blessing that they earn. 
Behold the labor of each irksome breath, 
He shall not know repose except in death. 
Yea, let your tears fall fast, he struggles still, 
While you and I have climbed life's rugged hill. 
He feels each day the struggle and the strife 
That, in his mortal blindness, he calls life, 
While we, thanks be to God, we both know death — 
The pangs of life have passed with mortal breath.' 
He spake, and then they vanished from my sight 
And left me weeping through the lonely night. 
608 



ANECDOTE OF AN OLD TIME MINISTER 

REVEREND SAMUEL EELLS OF BRANFORD WHO ACTED 
AS VILLAGE DOCTOR AND MARCHED HIS CONGREGATION 
TO WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS WHEN CALL CAME 
FOR TROOPS TO FIGHT FOR AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE 

BY 

GEORGE S. ROBERTS 

Author of "Tna Connecticut Valley 1 ' and Other Historical Works 



IN my historical researches in Con- 
necticut, in the preparation of 
my books, I have found an inter- 
esting character of the first years 
of American politics. It is an old- 
time minister who also served as the 
village doctor and went to the battle - 
front with the men of his congrega- 
tion to fight for American independ- 
ence. 

The Reverend Samuel Eells, minis- 
ter of the Congregational Church, in 
North Branford, Connecticut, from 
1769 to 1808, was an unusually re- 
markable man in many ways. His 
education was most liberal and be- 
sides being a preacher of note, he was 
also a physician of good repute and 
he practiced the profession of medi- 
cine among his parishioners. 

But he was most notable, perhaps, 
as a patriotic disciple of Christ, who 
sacrificed his feelings to a degree for 
the good of the Colonies, in the War 
for Independence, by helping to raise 
a company for Washington's Army, 
and he actually became its captain. 

Early in 1777, Washington's entire 
force, then stationed near New York 
city, consisted of about 1,500 rank 
and file. It is a notable fact, that in 
emergencies, Washington usually 
called upon Connecticut, whether it 
was supplies or men he needed, and 
this was one of those occasions. He 
sent word to the Connecticut author- 
ities to make it known to the people 
that he wished Connecticut's quota of 
soldiers to be sent to him as soon as 
possible. It so happened that the 
knowledge of this command from the 
commander-in-chief became known 
in North Branford on a Sunday, while 



the people were at meeting. When 
it is remembered that our forefathers 
of Connecticut were almost Quixoti- 
cally strict in their observance of the 
"Sabbath," and that they considered 
few matters of sufficient importance — 
outside of Church matters — to be 
allowed to interfere with what they 
considered the proper observance of 
the day, the fine spirit of patriotism 
displayed by the Reverend Mr. Eells 
will be appreciated. 

He told the congregation, from the 
pulpit, of the order received from 
Washington, explained the necessity 
for an immediate response to that 
command and requested that all men 
who were ready to march to Wash- 
ington's aid at New York, should pa- 
rade in front of the Church after the 
service. All the able-bodied men re- 
sponded heartily to the request of 
their minister and a line was formed 
on the green in front of the church 
and Lieutenant Samuel Baldwin or- 
ganized a company of sixty men, from 
Branford and Northford. While 
Lieutenant Baldwin was by right the 
captain of the company, he waived 
his right in favor of Mr. Eells and the 
beloved minister was elected captain. 
His commission as captain of the 
company was signed by Governor 
Trumbull on January 14, 1777, and 
the Reverend Captain Samuel Eells 
marched his company to Washing- 
ton's headquarters. 

There is a pleasant anecdote illus- 
trating the keen and somewhat biting 
humor of Mr. Eells. One of the 
present popular shore resorts in the 
town of Branford is Stony Crock. It 
has been a summer resort for a bun- 



6io ANECDOTE OF AN OLD-TIME CONNECTICUT MINISTER 



dred years. Its shore situation is 
charming and the lovely Thimble 
Islands add much to its charm. But 
in the old days, about 1800, a rather 
rough class resorted there for its 
fishing, its famous oysters and its 
clams. It was sufficiently remote 
from the homes and the watchful eyes 
of the Congregational Churches for 
the farmers and other habitues to in- 
dulge in internal baths of New Eng- 
land rum and other less reputable 
sport, as well as in external baths in 
the sea and the sport of fishing. 
Finally, their excesses and manner of 
life became so offensive to the steady- 
going natives of the Creek that they 
were given the generic name of the 
"Portuguese," probably from the 
fact that of the sailors with whom 



all of the shore towns became ac- 
quainted, the Portuguese sailors were 
the toughest and most uncouth. 

On one occasion the Reverend 
Samuel Eells and a number of his 
parishioners went to Stony Creek for 
a week's enjoyment of the shore, the 
bathing and its sea-food. Mr. Eells, 
knowing the reputation of the 
Creek, suggested to such of the 
party as were members of his 
church that they should leave their 
Covenants under a certain juniper- 
bush before entering the precincts of 
the Creek, and to such as were town 
officials, that they should leave their 
oaths there, so that, upon their re- 
turn home they could be taken up 
unsullied by contact with the Creek 
and its rough Portuguese element. 



ON THE CONNECTICUT SHORE 



BY 



ELIZABETH H. JOCELYN CLEAVELAND 



New Haven, Connecticut 



Blue sea, creeping up the shore, 

Like a lover greeting 
Timidly the maiden land, 

And as quick retreating. 



Brave sea, rushing up the shore, 

Like a warrior throwing 
Wild arms around hi 



Whispering, "Love? 



jig. bride, 
*f I'm goi 



going 



Sad sea, sighing on the shore, 
Like that lover grieving, 

As he gives a last caress, 
To the land he's leaving. 



Loud sea, sounding on the shore, 
Mad with love's commotion, 

Now I hear his footsteps go 
Far out on the ocean. 



Glad sea, bounding up the shore, 
Like a bridegroom bringing 

Jewels for the lovely land, 
Jewels o'er her flinging. 



Thus, I've seen thee, fickle sea, 
Bold advances making, 

And the broken-hearted land. 
Thy caresses taking. 



Telling in her happy ear, 
"Love, I love thee only, 

Let me clasp thee, waiting one, 
E'er I leave thee lonely: 



And I've seen the weary land 
Throw thee back with scorning, 

Casting off at set of day 
What she loved at dawning. 



"Green as thine, no other shore 
Out beyond the billow, 

Not like thine, its crimson sand 
Here shall be my pillow." 



Fickle sea, and fickle land, 
For each other yearning, 

Ever parting on the strand, 
Ever still returning. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF A STATESMAN 

CONNECTICUT 

MEMORIES OF LAFAYETTE S. FOSTER, OF 
NORWICH, PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE 
AFTER THE ASSASSINATION OF LINCOLN 

BY 
JOHN PHILO TROWBRIDGE 

Author of "Tot First American Satirists— The Hartford Wits" 



FROM 



CONNECTICUT has been the 
mother of many strong men, 
but recollection of the latter 
half of the last century- 
brings to mind few men of greater 
mould than the Connecticut man who 
was president of the Senate after the 
assassination of Lincoln. 

The fair city of Norwich, the "Rose 
of New England," has had few citi- 
zens living and dying in her midst of 
whom she may be more proud than 
of Lafayette Sabine Foster. He was 
a typical Connecticut man who under- 
stood the conditions and characteris- 
tics of the people of his own time who 
dwelt in the land of steady habits. 
During the year, 1868, the present 
writer was an inmate of the family of 
his sister, Mrs. Augustus Hyde of 
Norwich town, and through that wor- 
thy lady, now long since departed, he 
became acquainted with her more 
illustrious brother, then generally 
known as "Ex-Senator Foster." 

The Connecticut township of 
Frankin contains the birthplace of 
this eminent man. Here he was born 
on Saturday, November 22, 1806. 
His father, Captain Daniel Foster, 
was an officer in the Revolutionary 
Army, and was engaged in several 
important battles, including Saratoga, 
Stillwater, and White Plains. His 
mother, Welthea Ladd, was a de- 
scendant of Myles Standish, and pos- 
sessed many of the best traits of the 
Pilgrim stock. At the age of seven- 
teen, young Foster left his home to 
seek a college education. Fortune 
led him to turn his steps toward 
Rhode Island. Reaching Providence 



early in the autumn of 1824, he en- 
tered Brown University, which soon 
afterwards came imder the care of 
Rev. Dr. Wayland. This remarkable 
teacher, who was at the head of this 
university for twenty-eight years, ex- 
erted a powerful influence over the 
mind and heart of Mr. Foster. Per- 
haps no other person had so much to 
do with the formation of his charac- 
ter and the direction of his future 
purposes. During the year previous 
to Dr. Wayland's settlement in Prov- 
idence, "Whateley's Logic" was pub- 
lished. That famous text-book cre- 
ated a vast interest in the colleges on 
both sides of the Atlantic. Few stu- 
dents gained more benefit from that 
treatise than did Lafayette Foster 
during his senior year at Brown. His 
acute and studious mind had already 
traveled so far into philosophical 
fields that this new journey, made 
with the guidance and companion- 
ship of such a man as Dr. Wayland, 
was an unalloyed pleasure. The 
book was one of the important 
stepping-stones of his upward career. 
In 1828 he graduated from college 
with the highest honors of his class, 
and with reluctance bade adieu to the 
scenes of student life. 

While at college Mr. Foster had 
busied himself, as far as his other du- 
ties would permit, in the work of a 
district-school teacher in Southern 
New England. His success was 
assured from the beginning; and had 
he continued to devote his life to that 
occupation he would have won re- 
nown. He was full of natural re- 
sources, a good disciplinarian, a faith- 



612 RECOLLECTIONS OF A STATESMAN FROM CONNECTICUT 



ful but kind critic, and an untiring 
worker in every branch of knowledge. 
By his school teaching he earned the 
hard cash which paid his college ex- 
penses ; and more than that, and far 
better even than that, he acquired in 
this manner a deep knowledge of 
New England folk, and formed a 
sympathy for them in their humble 
life which never faded away from his 
manly nature, but became the founda- 
tion on which his career as a lawyer, 
a statesman and a judge came finally 
to rest. 

Immediately following his gradua- 
tion, Mr. Foster went to the state of 
Maryland, and there assumed the 
charge of an academy at Centerville, 
then a thriving town in Queen Anne 
County on one of the many inlets of 
Chesapeake bay. This modest institu- 
tion hitherto pervaded with that lan- 
guid atmosphere which, before the 
war, was general throughout the 
South, soon began to take on new life 
under the skilful hand of our Con- 
necticut pedagogue; he made it to re- 
semble the academies of his native 
state so greatly that no one could have 
told that it was south of the Mason 
and Dixon line, rather than north of 
that historic boundary. This gained 
for him the admiration of his pupils 
and their friends, the foremost fami- 
lies of the eastern peninsular. 

The village all declared how much he knew. 

'Twas certain he could write and cipher too. 

Lands he could measure, times and tide 
presage, 

And e'en the story ran that he could gauge. 

In arguing, too, the parson owned his skill, 

For e'en though vanquished he could argue 
still, 

While words of learned length and thun- 
dering sound 

Amazed the gazing rustics ranged around ; 

And still they gazed, and still the wonder 
grew ^ 

That one small head could carry all he 
knew. 

Mr. Foster was extremely fortu- 
nate in his association with the men 
of Maryland; and thirty years after, 
at the outbreak of the Civil War, 
when he was going back and forth to 



Washington, he was often heard to 
remark upon the character of his 
southern friends. While residing at 
Centerville he commenced those ex- 
tensive studies of the law which he 
had already in view and which he 
never afterwards ceased to prosecute 
with vigor as opportunity allowed. 

It was in 1830, that year when 
Webster replied to Hayne, that Mr. 
Foster returned to Connecticut, and 
entered the law office of the Honora- 
ble Calvin Goddard at Norwich. Mr. 
Goddard was a leading lawyer in the 
state, and probably there was not 
another man in the legal profession 
who could have proved a better in- 
structor of this twenty-four year old 
youth. So rapid was Mr. Foster's 
progress that he was admitted at the 
bar in the following year, and imme- 
diately went up to Hampton to hang 
out his shingle, so to speak, and to 
wait for clients to visit him. He re- 
mained in this town three years, build- 
ing up all the while an increasing 
practice in the courts of Windham 
county, and forming life-long attach- 
ments with some of the leading men 
of that section of the state. Hamp- 
ton was then a much larger place than 
it is to-day. It was the home of the 
Honorable Chauncy F. Cleveland ; the 
society was refined, business was 
thriving, but the country town was 
not a fit place for an aspiring young 
lawyer. He therefore returned to 
Norwich in 1834, ever afterwards to 
make that city his home. Besides at- 
tending to his law practice with 
scrupulous care, he now assumed the 
editorial charge of a Whig newspa- 
per, The Republican, which, till after 
the exciting political campaign of 
1840, was a prominent journal in 
Southern New England. The col- 
umns of the press gave him a new 
outlet for the expression of his politi- 
cal faith which had now become well 
matured, and his further services for 
the old Whig party were immediately 
called for. The call was not in vain. 
He was elected to the state legisla- 



PRESIDENT OF SENATE AFTER MURDER OF LINCOLN 613 



ture several times between 1834 and 

1854. He was speaker of the House 
during three terms, and was twice 
nominated as the Whig candidate for 
governor, but failed of election in a 
state which was then strongly demo- 
cratic. 

Mr. Foster entered Congress in 

1855. He was president of the Sen- 
ate after the assassination of Mr. Lin- 
coln, and remained a member of that 
body till 1867 when he returned to 
Norwich to resume his practice of 
law. This period of public life at the 
national capitol was the most trying, 
the most important, and the most tri- 
umphant that our country has ever 
witnessed. There were giants at 
Washington in those days. Such 
names as Chase, Fessenden, Stanton 
and Lincoln will forever live on the 
page of American history. It was a 
great fortune to be associated with 
these statesmen; a greater thing to 
be a co-laborer with them in the work 
of saving the Union from a perma- 
nent disruption. Mr. Foster's posi- 
tion from the first day that he entered 
the United States' Senate was one of 
great honor to himself and of im- 
mense service to the commonwealth 
which he represented. He was a 
firm friend of human freedom, an ad- 



vocate of the rights of the slave, a 
strong opDOser to the course of the 
South in endeavoring to secure con- 
trol of the new states of Kansas and 
Nebraska. He sustained the presi- 
dent in his policy, and was at all times 
in complete harmony with our noble 
war governor, William A. Bucking- 
ham. 

Mr. Foster was a man of peace, and 
when the fires of war were extin- 
guished, he was one of the first to 
salute his brethren /of the South and 
to welcome them back on liberal 
terms to their place in the councils of 
the nation. The remainder of his 
long and useful life was spent in the 
state of his birth; first, as a teacher 
and lecturer on parliamentary law at 
Yale, and then as a judge of the Su- 
preme Court of Connecticut. From 
this latter position he retired in 1876 
when he attained the limit of age for 
a judgeship. At his death he gave 
his extensive library to the city of 
Norwich, and his home to the Nor- 
wich Free Academy, under the quiet 
shadows of which he had lived so 
long and so well that he seemed to be 
a part of the institution and the city 
of which the institution is a valuable 
ornament. 



THE HEARTS OF CHILDREN 

BY 

MELICENT ENO HUMASON 

New Britain, Connecticut 



White little hearts in a world of white, 
White as snow in a wealth of sun; 

Sinless and cloudless and smiling, quite, 
White little hearts that leap and run. 



World of the children's hearts of white. 

Fast your gates of the pearly hue. 
Breast the rain and the wind and the night. 

Chide the tempest that would come 
through. 



White little hearts in a world of white ! 

Never a night, for all is day ; 
Growing hearts in a flood of light 

Cheer the hearts in the world of gray ! 



CONNECTICUT AND THE BATTLEFIELD OF 

ANTIETAM 

MEMORIALS ERECTED TO THE SUBLIME COURAGE OF THE 
MEN WHO OFFERED THEIR LIVES TO THEIR COUNTRY 

BY 
L. D. EMMERT 

TORBINGTON, CONNECTICUT 



WHILE on a recent visit to 
my old home, a few miles 
from the battlefield of 
Antietam, it gave me 
pleasure to view what Connecticut 
has done at this historic shrine of the 
American soldier. In this magnifi- 
cent age, when the North and the 
South are united in one strong broth- 
erhood, it is at least our loving duty 
to treasure the sacred memories of 
men who offered their lives for what 
they believed to be the right, whether 
they wore the blue or the gray. 

Connecticut is one of the foremost 
states in doing honor to the memory 
of the liberty-inspired heroes, who, on 
September 17, 1862, fought for the 
principle of the maintenance of na- 
tional federation on the battle-field of 
Antietam, an exceedingly dangerous 
gateway to the North through West- 
ern Maryland, a narrow strip of land 
sandwiched between Mason and 
Dixon's Line and the Potomac and 
ribbed and furrowed by treacherous 
hills and the Antietam creek quietly 
wending its way southward. Citi- 
zens of Connecticut may well be 
proud of what their state has done to 
commemorate the valor of its sons 
who gave up their lives in that bloody 
conflict where twenty-five thousand 
lives were lost. Handsome monuments 
have been erected to each of the Con- 
necticut regiments engaged, and, in 
addition, a monument marks the spot 
where Major-General Joseph K. F. 
Mansfield, of Middletown, fell mor- 
tally wounded. Connecticut now has 
an interest also in the memorial to 
the 35th Massachusetts Regiment 
erected by Lieutenant-Colonel Albert 
A. Pope, of Hartford. 



Although the Connecticut monu- 
ments were erected ten years ago, 
new interest attaches itself to them in 
view of the numerous memorials 
erected by other states since that time. 
Several other states, it is true, possess 
more monuments at Antietam than 
old Connecticut, but none are bet- 
ter represented there when the size 
of the state and the number of men 
lost by it in that battle are consid- 
ered. 

It is forty-four years since the Con- 
necticut troops faced the Confederates 
on the hills at Sharpsburg. There 
may have been more spectacular per- 
formances in history, but no men, un- 
der similar conditions, ever displayed 
more sublime courage. They fought 
for neither conquest, glory, nor the 
immediate protection of the fields 
upon which they had been reared. 
Sustained only by their ideal of eter- 
nal justice, far away from their na- 
tive hearthstones, they submerged the 
individual in zeal for the nation. 

The hills surrounding the little 
town of Sharpsburg are steep and 
rugged with a slight resemblance to 
the Litchfield Hills. Through the 
heart of these hills the Antietam 
flowed toward the Potomac a few 
miles below. Just above Sharpsburg 
there was a splendid place to give 
battle in the open, but before the Con- 
federates advanced that far the Union 
commanders had to be on careful 
guard to avoid permitting detach- 
ments to be caught in ravines and 
shot down like quail by sharpshooters 
on the bluffs. 

A curious condition existed on the 
borderland at this point. A few 
miles south the slave-holding idea was 



CONNECTICUT AND THE BATTLEFIELD OF ANTIETAM 615 



firmly rooted, and a few miles north 
the Union spirit was dominant. In 
the intervening space sentiment was 
uncertain. Southern sympathizers 
lived in close proximity to descend- 
ants of the Pennsylvania Dutch. It 
was among these diverse elements 
that the armies maneuvered — the 
Southern gentlemen loathing the 
Yankees and most of the Dunkards 
believing in peace at any price. Even 
the tempestuous spirit of John Brown 
could not induce the Dunkard to ap- 
peal to the sword in order to right 
what he was convinced was wrong. 

The nth Connecticut Monument 
occupies a conspicuous position be- 
low the Burnside Bridge. It stands 
on an elevation of fifty feet above the 
creek, on a cedar tree knoll close to 
Rohrback's lane. The monument is 
directly opposite the point where the 
regiment, under Colonel Henry W. 
Kingsbury, forded the creek and was 
driven back. 

Detached from Brigadier-General 
Isaac P. Rodman's Division of the 
Ninth Army Corps, commanded by 
Major-General Ambrose E. Burnside, 
the nth had been held near the 
bridge. When directed to move for- 
ward, Colonel Kingsbury faced the 
enemy posted in rifle-pits and behind 
barricades on the hill beyond. The 
Confederates were almost entirely 
concealed, but within easy musket 
range of Kingsbury's men. Kings- 
bury and many of his men thus 
proved ready targets for infantry and 
sharpshooters. Colonel Kingsbury 
died at the Rohrback house, east of 
the bridge, in the following Novem- 
ber. Captain Griswold was shot 
down in the water. After the injury 
of the officers the troops were demor- 
alized and rapidly fell back. Sharp- 
shooters under Toombs behind trees 
and ledges did most of the damage to 
them. 

The bridge had been known as 
Rohrback's bridge before the war. 
Brigadier-General Jacob D. Cox gave 
the following concise and accurate 



description of it: "The bridge itself is 
a stone structure of three arches, 
with stone parapet above, this para- 
pet to some extent flanking the ap- 
proach to the bridge at either end. 
The valley in which the stream runs 
is quite narrow, the steep slope on the 
right bank approaching quite to the 
water's edge. On this slope the 
roadway is scarped, running both 
ways from the bridge end, and pass- 
ing to the higher lands above by as- 
cending through rjavines above and 
below, the other ravine being some 
six hundred yards above the bridge, 
the turn about half that distance be- 
low. On the hillside immediately 
above the bridge was a strong stone 
fence, running parallel to the stream; 
the turns of the roadway were covered 
by rifle-pits and breastworks made 
of rails and stone, all of which de- 
fenses, as well as* the woods which 
covered the slope, were filled with the 
enemy's infantry and sharpshooters. 
Besides the infantry defenses, batter- 
ies were placed to infilade the bridge 
and all approaches. The crest of the 
first hill above the bridge is curved 
toward the stream at the extremes, 
forming a sort of natural tcte-dc-pont. 
The next ridge beyond rises some- 
what higher, though with less regu- 
larity, the depression between the two 
being but slight, and the distance 
varying in places from three hundred 
to seven hundred yards." 

The monument of the 16th Con- 
necticut is on a ten-acre plot in the 
northeast corner of the forty-acre 
Sherrick cornfield, on ground pre- 
sented by Colonel Joseph Cheney, 
near Hartford. It is a tall, straight 
column on two sections as bases. The 
8th Connecticut Monument is a 
handsome, heavy-set affair at the 
north side of Branch avenue. Its 
position was questioned for a time, 
but the location appears to have been 
satisfactorily determined. 

The 1 6th, under Colonel Cheney, 
crossed the creek at Snaveley's ford, 
and the 8th, under Lieutenant-Colo- 



616 MONUMENTS ERECTED TO THE MEN OF COURAGE 



nel Hiram Appleman and Major John 
E. Ward, crossed at the same point, 
advancing a quarter of a mile to the 
Harper's Ferry Road. Both regi- 
ments belonged to the 9th Army- 
Corps, 3rd Division, 2nd Brigade. 

The 14th Connecticut Monument 
marks the place where the regiment 
was engaged at Bloody Lane, as part 
of the 2nd Army Corps, 3rd Division, 
2nd Brigade, Colonel Dwight Morris, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sanford H. Per- 
kins. It consists of a straight shaft. 

The monument erected to General 
Joseph K. F. Mansfield, of .the 12th 
Army Corps is exceptionally highly 
polished and is located in the East 
woods. After its erection a new 
foundation was put up and the mon- 
ument was raised. 

The memorial erected by Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Albert A. Pope to his 
comrades of the 35th Massachusetts, 
at the northwest corner of Burnside's 
bridge, attracts much attention. On 
it is the inscription: "Gloria Est pro 
Patria Mori." Colonel Pope and his 



wife, accompanied by his son, Harold, 
and his wife, of Hagerstown, Mary- 
land, made a tour of the battle-field 
early in May. 

The 1 6th Connecticut has a hand- 
some memorial window in the Ger- 
man Reformed Church in Sharps- 
burg. W. H. Tifft, of Jewett City, has 
put in a small memorial window to 
the 8th Massachusetts Battery. 

Eighty-five Connecticut dead lie in 
the Antietam National Cemetery at 
the east end of Sharpsburg. The 
burial-ground is in the form of a 
semi-ellipsis. The Connecticut sec- 
tion, a parallelogram, is between the 
Ohio and Massachusetts sections and 
back of the New York section, to the 
left of a person entering the cemetery. 
A marble headstone marks each 
grave. A large statue of an Ameri- 
can soldier occupies the center of the 
grounds. The Antietam is a half 
mile away. Maryland Heights, the 
rendezvous of John Brown, can be 
seen in the far distance. 



A WOMAN'S PRAYER 

BY 

KATE WOODWARD NOBLE 

Waterbury, Connecticut 



Dear Christ, Who the keen pang of every 
grief 
That leaves upon humanity its traces 
Hast known, to Thee each morn I breathe 
this prayer : 
"Lord, help me — help me over the hard 
places." 

Not sickness, nor some great bereavement, 
that 
Goes to the depths, shrouds life in deep- 
est mourning; 
These rend the soul, indeed, yet they be- 
numb, 
And time sees pain assuaged, and joy re- 
turning. 

These things, indeed, are hard, yet they 
Chafe not the soul as does the daily fret- 
ting 
Of petty cares, of little hurts that come 
From those we love the best, through 
their forgetting. 

The clouded brow ; the hasty spoken word ; 
The kiss forgotten at the morning part- 
ing— 



These bring heartache to her who stays be- 
hind, 
For these the drooping lids with tears 
are smarting. 

The longing for some word of tenderness, 
Some swift caress, or sound of name en- 
dearing ; 
The sense of loss of youthful grace or 
bloom ; 
The knowledge that old age is swiftly 
nearing. 

These are the things that try the woman's 
soul, 
These are the burdens on her sad heart 
weighing ; 
And 'tis her nearest and her dearest ones 
Who, day by day, the cross on her are 
laying. 

Dear Christ, it was Thine own who wound- 
ed Thee, 
Deserted Thee; with cold, averted faces 
Did pass Thee by in Thy supremest need — 
So help me — help me over the hard 
places. 



GREENWICH-A Community of Beautiful Estates 




ROBERT M. BRUCE GREENWICH S GRAND OLD MAN 



By ELISHA JAY EDWARDS, LL.D. 



617 



618 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OE BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 




HONORABLE E.'C. BENEDICT, OF GREENWICH 



Portrait Presented to Edward Bailey Eaton, 
of The Connecticut Magazine 



GREENWICH -A COMMUNITY OF 
BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 

BY 

ELISHA JAY EDWARDS, LL.D. 

FORMER EDITOR OF THE NEW YORK EVENING SUN 



The story of the transition of Greenwich from the conquering of the forest- in 1640 
to a township of palatial American homes, told by Mr. Edwards in these pages just one 
year ago, was one of great interest as well as historic worth. While Greenwich has long 
been known as a community of beautiful estates, it had never before been given historical 
recognition as such. In that entertaining presentation, Mr. Edwards related the historic 
conflict between Connecticut Colony and New Amsterdam for this rich haven of the Sound. 
It was accompanied by forty beautiful half-tone engravings of many of the historic 
shrines and magnificent private domains in the ancient town. Accompanying Mr. Edwards' 
first article was a sketch of the Greenwich Public Library by Miss Mary M. Miller, who 
for thirty years has been its librarian. Mr. Edwards' article was followed by an instruct- 
ive narrative by Norman Talcott of Greenwich on "The Putnam Tavern "and the Old 
Post Road," with nine rare illustrations pertaining to this early Greenwich folklore. The 
article in the last issue of The Connecticut Magazine, while not relating directly to 
Greenwich, was contributed by Mrs. Washington Choate of Greenwich and recorded' the 
valuable "Memoirs of a Connecticut Patriot." In these pages Mr. Edwards now briefly 
speaks of the modern Greenwich and some of its present-day achievements. To do full 
justice to the beautiful old town, it would require a large volume of photographs of its 
magnificent estates. Unfortunately, the limited pages of periodical literature allow but an 
occasional glimpse of some typical scene, and of such is the limitation of the preceding 
pages. This presentation, therefore, makes no pretense of including all that makes Green- 
wich one of the first American communities. It does, however, as a second chapter to the 
first article by Mr. Edwards, with the forty engravings, there presented, give a glimpse 
into the. beauties of the town. As stated, introductory to the first article. Mr. Edwards is 
better known as the writer of the "Holland" letters — now widely published each day in the 
United .States— than by his own name. President Butler, of Columbia University, recently 
characterized the "Holland" letters as the most distinctive individual feature o\ American 
journalism, and Thomas W. Lawson, in Everybody's Magazine, asserted that they are read 
and followed closely by many of the high financiers of Europe. Mr. Edwards has been 
for twenty-two years a resident of Greenwich, Connecticut. He was. therefore, well quali- 
fied by his personal familiarity and by careful study of its history to write this sketch. 
He is a native of Norwich, Connecticut, and is a member of that branch of the Edwards' 
family which traces its ancestry to the father of Jonathan Edwards. Mr. Edwards was 
graduated at Yale in the class of 1870, and at the Yale Law School in [873. After a 
short practice of his profession he became a member of the staff of the Hartford Con 
From that newspaper he went to the New York Sun, where he was first the Albany corre- 
spondent, and during the administration of Garfield and Arthur, and the last year of 
Hayes' administration, was in charge of the Washington Bureau of the Sun, He returned 
to New York to take the editorial management of The Evening Sun, continuing at that 
post for three years. In 1889, he began his newspaper correspondence with the Philadel- 
phia Press, the first letter being signed "Holland." and these daily letters have been con- 
tinued from that time and the publication of them secured by many newspapers through- 
out the United States. In 1894, Mr. Edwards published the accusations which led to the 
famous Sugar Trust Investigation by the Senate, lie was indicted and prosecuted on a 
charge of recalcitrancy in refusing as a journalist to reveal the source of his information, 
but he was' acquitted, and of six others indicted and prosecuted in Washington, includ- 
ing Henry O. Havemeyeiv all but one were acquitted. Mr. Edwards has contributed con- 
stantly to magazines, notably studies of Grover Cleveland. William McKinlej and Theo- 
dore Roosevelt. Mr. Edwards received the degree of DdctOr oi Laws from Seion Hall 
College in 1899.. 



62o GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 




GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 621 



A TOWNSHIP of palatial Amer- 
ican homes ; a community 
of distinguished litterateurs, 
dramatists, sculptors, artists, 
scientists ; the dwelling place of some 
of the world's greatest financiers and 
men of trans-continental affairs, — - 
this is the modern Greenwich in its 
stately dignity, crowning the hills ris- 
ing from the Connecticut shore of 
Long Island Sound. 

In my first article I spoke of Green- 
wich and its history, briefly outlining 
the events which began with its settle- 
ment by adventurers in 1640. It is 
my pleasure to here picture its present 
greatness, not in manufactures, not in 
commerce, not in pulsating progress 
and crowding population — but in its 
beauty and peacefulness, where men 
rest after a day's work well done. 

It was about a half century ago that 
the building of Greenwich as one of 
the first manor-towns in America be- 
gan. 

The first skirmishers, so to call 
them, of the magnificent advance 
which has largely overwhelmed this 
Connecticut village, came almost co- 
incidently with the railroad and with 
the close of the Civil War. There 
was Robert M. Bruce, to-day a vener- 
able and constant benefactor of his be- 
loved community. His stone man- 
sion near the railroad station has been 
his home for fifty years. With the 
coming of Mr. Bruce, Greenwich wel- 
comed one of the earliest philanthro- 
pists. Interested in relieving the 
lesser fortunate, especially such as- 
have been deprived of their working- 
capabilities by impaired health, Mr. 
Bruce combined his generosity with 
modern medical science as embodied 
in Dr. L. P. Jones and as a result 
there stands to-day the Greenwich 
Hospital, so constructed that there are 
no better institutions of the kind in 
this country. With eyes and heart 
always keen to the needs of humanity, 
funds have recently been placed at the 
disposal of Dr. Jones for the con- 
struction and equipment of a tuber- 



culosis building, commanding a beau- 
tiful view of hills and water, where 
the most advanced modern treatment 
of the nation's peril will be ministered. 

In the Borough of Greenwich 
another generous hospital association, 
under the skilful management of Dr. 
Fritz Hyde, has just erected and 
equipped a structure that represents 
the development of the science of 
medicine. 

Soon after the coming of Mr. 
Bruce, in the middle of the last cen- 
tury, came A. Foster Higgins, with 
the inspiration of science and with a 
keen sense of the beautiful, conquer- 
ing the waste and swamp land before 
his home until it stretched before him 
like a garden, and here to-day is domi- 
ciled Christ Church, with its inspiring: 
tower, which he has so long loved. 
Mr. Higgins in America's commer- 
cial metropolis, New York, has dis- 
tinguished himself as a man of busi- 
ness and his counsels are highly val- 
ued in the Chamber of Commerce. 

One of the first modern country 
homes to be erected in Greenwich 
was that of Henry O. Havemewr, 
world-famed master of finance, a 
builder and president of that great or- 
ganization known as the American 
Sugar Refining Company, and a 
power behind many of the first finan- 
cial institutions on the western conti- 
nent. 

Mr. Havemeyer has been so large 
a part of Greenwich for so long a time 
that to-day he is considered one oi her 
own sons. His beautiful dwelling 
stands on spacious grounds that are 
bounded on the east b\ the town of 
Stamford. The records oi philan- 
thropy are interwoven with the gen- 
erous gifts oi this Greenwich finan- 
cier. 

As one of its own sons. Greenwich 
is the home oi Elias C. Benedict, 
another master oi finance and a lead- 
ing New York hanker. 

About ten years ago. Mr. Benedict 
purchased the point of land jutting 
into the sea which Tweed, witli his 



622 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 





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A DISTINGUISHED AMERICAN SCIENTIST— TH E LATE 
DR. LEANDER P. JONES, who was associated with Robert 
M. Bruce in the upbuilding of the Greenwich General Hospital 



artistic eye, and he had a true artis- 
tic sense, had earlier secured as a sum- 
mer home of the Americus Club, a so- 
cial organization that flourished in 
Tammany Hall, when Tweed was in 
his heyday. With Tweed's downfall, 
the collapsed Americus Club and its 
building served for some years as a 
summer hotel. Mr. Benedict razed 
the building and perfected the land so 
that it could conveniently receive the 
home which he contemplated erecting, 
and there arose to the almost wonder- 
ing vision of Greenwich, and to the 
admiration of those who pass along 
the Sound, the white structure, Ven- 
ice-like in its glistening beauty when 



on bright days the sun shines unob- 
scured upon the blue graudeur of the 
Sound. Here it is, with his life-long 
friend, that Hon. Grover Cleveland, 
ex-president of the United States, en- 
joys to sojourn — for Mr. Benedict 
and he have been inseparable compan- 
ions in time of leisure. 

William Rockefeller, still another 
giant of American finance, soon after 
he came to New York from Cleve- 
land chose Greenwich for his summer 
home, and there established his trot- 
ting park and his farm. 

But it was not until a year or so 
after the. first inauguration of Grover 
Cleveland as president of the United 



GREENWICH— A -COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL EST ATI'S 623 




IN THE GREENWICH PUBLIC LIBRARY— This House of Books was erected to the 
memory of Jeremiah and Elizabeth Lake Milbank by their daughter Elizabtth Miibank Anderson 



States that the great transformation 
began. Mr. Higgins, Mr. Bruce, the 
late Nathaniel Wetherell, and Captain 
Mayo purchased many acres of land 
upon the point stretching from the 
railroad towards the sea known his- 
torically as Horse Neck. The agri- 
culturists who cultivated that soil for 
two hundred years never imagined the 
wealth that was in it. These men of 
business, whose summer homes were 
in Greenwich, prospected that verita- 
ble gold mine. Roads well graded 
and well shaded were prepared, conn- 
try villas were built, and in the course 
of a few vears there has been estab- 
lished upon that peninsula upland, 
overlooking- the sea to the east and the 
west, a colony thoroughly representa- 
tive of the vast riches of the New 
World, rearing mansions, veritable 



palaces in which to relax from the 
cares of the strenuous life and the 
burdens of huge fortunes. 

The great onward march that has 
been rolling persistently, magnifi- 
cently, ever since, began. Artists die- 
covered, some three or four miles back 
from the sea. nooks and vistas that 
inspired them to the best work. 
Rudell discovered as he thought a 
vista with low lying meadows and 
rolling uplands beyond, and forest 
boundaries, that caused him to re- 
member his much loved Devonshire 
in England. There he built a studio 
and there, succeeding him, Clyde 
Fitch, the most successful American 
dramatist of the contemporary stage, 
has built a home where he delights to 
sojourn when a fugitive from the 
theater foyers. At the top o\ one em- 



6 24 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 




GREENWICH— A' COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 625 



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626 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 




MEMORIAL CHAPEL IN THE SECOND CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH AT GREEN- 
WICH, which is known as one of the finest types of Church architecture in this country 



inence, E. H. Johnson, a genius in 
electricity, converted a house into a 
veritable electric fairyland, so that the 
wizard display of brilliant lights and 
many-colored illuminations were an 
earlier dreamland and were often wit- 
nessed far out at sea. Beyond that 
electric hill, E. C. Converse, especially 
distinguished among the organizers 
of the great Steel Corporation, pur- 
chased many acres of woodland and 
there, at vast expenditure, has laid out 
a manor which has few equals even in 
England, and where the inspiring and 
unbroken vista to the east will alwavs 
remain in his possession since noth- 
ing can ever interrupt it. 

The artists, the Twachmans, fathe r 
and son, in their quaint cottage in the 
valley to the west could interrupt their 
work at the easel, and, lying prone, 
watch a mother fox and her cubs dis- 
porting by the brookside. While the 
elder Twachman has laid down his 
palette and gone to well-earned rest, 



the junior Twachman still lives and 
works at the old cottage. 

Ten years ago, Mr. Charles D. 
Lanier, publisher of the American 
Monthly Review of Reviews, and a 
true inheritor of the subtle sense of 
beauty that distinguished his father, 
Sidney Lanier, the poet, ventured into 
a bit of farmland, purchasing some 
thirty odd acres in the rougher and 
more inaccessible parts. With that 
initiative, there followed a swift de- 
velopment of the unsuspected beau- 
ties of this place now known as the 
Rock Ridge — to-day a charming com- 
munity beyond which the great mod- 
ern inn, now well-famed to summer 
tourists, has been erected. 

Greenwich is a living refutation of 
the popular impression that the so- 
called materialism of the day has 
blinded Americans to the moral ideals 
or to any sense of beauty, for it flow- 
ers with the recognition of man's rev- 
erence for the mobility of nature. 



GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 627 




2 z 



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628 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 




OLD INN DOOR AND KNOCKER AT THE 
PUTNAM TAVERN IN GREENWICH 



Thirty-five years ago, an industri- 
ous European came to America that 
he might avail himself of our heralded 
opportunity. He secured some thirty 
acres of rough, rocky, wild land and 
upon them he has toiled year after 
year. His small savings in a genera- 
tion's time might have justified him in 
hoping that in his old age, he and his 
family would have at least sufficient 
for their humble wants. The 
merchant-importer, Mr. Henry F. 
Schwarz, world-traveled, making 
yearly excursions to continental Eu- 
rope, familiar with the glories of .the 
Mediterranean and the strange hyp- 
notic atmosphere of Egypt, penetrat- 
ing even to Damascus and knowing 



all places renowned for beauty or tra- 
dition, discovered this humble farm. 
His cosmopolitan mind grasped the 
secret charm of the vista beyond, of 
sea and meadow and creek, which nD 
artificial obstruction can ever impede, 
and is lost to view only under the 
mists that blow in from the sea or 
fogs that come from the mountain. 
He determined that it should be his. 
Then, this immigrant who for thirty 
odd years had toiled in patient indus- 
try, gaining the respect of the commu- 
nity, learned at last that his little farm 
contained a greater treasure than he 
had suspected, and for it he received 
almost as many thousand dollars as 
he had been years in ownership of it. 



GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 6 



29 




REV. M. GEORGE THOMPSON, PASTOR OF 
CHRIST CHURCH AT GREENWICH 



630 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 




REV. W. B. WALLER, PASTOR OF THE 
FIRST PRESBYTERIAN ; CHURCH AT GREENWICH 



Mrs. A. A. Anderson, honored by 
her philanthropies to hospitals in New 
York, to Barnard College, and the 
benefactor of Greenwich by the gift 
of the public library building, has 
converted a farm of forty years ago 
into one of the most exquisite parks 
in the United States, the center of 
which is dignified by a cottage of true 
English architecture that is the admi- 
ration of the lovers of art. If this 
farm had been assessed at fifty thou- 
sand dollars a generation ago it would 
have been thought an extravagance of 
ownership. But to-day ten times 
fifty thousand dollars would not be 
the estimate of its value were it to be 
placed in the market. 

Forty years ago the foremost of 



American Shakespearean actors, Ed- 
win Booth, was among the first to dis- 
cover the wondrous natural beauties 
of Greenwich, the marvelous combi- 
nation of sea and hill in swelling up- 
land and coast frilled by delicate in- 
dentations from the sea as though it 
were lace workr- Mr. Booth was for 
some years a summer resident of 
Greenwich. To-day, a half mile to 
the west, is a little park, a fine triumph 
of landscape gardening and disciplin- 
ing of the indentations of the sea, — 
the public benefaction of Robert 
Booth, for it is the belief that some 
day that exquisite park land of 150 
acres will be dedicated to Greenwich 
and to the advantage and delight of 
all her children. 



GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OE BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 631 







632 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 




GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 633 







634 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 



The eminent sculptor, E. C. Potter, 
with finely discriminating artistic 
sense, has selected for his studio and 
for his home, a site about a mile and 
a half north of the stone church, hav- 
ing removed to Greenwich from Mas- 
sachusetts. Sculptor Potter is one of 
the most distinguished of those whose 
artistic and literary inclination have 
inspired them to select Greenwich as 
their home. 



Perhaps two miles to the north is 
the very romantic wild park land 
which Mr. Ernest Thompson-Seton, 
the renowned naturalist, selected, 
choosing it above many other places 
to which his nature-loving atten- 
tion has been called. Here he has 
established a true wild-land home 
so that even the lake is the habitation 
of the solitary heron not fearing any 
interruption, and here the naturalist 




REV. J. II. SELDEN, D.D V PASTOR OF THE 
SECOND CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH AT GREENWICH 



GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 635 



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636 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 




REV. W. E. SCOFIELD, PASTOR OF THE FIRST 
METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH AT GREENWICH 



GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 637 




REV. J. J. FITZGERALD, PASTOR OF ST. MARY S 
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AT GREENWICH 



writes of the "Wild Animals I Have 
Known." 

At the crest of Putnam Hill mark- 
ing the presumably identical spot 
where General Israel Putnam, in the 
fight for American Independence, de- 
fied the British and was fearless of 
danger, leaping the precipice and de- 
scending on his horse by way of the 
stone steps, the Greenwich Chapter of 
the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution have set up a memorial stone 
upon which is inscribed an appropri- 
ate legend. There stands, nearly 
opposite Christ Church and almost ex- 



actly fronting the home oi Mr. V 
Foster Higgins, a quaintly shingled 
cottage of such antique construction 
that no one doubts that it was builded 
in colonial days. I lore General Put- 
nam spent some time before the ap- 
proach of General Tryon's skirmish- 
ers. In memory of that association 
of Putnam with this cottage, and in 
true sympathy with the spirit that ani- 
mates the Daughters oi the American 
Revolution, the Greenwich Chapter 
purchased this cottage and recently 
dedicated it as a memorial to the 
achievement o\ the hero of the Revo- 



638 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 



mms. 




REV. J. M. SULLIVAN, OF ST. MARY S 
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AT GREENWICH 



GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 639 



lution. That fine memorial and the 
purchase and adaptation of Putnam 
cottage as the permanent home of the 
Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion permanently memorialize the true 
enthusiasm and fine patriotic spirit 
which inspired the late Colonel Henry 
H. Adams, himself a veteran of the 
War of 1861, to continuous agitation 
and effort so that future generations 
in Greenwich may find true exemplifi- 
cation of the spirit of 1776. 

In the work of education Green- 
wich is typical of its culture. The 
story of the public library was told by 
Miss Mary Miller, its librarian, in a 
preceding issue of this publication. 
I here should make mention of Henry 
O. Havemeyer's fine philanthropy as 
shown in the Greenwich public school 
building. 

The private schools of Greenwich 
are notable. The widely famed insti- 
tution long continued by the Misses 
Ely, of New York, is to have its home 
hereafter in Greenwich in a building 
of majestic proportions standing con- 
spicuous upon one of the ledges to the 
north. 

Seven years ago, Rosemary Hall 
was established in an adequate build- 
ing half-hidden in forest-like sur- 
roundings at Rock Ridge. 

During the past year the Bruns- 
wick school for boys has been enabled 
through high-minded philanthropy to 
occupy a perfectly appointed school 
building. The old academy of tradi- 
tional reputation, which stood for 



years on the brow of the hill sacred t 1 
traditions of the mustering of Green- 
wich volunteers in the Civil War 
now so greatly enlarged and perfected 
that its quickening may be pronounced 
in perfect sympathy with all the amaz- 
ing transformations of Greenwich. 

Greenwich has two newspap 
The Greenwich Graphic under the 
continuous proprietorship and editor- 
ship of Mr. Erwin Edwards for a 
quarter of a century, has contributed 
no little service in spreading to the 
world beyond good information of the 
doings of the township. The Green- 
wich Nezvs under the editorship of 
Mr. Frederick W. Lyon is indefati- 
gable in the duties of its field. 

The social life of Greenwich is that 
of refinement, rather retiring in its 
disposition and inclined to ultra-con- 
servatism. There is the Indian Har- 
bor Club, the Riverside Yacht Club, 
the Fairfield County Golf Club, and 
various literary, historical and church 
societies. 

So, briefly set forth, are the distin- 
guishing: characteristics of Greenwich. 
the beautiful — intended by nature as 
the township of homes, a wondrous 
park land, subdivided into villa plots 
and estates — all bespeaking the almost 
miraculous rise of the American peo- 
ple from a few straggling, courac 
settlers into a nation rich in achieve- 
ment,, rich in honorable living, rich in 
o-ood works, and rich in the love oi 

o 

the beautiful. 




ROSF.MARV 11AT.1 



640 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 




GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 641 







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642 GREENWICH— A COMMUNITY OF BEAUTIFUL ESTATES 






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PALATIAL RESIDENCE OF THE LATE NATHANIEL WITHERELL — 
NOW HELD BY MR. THOMAS N. COOKE 




ONE OF THE OFFICES OF THOMAS N. COOKK. A KKA1. ESTATE BROKER, 
WHO HAS BEEN LARGELY INSTRUMENTAL IN MAKING 
CRF.RYWTrn A TOWNSHIP OF PAT.ATTAL HOMES 




THE MAPLES FORMER RESIDENCE OF MR. E. C. BENEDICT AT GREENWICH- 

NOW ONE OF THE BEST KNOWN HOSTELRIES IN THE EAST 



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AT THE MAPLES, THE HOSPITABLE INN AT GREENWICH — THE VIEW OF 
LAWNS AND SHRUBBERY AND FOLIAGE FROM THE PIAZZA 
IS ONE OF GREAT BEAUTY 




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FIRST PAPER MONEY IN AMERICA IN 1690 

By HENRY RUSSELL DROWNE 
of the American Numismatic and Archaelogical Society 

This is an actual facsimile of the First Paper Money in America, which eventually 
led to the founding of the American banking system. The American Colonists, prior 
to the reign of William and Mary were prohibited from coining money. In 1690, the 
Colonists of New England and New York sent an expedition against Canada, which 
was unsuccessful. On the return of the troops from Boston there was no money 
with which to pay them. The soldiers clamored for payment and were on the verge 
of mutiny when it was resolved to resort to Paper Money and a Committee was 
empowered to issue ,67,000 in bills from five shillings to five pounds. Thus was Paper 
Money introduced by Massachusetts in 1690. Carolina followed in 1702, in conse- 
quence of an ill-advised expedition to St. Augustine, Florida, which entailed a debt 
of ^6,000. In 1709, New York and Connecticut first issued bills of credit and the 
other Colonies followed in due course, Georgia being the last. Paper Money, which 
had been first authorized to meet the necessities of Colonial Treasuries to wage war, 
soon became generally established in relieving commercial and financial embarrass- 
ment, and continued in use until after the close of the Revolutionary War and in 
fact until the establishment of the United States Mint at Philadelphia in 1792-3 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL 



DATA 



(Department Edited by Charles L. N. Camp) 



Cbe Cbontas family in America 

RESEARCHES INTO THE NEW HAVEN PROBATE RECORDS- 
NEW HAVEN LAND DEEDS— NEW HAVEN COUNTY COURT 
RECORDS -NEW HAVEN VITAL STATISTICS- RECORDS OF 
THE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH -INVESTIGATIONS 

BY 

DONALD LINES JACOBUS 

New Haven, Connecticut 

Note. On account of the extent of these notes, the following abbreviations have been 
found necessary : N. H. Pr., New Haven Probate Records ; N. H. L., New Haven Land 
Deeds; N. H. C, New Haven County Court Records. Unless otherwise stated, births, 
marriages and deaths are from the New Haven Vital Statistics, and baptisms from the rec- 
ords of the First Congregational Church. Dau. is used for daughter. (T) stands for 
tomb-stone records, 
i. John 1 Thomas, Sr., of New Haven, Conn., died 15 Dec. 1671. in will of 4 Jan. 1670 
mentioned wife Tabitha, children Daniel, John, Samuel, Elizabeth, Tabitha, Joseph, 
and dau. Sarah Wilmot and her children. (N. H. Pr. I. 153). His estate was inven- 
toried at £174, 9 Jan. 1672. Tabitha, his widow, died 1 Apr. 1690, leaving a will dated 
22 Mar. 1690, of which her son Samuel was executor. (N. H. Pr. II. 271 1. In 1672, 
the will of John Thomas, Sr., is referred to, his son Daniel is said to have received 
his portion, and his eldest son John and wife Tabitha are mentioned. (N H. C. I. 56). 
Children : 
i. Sarah/ b. about 1640, d. 28 Dec. 1711 (T), m. 14 Oct. 1658, William Wilmot. 

2. ii. John, 2nd., d. 1712. 

3. iii. Daniel, Sr., d. 1694. 

iv. Elizabeth, b. 15 May 1648, m. Jan. 1673, John Holt. 

4. v. Samuel, b. 5 Sept. 165 1, d. 171 1. 

vi. Tabitha, b. 18 Dec. 1653, d. 18 Aug. 1725, m. 5 Nov. 1674, Eleazer Holt 

5. vii. Joseph, bapt. 9 Nov. 1660, d. 10 Apr. 1739. 

2. John 2 Thomas, 2nd., (John 1 ) husbandman, of New Haven, exchanged land with Sam- 
uel Thomas which descended from their father, John Thomas, 1084. (X. H. L. I. 
217) ; he is mentioned as son by Tabitha Thomas, 1690. (N. H. L. I. 472 >. Ho 
after 9 May, before 25 July 1712. His estate was inventoried, at latter date, at 
His wife Lydia (administratrix), and children Sarah, Abigail, John, Elizabeth, J< 
Samuel, Anne and Caleb (a minor) are mentioned (N. H. Pr. IV. 72). He marrie '. 
12 Jan. 1671 Lydia, dau. of Edward Parker,, born 14 Apr. 1652. died after 9 July 17.10 
(Cf. N. H. L. XL 444). On 20 Apr. 1739, John Thomas, John Cooper and v. 
Joseph Mansfield and wife Elizabeth, Nathl. Potter and wife Lydia. Josiah Th 
Jasper Gunn and wife Ann, Josiah Lounsbury and Caleb Thomas deeded land to their 
mother Lydia Thomas, since the rent of one-third of her husband John Thomas 1 
was insufficient for her support. (N. H. L. XI. 40). 
Children : 
i. Sarah, 3 b. 13 Dec. 1672. m. John Cooper, 3rd. On 2t Mar. 1757. she 

Jude Cooper, all right in the estate of her father John 1 I brother 

Samuel Thomas, both deceased. (N, H. L. XIX. "478). 
ii. Abigail, b. 24 Nov. 1674, m. Josiah Lounsbury. She d. before 10 Apr. 

when Richard Lounsbury of Kingstown, N. Y., deeded to Josiah Lounsbury 
of New Haven, land from his mother Abigail Lounsbury. deceased, v. 
was her right in the estate of her father John Thomas. (N. H. L. IX. ; 

6. iii. John, 3rd., b .4 Mar. 1676, d. 13 June 1747. 

iv. Elizabeth, b. about 1677, d. 4 Mar. 1763 (T), m. Joseph Mansfield. Jr., b 
Dec. 1673, d. 8 Oct. 1739. 

7. v. Josiah, b. 15 Jan. 1679, d. 1751. 

vi. Lydia, d. after 14 Nov. 1763, when she deeded awav her interest in tl 

of John Thomas. (N. H. L. XXVII. 252). She m. (\) 10 Pee. 1700. 
Nathaniel Potter, b. 20 Feb. 1675, d- J 740; m. (2) Thomas Beech. Tin 



650 THE THOMAS FAMILY IN AMERICA 

Beech with his wife Lydia deeded to son James Potter all right in land 
of Nathaniel Potter, late husband to Lydia, 13 Apr. 1754. (N. H. L. 
XVIII. 369). 

vii. Samuel, Jr., husbandman, d. before 4 Apr. 1726. His estate was inventoried 
at £95, and was divided between his mother, brothers John, Caleb, and 
Josiah, and sisters Sarah, Anne, Elizabeth, Lydia and Abigail. (N. H. Pr. 
V. 287, 298, 311). 

viii. Anne, m. 27 Jan. 1720, Jasper Gunn. 

8. ix. Caleb, bapt. Dec. 1692. 

3. Daniel 2 Thomas {John 1 ), of West Haven, husbandman, d. Feb. 1694. His estate 
was inventoried at £600. (N. H. Pr. II. 149). He had married, 3 Feb. 1669, Rebecca, 
dau. of John Thompson, of East Haven. She married, secondly, about 1703-4, John 
Perkins as his second wife. In 1704, Rebecca Perkins, formerly Thomas, had paid 
their portions to John and Daniel, sons of Daniel Thomas, deceased. Israel Thomas 
chose his mother for guardian. (N. H. C. II. 156). Rebecca Perkins, alias Thomas, 
Admx. of the estate of Daniel Thomas, made an agreement with legatees Daniel and 
Israel Thomas, Sept. 1721. (N. H. Pr. VI. 77). In 1684, Daniel Thomas had deeded 
land given him by his father John. (N. H. L. I. 233). 

Children : 
i. Son, 3 b., d. 1670. 

9. ii. John, b. about 1672, d. 25 Jan. 1712 (T). 

iii. Dorothy, b. about 1674, m. 13 Apr. 1693, Henry Tolles. 

10. iv. Daniel, b. 14 Feb. 1676, d. before 1760. 

» , v. Dinah, b. 26 Dec. 1678, d. 1769, m. (1) John Sherman. In 1708, John Sherman, 
husbandman, deeded land at West farms to his brother-in-law John 
Thomas. (N. H. L. III. 208). He was b. 1 Nov. 1673, d. 24 Feb. 1727. 
She m. (2) 2 June 1733, Zachariah Blackman, of Stratford, Conn. 

vi. Samuel, b. 13 Jan. 1680, d. y. 

vii. Recompence, b. 27 May 1683, d. 31 Aug. 1703 (T). An agreement was made to 
divide his estate, the signers being Rebecca Thomas for her son Israel (a 
minor) ; John Thomas ; Henry Tolles ; Daniel Thomas ; and John Sherman. 
A memorandum following speaks of Recompence as brother of Henry 
Tolles and his wife Dorothy. (N. H. C. II. 157; date, 1704.) 

11. viii. Israel, d. before Sept. 1767. 

ix. Experience, b. 17 Apr. 1687, undoubtedly d. y. 

4. Samuel 2 Thomas (John 1 ), husbandman, of New Haven, in Nov. 1700 forbade any 
record of land formerly belonging to his mother Tabitha Thomas, until some differ- 
ences between himself and his brother Joseph were settled. (N. H. L. I. 862). He 
died before 30 Nov. 1711; his widow Elizabeth was administratrix, and his children 
Samuel, Sarah and Dorothy were named; the estate was worth £254. (N. H. Pr. III. 
300, 359; IV. 9; V. 76). His wife Elizabeth may have been dau. of Jeremiah Osborne, 
born 9 Dec. 1665. Joseph Osborne was appointed guardian of Samuel Thomas' dau. 
Dorothy. On 11 Nov. 1715, this Dorothy deeded land to Joseph Osborne, (N. H. L. 
IV. 495). 

Children : 

i. Sarah, 3 b. 31 Jan. 1692, m. 12 Feb. 1719, Job Dawson, 
ii. Dorothy, b. 1 Aug. 1694, d. before 7 Aug. 1721, when her mother Elizabeth 

Thomas was appointed administratrix. Her estate was inventoried 

at £76. (N. H. Pr. V. 75, 77)- 

12. iii. Samuel, b. 10 Oct. 1699, d. before 6 Sept. 1736. 

5. Joseph 2 Thomas (John 1 ), of New Haven, called in the Land Records, cordwainer 
in 1701 and 1712, Serjeant in 1706, Senior 1719, and shoemaker 1718. He died 10 Apr. 
i/39- Administration was granted on his estate to Joseph and Jehiel Thomas. (N. H. 
Pr. VI. 283). He married, 21 Mar. 1688, Abigail, dau. of Edward Preston, born 
Jan. 1664. 
Children: 

13. i. Joseph, 8 bapt. 18 Feb. 1694, d. before July 1746. 

ii. Dorcas, bapt. 18 Feb. 1694, m. 2 Feb. 1720, Benjamin Lines. Dorcas Lines 
deeded land to her brother Hackaliah Thomas, from the dower of her 
mother Abigail Thomas, deceased, 17 Aug. 1763. (N. H. L. XXIX. 63). 

iii. Deborah, bapt. 27 May 1694, d. after 30 Sept. 1762, m. (1) Abraham Hotchkiss. 
She was his Admx., 6 Sept. 1725, with Joseph Thomas, Jr., for surety. She 
is later called wife of John Carrington. (N. H. L. V. 250, 259, 270; VI. 
247). She m. (2) Dr. John Carrington. In 1762, she deeded to her 
brother Hackaliah Thomas land that was lately the dower of her mother, 
Abigail Thomas. (N. H. L. XXVIII. 533). 

14. iv. Jehiel, bapt. 19 Sept. 1697, d. 24 Apr. 1746. 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL DATAC51 

v. James, bapt. 15 Sept. 1700, probably d. y. 
15. vi. Hackaliah, d. before 13 May 1788. 

5. John 3 Thomas, 3rd. (John, 2 John 1 ), lived at Chestnut Hill, now in Woodbridge, Conn. 
On 1 Nov. 1715, he deeded to Caleb Thomas the homestead of his father, John 
Thomas. (N. H. L. IV. 500). He married for his first wife, Mary Ford, who was 
born 11 Sept. 1676, and died 30 June 1712. Her father, Samuel Ford, in his will of 28 
Nov. 1707, proved 20 June, 1712, named his daughter Mary and her husband John 
Thomas, also his daus. Elizabeth and Hannah Perkins. (N. H. Pr. IV.). On 17 
Dec. 1712, Stephen and Peter Perkins of New Haven, husbandmen, with the consent 
of their wives Elizabeth and Hannah, daus. of Samuel Ford, deceased, granted part 
of Samuel Ford's moveable estate to John Thomas, husbandman, and his heirs by his 
late wife Mary, dau. of said Samuel Ford. (N. H. L. IV. 138). He married, second, 
about 1713, Hannah Lines, born 28 July 1684. John Thomas and wife Hannah, with 
other heirs, divide land that came from their father, Ralph Lines, deceased, 28 Mar. 
1723. (N. H. L.). Hannah, Sarah, Lydia, John, Amos and Mary, children of John 
Thomas, were baptized 27 Dec. 1724. Sergt. John Thomas died 13 June 1747; in his 
will of 27 Nov. 1740, proved 9 July 1747, he mentioned his wife Hannah and children 
John Thomas, Hannah Andross, Sarah Bradley and Mary Beecher. The estate was 
inventoried at £2875 (N. H. Pr. VII. 132, 146, 286). 
Children (by first wife) : 

i. Hannah/ b. 9 Jan. 1705, m. 23 Feb. 1731, Jedediah Andrews, b. 26 Apr. 1708. 
Jedediah Andrews and wife Hannah, Jason Bradley and wife Sarah, and 
Joseph Hotchkiss and wife Lydia deed land called "Samuel Ford's land." 
(N. H. L. X. 448; 16 Feb. 1738). 
ii. Sarah, b. 30 Sept. 1707, d. 1781, m. 28 Feb. 1734, Jason Bradley, b. 10 Aug. 
1708, d. before June 1768. They deeded to her brother John Thomas land 
from father John Thomas, deceased, mentioned land that her sister Lydia 
Thomas, alias Hotchkiss, deeded to her father (N. H. L. XIII. 286; 26 Dec. 
1747). Samuel Beecher was appointed Administrator of the estate of 
Sarah Bradley, deceased, in right of his wife Mary, who was her sister 
Mary Thomas. The estate was divided between her one brother and two 
sisters: Mary Beecher; the heirs of John Thomas: and the only surviving 
child of Hannah Andrews. (N. H. Pr. XIII. 152; XIV. 59). 
iii. Lydia, b. 28 Sept. 1709, m. Joseph Hotchkiss, died before 1738, when Joseph 

married again. 
Children (by second wife) : 
16. iv. John, 4th, b. 6 Dec. 1713, d. before Mar. 1761. 
v. Amos, b. 10 Aug. 1717, d. 11 May 1740. 

vi. Mary, b. 21 May 1719, m. Samuel Beecher. Jr., b. 30 Aug. 1714- Samuel 
Beecher and his wife Mary deeded, 26 Dec. 1747, to brother John Thomas, 
all right in estate of father John Thomas, deceased. (N. H. L. XIII. 287). 
7. Josiah 3 Thomas (John, 2 John 1 ) of New Haven, husbandman, died before 5 Aug. 174& 
in his will mentioned wife Elizabeth and children Jesse, Samuel (eldest son), eldest 
dau. Cooper and two youngest daus. Samuel was given the "gun that I brought out 
of England." Job Terrel of Milford was appointed guardian of Jesse. (N. H. Pr 
VIII. 10, 384; VI.). He married, 1 Mar. 1721, Elizabeth Johnson. In her will of 26 
Mar 1756, proved Apr. 1756, she named her two sons and her daus, Abigail Baldwin. 
Lydia Sperry and Elizabeth Cooper. Seth Sperry was administrator; the estate was 
inventoried at £21. (N. H. Pr. VIII. 520, 535; IX. 61). Josiah Thomas deeded land, 
25 Jan. 1722, to his brothers Samuel and Caleb Thomas. (N. H. L. V. 7-7 >. 
Children : 

i. Elizabeth/ b. 8 June 1722, m. Cooper. 

ii. Josiah, b. 2 Apr. 1725, probably d. y. 
iii. Lydia, b. 15 Nov. 1727, m. 8 Mar. 1749, Seth Sperry. 
iv. Samuel, b. 30 Apr. 1730. 

v. Abigail, b. 31 Dec. 1732, d. n July 1812, m. 31 Jan. 1751. Matthew Baldwin. The 
"Baldwin Genealogy" (p. 817) states that Matthew Baldwin in. in \\ OOd- 
bridge Abigail Thomas, dau. of a sea captain in New Haven, 
vi. Jesse, b. 8 July 1735, m. 28 Dec. 1758, Ruth Johnson (\\ oodbndge Rec). 
8. Caleb 3 Thomas (John 2 John 1 ), of New Haven, tailor, married first, Rebecca I erkms. 
James, son of Caleb Thomas, in 1733 received his mother Rebeccas portion in the 
estate of David Perkins. (N. H. Pr. VI.). Caleb married, second, 6 Jan. 1736 Abi- 
gail, dau. of John Alcock. 
Child (by first wife) : 
i. James. 4 

Children (by second wife) : 
ii. Rebecca, b. 15 Oct. 1737. 



652 THE THOMAS. FAMILY IN AMERICA 

iii. Caleb, b. 3 June 1740. 
9. John 3 Thomas (Daniel? lohn 1 ), of West Haven, husbandman, called himself eldest 
son of Daniel Thomas, deceased, in land-deed of 5 May 1704. (N. H. L. II. 245). 
He exchanged land at "West Farms" with his brother Daniel Thomas, 1708. (N. H. 
L. III. 203). He died 25 Jan. 1712 (T). Administration on the estate of John Thomas 
(indexed "of West Side") was granted, 30 Apr. 1712, to widow Mary. The estate 
was inventoried at £176, and his children are named as Enoch (aged nearly 16), 
Abraham (14), Ephraim (12), Rebecca (9), Mary (7), Recompence (4) and John 
(1). The widow Mary remarried, before 5 Oct. 1719, Richard Porter. (N. H. Pr. 
IV. 53, 232, 512; V. 4). 
Children : 

17. i. Enoch/ b. 1 May 1698. 

18. ii. Abraham, b. 18 June 1700. 

iii. Ephraim, b. 19 Feb. 1702. He removed to No. 1, Hampshire Co., Mass. (N. H. 
L. XXVI 30). 

iv. Rebecca, b. 19 Jan. 1704, m. Joseph Plumb, Jr., of Milford, Conn. Joseph 
Plumb of Mlford, with his wife Rebecca, deed land in West Haven to their 
brother, Enoch Thomas of Wallingford, 18 May 1765. (N. H. L. XXX. 

474). 
v. Mary, b. 19 Apr. 1707, m. Augustin Briant of Canaan, Conn. On 25 Feb. 1755, 
Enoch Thomas of Farmington, Ephraim Thomas of No. 1, Hampshire Co., 
Mass., Recompence Thomas of Ridgefield, Fairfield Co., Conn., and Augus- 
tin Briant with wife Mary of Canaan, deeded right in Ball's lot, New 
Haven, to their brother, Richard Porter, of Farmington (N. H. L. XXVI. 
30). 
vi. Recompence, b. 2 Nov. 1709, removed to Ridgefield, Conn. The estate of 
Recompence Thomas of Danbury was distributed, 12 Dec. 1793, between 
Recompence, John, Abraham and Daniel Thomas, Elizabeth Weed, Jerusha 
St. John, Mary Bennet, Betty, wife of Thomas St. John, Phebe Smith, and 
Rebecca Thomas. (Danbury Pr. Rec. VI. 328). Daniel Thomas m. 30 
Oct. 1777, Eunice Foster (Ridgefield Rec.) 
vii. John, b. 22 July 1712, as John Jr. deeded land to Enoch Thomas that came from 
father John, deceased; mentioned mother Mary Porter, 1733. (N. H. L. 
IX. 339). He married and had at least one child, as on 6 June 1748, George 
W T elton of Farmington was appointed guardian to John, aged 11, minor son 
of John Thomas of New Haven, deceased. On 3 Oct. 1752, this John chose 
his uncle Richard Porter for guardian. (Hartford Pr. Rec. XV. 68; XVI. 
73)- John Thomas, and Levi Root with wife Esther, of Farmington, 
deeded land in West Haven to Enoch Thomas of Wallingford, 6 Jan. 1769. 
N. H. L. XXX. 464). John Thomas m. 19 May 1773, Zilpah Woodruff; 
James Thomas m. 29 July 1798, Hannah Miller. (Farmington Rec). 
10. Daniel 3 Thomas, Jr. (Daniel, 2 John 1 ), of West Haven, husbandman, married, 10 
Dec. 1702, Eunice, dau. of Ebenezer and Hannah (Vincent) Brown, born 26 Oct. 
1681. The birth of his children (except Timothy's) are not recorded, but the identity 
of his sons has been established by land-deeds ; that of his daus. by the division of his 
dau. Eunice Stacker's estate, and by the following land-deeds. On 22 Apr. 1763, Dan- 
iel, John, Charles and Stephen Thomas, Bathsheba Tolles and Dinah Belding deeded 
land laid out to Ebenezer Brown, deceased. (N. H. L. XXVII. 447). Eunice Stacker, 
Daniel Clark and wife Lydia, Bathsheba Tolles, Daniel, Stephen, John and Charles 
Thomas, Jared Belding and wife Dinah and Timothy Thomas deeded land, 14 Mar. 
1765, to Joseph Prindle. (N. H. L. XXVI 37). Daniel Thomas died before Aug. 
1760; his estate was inventoried at £51. (N. H. Pr. IX. 394, 425, 521, 536). 
Children : 

i. Eunice, 4 m. Ebenezer Stacker. In will of 7 Feb. 1754, proved Jan. 1755, left his 
estate to his widow Eunice and nephew Ebenezer Stacker. (N. H. Pr. 
VIII. 410). She died before 19 Jan. 1789, when administration on her 
estate was granted to Elijah Prindle and Benajah Thomas. Her estate, 
inventoried at about £40, was divided between her four brothers and five 
sisters, viz.: (1) heirs of Lydia Clark, dec; (2) heirs of Dorcas Stevens, 
dec; (3) Timothy Thomas; (4) Dinah Belding; (5) heirs of Charles 
Thomas, dec; (6) heirs of John Thomas, dec; (7) Daniel Thomas; (8) 
Bathsheba; (9) heirs of Elizabeth, dec. (N. H. Pr. XV. 249, 302; XVII. 
461, 536). 
ii. Elizabeth, m. 27 July 1727, Joseph Prindle. They deeded land which descended 
to them from their father, Daniel Thomas, deceased, 6 June 1764. (N. H. 
L. XXVII. 357). 
iii. Lydia, m. 10 Oct. 1732, Daniel Clark, Jr. 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL DATA 653 

iv. Bathsheba, m. Tolles. 

19. v. Daniel, 3rd., d. 1795. 

vi. Dorcas, m. James Stevens. Daniel Thomas deeded land to James Stevens and 
his wife Dorcas, 7 Jan. 1748. (N. H. L. XIII. 296). 

vn. Stephen, d. before May 1755, when Caleb Andrews became guardian of his son 
Stephen. He m. 20 Feb. 1738, Lydia, widow of Samuel Thomas. In 1747, 
Jedediah and Caleb Andrews, Stephen Thomas alnd wife Lydia, Moses 
Bradley and wife Sarah, and Aaron Blakesley and wife Esther deeded land 
that came from their father, Ens. Gideon Andrews, deceased. (N. H. L. 
XIII. 283). Lydia, dau. of Gideon Andrews, was b. 14 Jan. 1799. Their 
only child, Stephen Thomas, was bapt. 28 Apr. 1740. Stephen Thomas was 
granted land by his father Daniel in 1750. (N. H. L. XV. 38;. [See No. 
26]. 

20. viii. John, d. 1766. 

21. ix. Charles, d. 1773. 

x. Dinah, m. Jared Belding. They deeded to James Toles, 9 Dec. 1767, land which 
descended to Dinah and their brothers and sisters from their mother Eunice 
Thomas. (N. H. L. XXIX. 538). 

xi. Timothy, b. 22 May 1723, m. 20 Oct. 1746, Susannah Hale. Samuel Hale deeded 
land to his dau. Susannah, wife of Timothy Thomas, 29 Apr. 1747. (N. H. 
L. XIII. 282). The births of two sons of Timothy's are recorded : Timohty, 
22 June 1747, and Ephraim, 22 Feb. 1749. Timothy received land from his 
father Daniel in 1747. (N. H. L. VIII. 201). 

11. Israel 3 Thomas (Daniel? John 1 ), of New Haven, husbandman, deeded land to John 
Sherman from brother Recompence Thomas, deceased, 24 Apr. 1722. (N. H. L. VI. 
83.) In Sept. 1767, administration on his estate was granted to his son Gershom; his 
will, written over twenty years before, was not accepted. (N. H. Pr. X. 440, 543). 
He married, first, (although conclusive proof is wanting) Sarah, dau. of Samuel and 
Experience (Pinion) Humphreville, born 2 Apr. 1695. Samuel Humphreville, in his 
will of 28 Feb., proved 13 June, 1748, mentions the five children of his dau. Sarah 
Thomas, deceased. (N. H. Pr. VII.). He married, second, Mehitabel, dau. of John 
Wolcott, widow of John Ford, born 30 Nov. 1689. Israel Thomas and his wife 
Mehitabel sold, 25 June 1761, land that came from their father, Mr. John Wolcott, 
deceased. (N. H. L. XXIII. 225). Mehitabel's first husband, John Ford, died 1722, 
and 2 Nov. 1730 she is called Mehitabel Ford alias Thomas. (N. H. Pr. VI.). In 
the probation of the estate of Daniel Johnson, Mehitabel, wife of Israel Thomas, was 
mentioned among the heirs. (N. H. Pr. X. n, 22; Nov. 1762). She was his niece; 
her mother, Sarah Johnson, married first, 8 Feb. 1683, John Wolcott, second, Benjamin 
Bradley, and third, 19 June 1719, David Perkins. 

Children (all by first wife) : 

i. Sarah/ b. 28 Mar. 1716, m. Eliphalet Bristol, of Woodbury, Conn. On 23 Aug. 
1769, Moses, Israel and Gershom Thomas, Lois, wife of Joseph Collins and 
Sarah, wife of Eliphalet Bristol deeded land that came from their father, 
Israel Thomas, deceased. (N. H. L. XXX. 373). 

22. ii. Israel, b. 5 June 1720, d. 1784. 

iii. Moses, b. 5 Feb. 1722, m. 1 Mar. 1750, Esther, dau. of Thomas and Sarah (Bris- 
tol) Humphreville, his first cousin, who was b. 16 May 1730. Their dau. 
Esther was b. 8 Jan. 1751. A Moses Thomas of Woodbridge, possibly his 
son, died 1803, by will of 8 Apr. 1800 leaving his estate to his wife Rachel 
and his son (Original Record, Probate Court, N. H.). 

23. iv. Gershom, b. 17 Mar. 1725, d. 1792. 

v. Lois, b. 27 June 1727, m. Joseph Collins, b. 7 Mar. 1730. Her marriage is re- 
corded in Woodbridge, 28 Oct. 1747. 

12. Samuel 3 Thomas (Samuel, 2 John 1 ), of New Haven, died before 6 Sept. 1736. when 
administration on his estate was granted to his widow Lydia. The estate was inven- 
toried at £188; Caleb Andrews became guardian of Lydia, and Moses Bradley of 
Eunice, two children of Samuel. (N. H. Pr. VI. 196, 212, 22b. 247. 360). His wife 
was dau. of Ens. Gideon Andrews, and married, second, 20 Feb. 173S. Stephen 
Thomas (q. v.). Lydia Thomas received a portion of the estate of Gideon Andrews 
in 1748. (N. H. Pr. VII. 300). 

Children : 

i. Dorothy/ b. 30 June 1726. 
ii. Lydia, b. 7 May 1728. 
iii. Samuel, b. 4 Oct. 1729. 
iv. Elizabeth, b. 28 Mar. 1731. 
v. Sybil, b. 14 Sept. 1731 (!) A Sarah is mentioned instead of Sybil when the 

children were baptized, 
vi. Eunice, bapt. with the other children, 22 Sept. 1734. 



654 THE THOMAS FAMILY IN AMERICA 

13. Joseph 3 Thomas, Jr. (Joseph? John 1 ), of Amity, now Woodbridge, Conn., was called 
mariner in land-deed of 28 Oct. 1713. (N. H. L. IV. 170). He calls himself of Wall- 
ingford, 14 Mar. 1723 (N. H. L. VI. 229), and 17 Apr. 1723, married in Wallingford, 
Dorcas, dau. of Thomas Richardson, born 2 Dec. 1700. Joseph Thomas, deceased, 
of Amity, in will of 3 Mar., proved 11 Apr. 1743, mentioned wife Dorcas, dau. Abigail, 
eldest son and son James, as well as other children unnamed. His estate was inven- 
toried at £888. Dorcas Thomas became guardian of his son Joseph in 1755. (N. H. 
Pr. VI. 490, 498, 568; VII. 2, 35; VIII. 457). The dower of Dorcas Thomas, de- 
ceased, widow of Joseph Thomas of Woodbridge, was divided, 17 May 1790, between 
her children James Thomas (oldest son), Abigail Warren, Rebecca Hitchcock, Dor- 
cas, wife of Isaac Beecher, Lydia, wife of Capt. Zachariah Hawkins, Joseph Thomas, 
Amos Thomas and Hannah, wife of Joseph Hotchkiss (Original Record, N. H. Pr.; 
see also XV. 345). 

Children : 

i. Abigail/ m. 9 July 1744, James Warren (Woodbridge Rec). 
ii. Rachel. 

iii. Rebecca, m. 24 Mar. 1748, Ebenezer Hitchcock, 
iv. Dorcas, m. Isaac Beecher. 
v. James. 
vi. Lydia, b. about 1733, d. 4 Aug. 1820 (T, Oxford) ; m. (1) 23 Oct. 1751, Nathan 

Taylor, of Litchfield; m. (2) before May 1790, Capt. Zachariah Hawkins 

of Oxford, 
vii. Hannah, m. 10 June 1762, Joseph Hotchkiss (Woodbridge Rec). On 17 

Sept. 1738, Rachel, Rebecca, Dorcas, James, Lydia and Hannah Thomas 

were bapt. 
viii. Joseph, bapt. 15 June 1740, of Danbury, 1763, (m. 9 Feb. 1775, Anne Hodge ? 

Second Cong. Church Rec). 
ix. Amos, bapt. 10 Oct. 1742. Joseph Thomas of Danbury deeded, 3 Feb. 1763, to 

his brother Amos Thomas of New Haven, land bounded north by land of 

Hannah, wife of Joseph Hotchkiss. (N. H. L. XXV. 82). Dorcas Thomas 

deeded land in Bethany to son Amos Thomas, 1780. (N. H. L. XXVII. 

315). He m. 7 Oct. 1767, Elizabeth Northrup. (Woodbridge Rec). 

14. Jehiel 3 Thomas (Joseph, 2 John 1 ), of New Haven, died 24 Apr. 1746. His widow 
Mary was appointed administratrix, July 1746; his estate was inventoried at 
£942. Mr. Leverett Hubbard became guardian of Mary and Susannah in 1746, 
Thomas Bills of James 1757, and Leverett Hubbard of Samuel 1762, four minor chil- 
dren of Jehiel Thomas, deceased. (N. H. Pr. VII. 49, 89, 475, 484; IX. 106; X. 1). 
Jehiel married Mary Miles, widow of Stephen Whitehead, Jr. Stephen Whitehead, 
son of Stephen and Mary (Ailing) Whitehead, married, 1 Sept. 1729, Mary, dau. of 
Richard Miles, who was born 19 Mar. 1707. They had one child Sarah, born 27 Oct. 
1729, who married 22 May 1746, Leverett Hubbard. Stephen Whitehead died Nov. 
1729; in his will of 31 Oct. 1729, proved 28 Jan. 1730, he mentioned his mother Mary, 
his wife Mary, and his "little dau. Sarah." His widow Mary was appointed guardian 
of the dau. On 30 Oct. 1734, Mary Thomas, formerly Whitehead, desired to be freed 
from the guardianship of her child, Sarah Whitehead, so the child's grand-mother, 
Mary Whitehead became guardian. (N. H. Pr. V. 550, 552; VI. 26, 148). In 1746, 
Mrs. Mary Whitehead, Mrs. Mary Thomas and Leverett Hubbard with wife Sarah 
deeded land. (N. H. L. XIII. 100). Mary, widow of Jehiel Thomas, married, third, 
David Gilbert, whose first wife, Experience Perkins, had died 14 Sept. 1748. In the 
will of Richard Miles, 24 Jan. 1756, proved 21 Sept. 1756, she is called his dau. Mary 
Gilbert. (N. H. Pr. VIII. 560). David Gilbert died 8 Dec. 1769 (T), in will of 10 
Mar. 1753 speaks of his "present wife." (N. H. Pr. XL 60). Mary died 18 Aug. 
1783, aged 77 (T). 

Children : 

i. Mary, 4 b. 13 May 1735, m. 24 July 1752, Thomas Bills. He d. 26 Feb. 1791. 
ii. Hannah, b. 2 Apr. 1737, (m. 20 Nov. 1760, Samuel Toles ? Cong. Church Rec). 
iii. Susannah, b. 9 Sept. 1739, d. Sept. 1799 (T), m. 14 Nov. 1762, Peter Bonticou, 
who d. 1781. 
24. iv. James, b. 2 June 1742. 

v. Samuel, b. 6 Sept. 1745, m. 16 Nov. 1769, Sarah Ford (Cong. Church Rec). 
15. Hackaliah 3 Thomas (Joseph, 2 John 1 ), of Amity, now Woodbridge, Conn., married 
first, Elizabeth, dau. of Samuel and Rebecca (Brown) Clark, born 1701, died 23 May 
1740 (T). Zadok Clark of Woodbury, Henry Tolles and wife Deborah, Hackaliah 
Thomas and wife Elizabeth and Ann Clark of New Haven, deeded land laid out to 
their grand-father John Clark. (N. H. L. XII. 338; 19 Dec i734>- He married sec- 
ond, Susannah, dau. of Paul and Susannah (Bowden) Cornwall, born 2 July 1712. 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL DATA 655 

The marriage is recorded of a Susannah Cornwall to Isaac Matthews, 2 Dec 1734- 
probably Susannah was a widow when she married Hackaliah. Susannah Thomas 
is mentoned among the heirs to her mother Susannah Cornwall's estate, 1751. (N. H. 
Pr. VIII. 28, 97, 158). Hackaliah Thomas and his wife Susannah deeded their right 
to land from grand-father Benjamin Bowden, which accrued to them from the divi- 
sion of their mother Susannah Cornwall's estate. (N. H. L. XVII. 41; 2 Apr 175^) 
Susannah first appears as Hackaliah's wife in land- deed of 13 Sept. 1745. (N. H.~l! 
XIII. 118). Hackaliah Thomas, in his will of 22 May 1782, proved 14 May 1788, men- 
tioned wife Susannah and children Joseph, Reuben, Isaac, Elizabeth, Hester, Mary (a 
widow) and Abigail. His estate was inventoried at ii5o. (N. H. Pr. XV. 213; XVI. 
495, 642; XIX. 263). The assignment of his children to their proper mothers has 
been determined by the will of Anna Smith (24 Nov. 1769), a sister of Hackaliah's 
first wife, in which she mentions her nephew Reuben Thomas, her niece Elizabeth 
Parker, Martin and Amos, sons of her deceased niece Olive Ford, and her niece 
Abigail Lancashire. (N. H. Pr. XL 65). 
Children (by first wife) : 

25. i. Reuben. 4 

ii. Elizabeth, m. 17 Aug. 1763, Gideon Parker of Wallingford. (Cong. Church 
Rec). 

iii. Olive, m. 5 Sept. 1750, Matthew Ford. Reuben Thomas, Elizabeth Parker, 
Matthew Ford and wife Olive and Abigail Lancashire deeded land 1 
Dec. 1767; Hackaliah Thomas was a witness. (N. H. L. XXIX. 351). 

iv. Abigail, b. about 1737, d. 18 Sept. 1792 (T, West Haven), m. Lancashire. 

Children (by second wife) : 

v. Joseph. 

26. vi. Isaac. 
vii. Hester. 

viii. Mary, (m. 4 Nov. 1774, Ashbel Beecher ? Second Cong. Church Rec). 

16. John 4 Thomas, 4th (lohn 3 lohn? lohn 1 ) of Amity, now Woodbridge, in his will of 
25 Feb. 1760, proved Mar. 1761, names wife Rebecca and children Eunice, wife of 
Joseph Smith, Rebecca Wheeler at Ripton (wife of Gideon Wheeler), Sarah, Amos 
and John Thomas. The inventory showed estate of £2491 ; Rebecca Thomas became 
guardian of Sarah and Amos; Capt. James Peck of John, minor children of the de- 
ceased. (N. H. Pr. IX. 470, 498; X. 189, 600). The wife Rebecca was undoubtedly dan. 
of Capt. Daniel Ailing, born 5 Aug. 1716, and called Rebecca Thomas in her father's 
will. (N. H. Pr. VIII. 538; 13 Dec. 1755). She married second, 11 Sept. 1764, Wil- 
liam Adams. (Woodbridge Rec). On 30 Oct. 1766, William Adams with his wife 
Rebecca deeded land to Amos Thomas that was bounded by land belonging to the 
heirs of John Thomas, deceased. (N. H. L. XXVIII. 410). Rebecca Adams of 
Woodbridge, in her will of 5 May 1796, proved 15 Nov. 1802, named her children 
Amos Thomas (executor), John Thomas, heirs of Eunice Smith, Rebecca Wheeler, 
and Sarah, wife of Wolestone Hawley. The elder son, Amos, died before his mother 
(leaving no issue), so the court appointed the son John Thomas executor. (N. H. Pr. 
XXIII. 28, 30, 42, 46, 66, 71, 358, 37o). 

Children : 

i. Eunice, 5 (bapt. 30 May 1736 ?), d. 5 July 1781 (T), m. 18 Aug. 1755. Joseph 
Smith. Her heirs, who received her share of her mother's estate, were: 
Rebecca Brown, Jesse Smith, Eunice Beecher, Keturah Lines, Mary Hine, 
Joseph Smith and Sarah Ward. 

ii. Rebecca, (bapt. 24 May 1741 ?), m. Gideon Wheeler. 

27. iii. Amos, b. about 1742-3, d. 22 Apr. 1796 (Woodbridge Rec). 

iv. Sarah, m. 11 Feb. 1768, Wolestone Hawley (Woodbridge Rec). 
v. John, 5th. 

17. Enoch 4 Thomas (lohn, 3 Daniel, 2 lohn 1 ), called of New Haven 24 Apr. 1722, when 
Abraham, son of John Thomas, deceased, deeded to his brother Enoch all right in Ins 
father's lands. (N. H. L. VI. 78). On 1 July 1726, Joseph Plumb, Jr.. with wife 
Rebecca, of Milford, deeded to brother Enoch Thomas all right to land in West 
Haven. (N. H. L. VII. 179). Enoch Thomas deeded land to his uncles Daniel and 
Israel Thomas to aid in the maintenance of his grandmother Rebecca Perkins, wulow 
of his grandfather Daniel Thomas, deceased, 22 Dec 1730. (N. H. L. VIII. »l). 
Enoch Thomas is called of Farmington in land-deed of 1755, and of \\ alhngfbrd in 
land-deeds from 1767 to 1770. (N. H. L. XXVI. 30; XXX. 40 2, 403: XXXIV. 519). 

Children (born in New Haven) : 
i. Enoch, 6 b. 23 May 1722. 
ii. Sybil, b. 15 Apr. 1724. 
iii. Sarah, b. 20 Aug. 1726. 
iv. Thaddeus, b. 4 Aug. 1730. 



656 THE THOMAS FAMILY IN AMERICA 

18. Abraham 4 Thomas (John? Daniel, 2 John 1 ), removed to Durham, where he married 
Hannah Sutlief. She is called Hannah Thomas in the will of her father, Nathaniel 
Sutlief of Durham, in 1732. (Durham Pr. Rec. Vol. III. p. 703). 

Children (from Durham Town and Church Rec.) : 

i. Hannah/ b. 23 Apr. 1728, probably m. Lemuel Hand. Lemuel Hand with 
wife Hannah of Durham deeded land in West Haven to Enoch Thomas, 5 
Jan. 1768. (N. H. L. XXX. 463). On 6 Sept. 1765, Lemuel Hand with 
wife Hannah of Branford deeded land in New Haven to Richard Porter of 
Farmington. (N. H. L. XXXII. 532). 

ii. Jerusha, b. 10 Mar. 1730, m. David Johnson. On 31 Jan. 1767, David Johnson 
with wife Jerusha of Norfolk deeded to Enoch Thomas of Wallingford 
land in West Haven that was formerly their father's, Abram Thomas, 
deceased. (N. H. L. XXXI. 384). 

iii. Abraham, b. 9 Jan. 1732. 

iv. Sarah, bapt. 10 Aug. 1733. 

v. Mary, bapt. 26 June 1737. 

vi. Phebe, b. 17 Apr. 1743. 

19. Daniel 4 Thomas, 3rd (Daniel? Daniel? John 1 ), was deeded land by his father Daniel 
Thomas 1746. (N. H. L. XIII. 107). He married, 25 Dec. 1735, Sarah Brown. 
Administration on his estate (inventoried at £30) granted to his son Benajah, 6 Apr. 
1795- (N. H. Pr. XVII. 316, 379). Daniel Thomas deeded land, 23 Apr. 1783, to his 
dau.-in-law Mehitabel, wife of his son Benajah Thomas. (N. H. L. XXXIX. 394). 
Daniel Thomas deeded land the same date to his son Edward. (N. H. L. XXXIX. 

395). 

Children : 

i. Daniel, 5 4th, b. 6 Oct. 1737. 

ii. Ebenezer, b. 3 Nov. 1739. 

iii. Benajah, b. 2 Nov. 1741, m. (1) Mehitabel Piatt. On 15 Mar. 1783, Benajah 
Thomas and wife Mehitabel deeded to Nathan, Ann, Mary, John, Susanna 
and Phebe Piatt, land from their mother Mary Piatt, deceased. (N. H. L. 

XXXIX. 389). He m. (2) Pamela . Administration on his estate 

(worth £296) was granted, 3 Aug. 1802, to his widow Pamela; his estate 
was divided between the widow and Cornelius Thomas, Mehitabel Ailing, 
Sarah Smith, Benajah Thomas, Julia Ann Thomas, Anna Wilton, Lois 
Higgins, Mary Kimberley, Mabel Ritchard and Nathan Thomas. (N. H. 
Pr. XXII. 390, 407, XXIII. 170, 293). His dau. Mehitabel m. 14 Mar. 1791, 
Chauncey Ailing, and Sarah m. 22 Oct. 1795, Chauncey Smith. Mary m. 
9 Jan. 1796, Hubbard Kimberley. 

iv. Adonijah, b. 28 Aug. 1743. 

v. Edward Thomas, b. 30 May 1745, d. before 15 Dec. 1794, when his widow Hes- 
ter became administratrix of his estate. His brother Benajah is mentoned. 
The estate was divided between the widow and Daniel, Edward, Esther, 
Dinah, Lydia, Sarah, Amos C. and Huldah Thomas. (N. H. Pr. XVII. 
233, 379, 422, 469; XXI. 89, 563; XXII. 460). 

20. John* Thomas (Daniel? Daniel? John 1 ) of West Haven, Conn., married, 7 Nov. 1742, 
Sybil, dau. of John Smith. Administration on his estate was granted, Aug. 1766 to 
John Ward, husband of his dau. Sybil. Five children survived him. (N. H. Pr. X. 
349, 355, 399; XL 432). 

Children : 

i. John, 5 b. ii May 1743. 

ii. Sybil, b. 27 Nov. 1745, m. John Ward. John Thomas granted land to his son- 
in-law John Ward, 12 Apr. 1765. (N. H. L. XXVII. 388). 
iii. James, b. 13 Mar. 1747. 
28. iv. Aaron, b. 16 May 1749. 

21. Charles 4 Thomas (Daniel? Daniel? John 1 ) of New Haven, received land from his 
father Daniel Thomas in 1746. (N. H. L. XIII. 106). He married, 22 Mar. 1742, 
Lydia Augur. Administration was granted on his estate (inventoried at £131), May 
1733, to his son Thomas. His estate was divided between his widow and children 
Charles, Samuel, Thomas, Seth and Stephen Thomas, Mabel Bristol, Lydia Richards 
and Bathshua Higgins. (N. H. Pr. XI. 358, 370, 426, 480, 494; XII. 2). 

Children: 
i. Mabel, 5 b. 20 Oct. 1742, m. David Bristol. David Bristol and wife Mabel deeded 

to Aaron Thomas land from the estate of Mr. Charles Thomas, 27 Feb. 

1783. (N. H. L. XLII. 377). 

ii. Lydia, b. 27 May 1744, m. Richards. 

iii. Charles, b. 24 Apr. 1746, d. before 16 Dec. 1778, when Capt. Nehemiah Smith 

was appointed his administrator. (N. H. Pr. XII. 287, 296). 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL DATA6 S 7 

iv. Thomas, b. 13 Mar. 1748, d. before 16 Dec. 1778, when Capt. Nehemiah Smith 
was appointed his administrator. (N. H. Pr. XII. 286 206) 

v. Bathshua, m. . Higgins. 

vi. Samuel. 

vii. Seth. William, son of Capt. Seth Thomas, d. 17 Aug. 1790, aged 17 (T West 
Haven). 

viii. Stephen. 

22. Israel 4 Thomas, Jr. (Israel, 3 Daniel, 2 John 1 ) married 24 June 1746. Martha Hine 
Ambrose Hine, in will of 6 Dec. 1749, proved 1750, mentions his dau. Martha, wife of 
Israel Thomas. (N. H. Pr. VII. 702). Israel Thomas, in will of 30 Nov. 1781, 
proved 5 Apr. 1784, names his sons David (his executor) and Hezekiah and the four 
children of his dau. Mary, deceased. His estate was inventoried Mar. 1785, at £757 
(N. H. Pr. XIV. 260, 369). 

Children : 

i. Mary, 5 b. 21 Nov. 1747, m. Edward Perkins (vide Tuttle Gen). 
ii. David, bapt. 3 May 1752 (Woodbridge Church Rec). 
29. iii. Hezekiah. 

23. Gershom 4 Thomas (Israel, 3 Daniel, 2 John 1 ) of Woodbridge, Conn., died before 7 May 
1792, when administration of his estate was granted to his sons Elijah of Waterbury 
and Noah of Woodbridge. On 2 May 1793, his estate was divided between Marv 
Thomas, Elijah and Noah Thomas, and Rebecca, wife of Ezekiel Hotchkiss. (N. H. 
Pr. XV. 468). He married Mabel, dau. of Joseph Dorman and widow of Joel Perkins, 
born 26 Oct. 1720; she married her first husband, 10 Nov. 1743, and he died 1748. 
The marriage of Gershom Thomas to Mabel Perkins is recorded in Woodbridge, 26 
Apr. 1749. 

Children : 

i. Rebecca, 5 m. Ezekiel Hotchkiss. 

ii. Elijah, called of Waterbury 1792. His son, Mansfield Thomas of Waterbury, 
was b. May 1798, m. 22 Jan. 1823, Sybil Piatt, and left issue (vide Ander- 
son's "Hist, of Waterbury"). 

iii. Noah of Woodbridge, m. 9 Sept. 1781, Mary Toles (Oxford Rec). dau. of 
Daniel and Thankful (Smith) Toles, his second cousin. On 26 Oct. 1818. 
his widow Mary and Aner Thomas became administrators of his estate, 
which was divided between the widow Mary and Aner Thomas, Laura 
Robinson, and Leverett, Ransom and Charles Thomas. (N. H. Pr. XXX. 
10, 197). 

24. James 4 Thomas (Jehiel 3 Joseph 2 John 1 ) of New Haven had the following children 
baptized, recorded in the records of the First Congregational Church. Whom did he 
marry? Mary, dau. of Widow Thomas, baptized 19 Feb. 1786, may be his voungest 
child. 

Children : 

i. Lucinda, 5 bapt. 22 Oct. 1775. 
ii. Samuel Miles, bapt. 30 Apr. 1780. 
iii. James, bapt. 7 Nov. 1785.' 

25. Reuben 4 Thomas (Hackaliah 3 Joseph, 2 John 1 ) married Rhoda Stevens. Jama and 
Eliphalet Stevens, Martha Clinton, Reuben and Rhoda Thomas deeded land. 27 Nov. 
1761, that was laid out to their father, James Stevens. (N. H. L. XXIV. 86). Did 
he leave children? 

26. Isaac 4 Thomas (Hackaliah 3 Joseph 2 John 1 ) of New Haven, married. 15 Sept. 17(0. 
Sarah Andrews. On 23 Mar. 1772, Isaac Thomas and wife Sarah. Martha. Caleb Jr.. 
and Abigail Andrews deeded to Stephen Thomas the house and land where he d? 
their right came from the deceased wife of this Stephen Thomas. (N. H. L. XXXIII. 
402). The grantors in this deed were children of Caleb and Mary (Hodge) Andrews. 
The Stephen Thomas mentioned was probably Stephen 8 Thomas (Stephen.* Daniel.* 
Daniel, 2 John 1 ), baptized 28 Apr. 1740; his wife was called Mary in land-deed of 
2 Nov. 1768 (N. H. L. XXIX. 415), and was probably Mary Andrews, sister oi the 
grantors in the above deed, who was born 29 Nov. 1738. Sarah Andrews, wife of 
Isaac Thomas, was born 31 July 1741. 

Children : 
i. Sarah, bapt. 4 Nov. 1770, (m. 2 Aug. 1791, Joel Atwater ?) (NoithHaven 

Church Rec). 
ii. Silas, bapt. 4 Nov. 1770. 
iii. Dorcas, bapt. 4 Nov. 1770. 
iv. Silas, bapt. 22 Nov. 1772. 
v. Richard, bapt. 22 Jan. 1775. 
vi. Susannah, bapt. 22 Jan. 1775, (m. 23 Dec. 1795. Jacob Thorpe?) (Nora 

Haven 1 Church Rec). 



658 THE THOMAS FAMILY IN AMERICA 

vii. Isaac, bapt. 26 Jan. 1777. Isaac Thomas, Jr., of Hamden m. 21 Oct. 1795, 
Elizabeth Benham. 

27. Amos 3 Thomas (lohn? lohn? John? lohn 1 ) of Woodbridge, Conn., married 1 Feb. 
1770, Elizabeth Beecher (Woodbridge Rec). Caleb Beecher, in will of Apr. 1784, 
proved Jan. 1785, mentions his dau. Elizabeth, wife of Amos Thomas. (N. H. Pr. 
XIV. 347). Amos Thomas died 22 Apr. 1796 (Woodbridge Rec.) ; in will of 1 Aug. 
1787, proved 15 May 1797, he named wife Elizabeth, mother Rebecca Adams, and chil- 
dren Abigail, John and James Thomas. His estate was inventoried, 19 June 1797, at 
£2497. (N. H. Pr. XIX. 11; XX. 126). Elizabeth Thomas, in will of 6 Apr. 1822, 
proved 24 June 1822, named children Abigail Beecher, James Thomas, and the five 
children of John Thomas, deceased, among them Amos (and his wife Lucretia), Eliza- 
beth and Abigail. William Beecher was executor. (N. H. Pr. XXXII. 335, 344). 

i. Abigail/ m. (William ?) Beecher. 

ii. John, b. about 1775, d. 12 Mar. 1815 (Woodbridge Rec). In will of 12 Apr. 
1813, he mentioned wife Sarah, and children Elizabeth, Abigail, Amos, 
Linus and Noyes Thomas. (N. H. Pr. XXVIII. 49). The Woodbridge 
Records record the death of an infant of John's, 27 Feb. 1806. The eldest 
son, Gen. Amos Thomas m. Lucretia Baldwin, and Noyes m. Eunice Bald- 
win (vide the "Baldwin Gen." pp. 175 and 196). 

iii. James. 

28. Aaron 5 Thomas {John* Daniel? Daniel? John 1 ), of Orange, Conn., died before 19 
Sept. 1825, when administration on his estate was granted to Aaron Thomas and Dan 
Tolles, the widow declining to serve. The estate was divided between the widow, 
Hannah Hull, Eunice Culver, Aaron Thomas, heirs of Patty Dudley, Phebe, Thad- 
deus and Richard Thomas. (N. H. Pr. XXXV. 468; XXXVI. 2). Aaron Thomas 
married, 16 Dec. 1784, Martha Tolles (Trinity Church Rec). 

Children : 

i. Hannah/ m. Hull. « . 

ii. Eunice, m. 13 Sept. 1796, William Culver (Cong. Church Rec). 

iii. Aaron. 

iv. Patty, m. Dudley. 

v. Phebe. 

vi. Thaddeus. Administration on his estate was granted to Dan Tolles and Aaron 
Thomas, 5 Sept. 1825. His estate was divided between the widow, John 
Henry and Eliza Maria. (N. H. Pr. XXXV. 449; XXXVI. 513). 

vii. Richard. 

29. Hezekiah 5 Thomas (Israel? Israel? Daniel? John 1 ) of Woodbridge, Conn., married 
Chloe Beecher. His will was proved 8 Dec. 1828. His estate was divided between 
his four children, who follow. (N. H. Pr. XXXIX. 80; XL. 52.). 

Children : 
i. Israel. 8 

ii. Tabitha, m. Isaac Jones, 
iii. Hezekiah. 
iv. Leverett. 
Miscellaneous : 

(1) New Haven Church Records, First and Second Cong. 
Elizabeth Thomas m. 30 Aug. 1772, Robert Matthews. 
Irena Thomas m. 4 Jan. 1786, Elnathan Tailor. 

Widow Anna Thomas m. 10 Nov. 1790, Abraham Tuttle, Jr. 
Lucy Thomas m. 13 Oct. 1792, Nathan Howel. 
Nancy Thomas m. 7 Sept. 1796, Leveret Stevens, Jr. 
Emilia Thomas m. 12 Nov. 1797, Giles Doolittle. 
Samuel Thomas m. 23 Nov. 1788, Lois Howel. 
John Thomas m. 17 June 1783, Susannah Mehan. 

(2) Cheshire Records : 

Enoch Thomas m. 23 Oct. 1796, Mindwell Clark. 

(3) East Haven Records : 

Esther Thomas of New Haven m. 12 June 1776, Abram Beecher. 

(4) Ridgefield Records : 

Elias Thomas m. 13 Feb. 1794, Jane Forrester. 
(5) Mabel Beecher [dau. of Abraham and Deborah (Thomas) Hotchkiss, and 
widow of Isaac Beecher] of Bethany, in will proved Aug. 1798, mentioned 
her dau. Mabel Thomas. (N. H. P. XIX. 254)- 
(6) Trinity Church Records, New Haven. 
Asahel Thomas m. 27 Jan. 1791, Hannah Merwin. 
Bethel Thomas of West Haven m. 15 Oct. 1795, Mary Bristol. 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL DATA 659 

David Thomas of Woodbridge m. 17 Dec. 1795, Rebecca Cook at the house of 

David Cook. Was this David 6 son of Israel 4 Thomas [No. 22] (?) 
Asahel Thomas m. 25 May 1797, Abigail Stephens, at Oyster River. 
(7) Woodbridge Records : 

Woolcott m. June 1752, Eunice Thomas, both of New Haven. 

Rebecca Thomas m. 11 Sept. 1766, Ebenezer Morris. 
Enoch Thomas m. 7 June 1781, Anna Tucker of Bethlehem. 
Hannah Thomas m. 5 May 1785, Jesse Smith. 

The above records seem to belong to the New Haven Thomas family, but I am unable 
to assign them to their correct places. I shall be grateful to anyone who can locate them, 
or who can amplify or correct this genealogy. 



THE MANGER CHILD 

CHRISTMAS, 1907 

BY 

Henry Sherman Smart 



Into the silence of that Christmas night, 
Go stand upon the hills of time, and dream 
Of Bethlehem's vast silent skies, which gleam 

And shine afresh with heaven's sweet mystic light. 

Proclaiming love from God the Infinite ; 

And by that same bright leading star, there beams 
A little manger Child, Who still redeems, 

And cradles in the bosom of His might. 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN HISTORICAL DATA 



AND 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT 
Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 

This department is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries should be as 
precise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his personal attention to questions 
free of charge. Extended investigations will be made by him for a reasonable compensation. Persons having old 
family records, diaries or documents yielding genealogical information are requested to communicate with him with 
reference to printing them. Readers are earnestly requested to co-operate with the editor in answering queries, many 
of which can only be answered by recourse to original records. Querists are requested to write clearly all names of 
persons and places so that they cannot be misunderstood. Queries will be inserted in the order in which they are 
received. All matters relating to this department must be sent to Thb Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, marked 
Genealogical Department. Give full name and post-office address. — Editor 



SELF-HELPS IN STUDIES IN ANCESTRY— VALUABLE INFOR, 
MATION TO GENEALOGICAL RESEARCHES 



QUESTIONS ANSWERED 

154. Hotchkiss. Ezekiel Hotchkiss of New 
Haven, born March 14, 1726. Will 
proved. May 7, 1792, son of Joseph 
and Thankful (Stone) Hotchkiss m. 
Jan. 25, 1750, Hannah Ailing, b. Oct. 4, 
1727, dau. of Nathan and Hannah 
(Todd) Ailing. She d. between 1779 
and 1792. Court held Dec. 5, 1779. 
Administration on estate of Ezekiel 
Hotchkiss granted to Hannah, widow. 
Division of estate May 7, 1792. Glover 
Ball, administrator to Ebenezer Hotch- 
kiss, to Phebe Hotchkiss, to Rachel 
Hotchkiss, to Mary Bradley, to Lois 
Hibbert and to Hannah Ball. 

F. H. C. 

217. (d) Morrison. Ann Morrison of 
New Haven who married June 17, 
1 7 14, Dr. Ebenezer Tolman of North 
Guilford was daughter of Andrew 
Morrison and his wife Sarah, dau. of 
Deputy Governor William Jones. Her 
grandmother was Hannah, daughter of 
Governor Theophilus Eaton and his 
wife Ann (Lloyd) Yale. 
Andrew Morrison married Sarah 
Jones Oct. 28, 1687 ; she was born Aug. 
17, 1662, and her daughter Anna Nov. 
4, 1693. 

231. Botsford-Camp. There is nothing to 
show that Hannah, wife of Samuel 
Botsf ord, b. 1669, was a . Camp. All 
the Hannahs in the Camp family mar- 
ried other husbands. Perhaps she was 
a widow Camp. 

Botsford- Prindle. Hannah Prindle 
who m. Samuel Botsford, b. 1702, was 
daughter of John and Hannah (Bots- 
ford) Prindle and widow of Nathan 3 

660 



Smith, Andrew, 2 Nicholas 1 . 
Coats-of-arms are borne by all male 
descendants of the original grantee or 
of the earliest ancestor of the grantee 
named in the grant. They are not 
used by descendants in the female line, 
but of course may be displayed in a 
decorative or architectural way as the 
arms of an ancestor by descendants of 
any name. 

236. (j) Norton. Captain Thomas Sey- 
mour, b. March 12, 1668-9, m - Ruth 
Norton, dau. of John and Ruth 
(Moore) Norton of Farmington, 
granddaughter of John Norton and of 
Deacon Isaac Moore and his first wife, 
Ruth Stanley, dau. of John Stanley. 
The second wife of Thomas Seymour 
was named Mary Waters, dau. of Bevil 
Waters. 

243. (e) Hubbell. The second wife of 
Peter Hubbell, 8 Richard, 2 Richard, 1 was 
Sarah (Clark) Hepburn, widow of 
Peter Hepburn. 

INFORMATION WANTED 

247. (a) Hall-Bartholomew. Wanted, an- 
cestry of Rebecca Bartholomew who 
married Peter Hall of Wallingford 
Oct. 19, 1732. He was born 1709. 

(b) Whittlesey. Also that of Lois 
Whittlesey who m. Col. Elihu Hall, 
Jan. 2, 1734. 

(c) Peck-Cook. And of Esther Peck 
who d. Sep. 13, 1822, aged 78, and mar- 
ried Ambrose Cook, b. June 30, 1746, 
son of Isaac and Jerusha (Sexton) 
Cook. 

(d) Sexton. Also ancestry of Jerusha 
Sexton who married Isaac Cook of 
Wallingford, Oct. 13, 1723. 



PROBLEMS OF GENEALOGISTS 



661 



248. (a) Maltby-D owning. Wanted, an- 
cestry of Noah Maltby, born Nov. 24, 
1774, and his wife, Mary Downing, 
born Nov. 22, 1779, with place of birth 
and where married. Date of marriage, 
1800. He bought land in Westmore- 
land, Oneida Co., N. Y., in 1810-1816. 
We think he may have been son of 
Noah, born in Branford, Conn., 1744. 

(b) Coleman. Ancestry of John Cole- 
man, called Junior; b. in East Hart- 
ford, Oct. 28, 1778, (family records) ; 
his mother was Lucy Hollister. 

(c) Smith. _ Ancestry of Asahel Smith, 
b. in Norwich, Conn., about 1750. He 
m. Esther Harrison of Branford. 

(d) Liscomb. John Liscomb, b. Nov. 
21, 1756, (Gloucester, Mass.) Son of 
John and Rachel Day Liscomb. Whom 
did he marry? L. M. W. 

249. (a) Barber-Eaton. Wanted, ancestry 
of Lydia Barber, b. 1736, who married 
Ensign Aaron Eaton, Oct. 21, 1762. 
He was born March 18, 1737, Tolland, 
Conn., and d. 1815. 

(b) Petty. Also ancestry of Tryphena 
Petty, born 1770, first wife of his son, 
Aaron Eaton, b. May 6, 1766, at Staf- 
ford. M. A. 

250. (a) Leonard-Perkins. Rebecca Leon- 
ard, m. Jabez Perkins of Norwich (?) 
May 11, 1725. Who was she? He 
was born June 3, 1681, son of Jabez and 
Hannah (Lathrop) Perkins. 

(b) Wright. Wanted, ancestry of 
Capt. Joseph Wright of Woodstock, 
Conn., "b. Andover, Mass.," who m. 
Jan. 12, 1713, at Andover, Sarah Chan- 
dler, dau. of Capt. John. 

(c) Allen-Tiffany. Ancestry of Eliza- 
beth Allen, born in Attleboro, Mass., in 
1704 and married James Tiffany Nov. 
11, 1725. J- B. 

251. Curtis-Bur t. Wanted, ancestry of 
Jonathan Curtis of Lebanon, Conn., 
and also that of second wife, Elizabeth 
Burt, married July 21, 1720. M. P. 

252. (d) Bishop. Hannah Bishop, eldest 
child of Dep. Governor James Bishop 
and his first wife, Mary, was born May 
29, 165 1, and baptized at New Haven, 
June 1, 1651. She married John Mor- 
ris, Aug. 12, 1669. It has been claimed 
that her mother was a daughter of 
Captain George Lamberton, who was 
lost on the "Phantom" ship. Mary, 
wife of James Bishop, died Nov. 26, 
1665. His second wife was Elizabeth 
Tompkins, dau. of Micah Tompkins of 
Milford, married Dec. 12, 1665. She 
died, his widow, Oct. 25, 1703. 

(f) Butler. Daniel Butler, son of 
Dea. Richard, married Mabel Olmsted, 
dau. of Nicholas. 



252. (a) Leete. Who was Anna Leete's 
mother? John's, (Jr.) wife? 

(b) Leete. Who was John's, (Jr.) 
mother? I read, Anna Payne, Eng. 

(c) Bishop. "Ann Bishop, the mother 
of Hon. James, died in Guilford, 1676." 
Who was her husband? 

(d) Bishop. The "Hon. James" had 
three wives. Who was the mother of 
his eldest Hannah, who married John 
Morris in Aug., 1669? 

(e) Boltwood. Who was Sergt. Rob- 
ert Boltwood's wife, Mary, died May 
20, 1658, Ht? 

(f) Butler. Who did Daniel Butler 
marry? "Mabel Ht." 

(g) Bush. Who was Samuel Bush's 
wife, Rachel, and who was his 
father? 

They were in Suffield, Mass. (formerly 
Conn.), in 1797. Mrs. B. H. 

253. Allyn-Mather. Who was Elizabeth 
Allyn, who, in 1740. married Nathaniel 
Mather, b. 1716, son of Dr. Samuel 
and Abigail (Grant) Mather? 

254. (a) Hoyt. Wanted, name and ances- 
try of the wife of Lieut. David Hoyt, 
son of John Hoyt, birth date not given, 
but his father John was born June 21, 
1669. 

(b) Stevens- My gatt. Ancestry of 
Elizabeth Stevens, wife of Joseph 
Mygatt. He was born Oct. 23, 1678. 

(c) Hickock. Who was Abigail 
Hickock, wife of David De Forest? 
He was born Apr. 24, 1702, at Strat- 
ford. 

(d) Weed. Also Sabra Weed, wife of 
his son, David. 

(e) Kirby-Parmalee. Who was Mary 
Kirby of "Middletown, 2d wife of Wil- 
liam Pannalee, b. 1729? 

H. X. H. 

255. (a) Lewis. Who was Jerusha, wife 
of Birdsey Lewis.* Ephraim." T.- 
Benjamin 1 of Stratford? She died 
June 9, 1821, in 66 y. He died No*. 
22, 1822, in 73 year, 

(b) Denton. Also wOttM like UK 
of "Mrs. Mercy Denton of Hemp- 
L. I., second wife of Abel Bit 
He was born Nov., 1679. She died 
Feb. 6, 1763. C. E. L 

256. (a) Brush-Scuddcr. Who was Mar- 
tha Brush who married Peter Sc 

of Huntington. L. I., Dee. 20. 173 

(b) Staples-Nichols. Also Abigail 
Staples, b. ioSo. who m. Ignatius Nich- 
ols, b. [693. 

(c) SfciaM, Also Jemima . 

of Joseph Smith of Brooktield. son ol 
Joseph, born March 15. 173a d 
Shed. 1819. M R- N ' 



THE DIMOCKS IN AMERICA 

RESUSULTS OF RECENT INVESTIGATIONS IN WHICH 
IMPORTANT DATA IS ADDED TO THE PRINTED RECORDS 



BY 

JOEL N. ENO, M. A. 

Yale University Library 



Since the record of the Dimocks in 
Volume IX, page 4, of The Con- 
necticut Magazine, I have received 
many inquiries regarding the various 
branches of the family, especially from 
those who descend from the Vermont 
branch of the Dimocks. In reply to 
these inquiries I here record these 
additional notes that may lay the 
foundation upon which my inquirers 
may build their genealogical lines : 

I find that Abel and Daniel 
Dimick were in New Marlbor- 
ough, N. H., 24 miles east 
of Bennington, Vt., in 1773. 
(Vt. Hist. Mag.)' In the rec- 
ords of the Governor and Coun- 
cil, 1777; V. 3, p. 494-5, Lieut. 
David Dimick is mentioned. In 
V. 2, p. 145, 1782, made Capt. 
of Vt. troops. The "estate of 
Benj. Dimick, deceased," is no- 
ticed, 1798, V. 4, pp. 200, 210. 

In "Vt. Revolutionary Rolls," 
p. 36, Col. Wm. Williams, Capt. 
Josiah Boyden, Lieut. Abel Dim- 
ick were in the expedition to 
Bennington, 1776. At p. 796, 
Capt. Abel Dimick has orders to 
send men to Rutland, dated at 
Marlborough, Aug. 25, 1779. 
At p. 793, medicine is charged to 
Lieut. David Dimick, 1780. At 
pp. 764, 800, Lieut. David Dim- 
ick receives pay July 18, 1783. 
He settled at Montrose, Pa. 
Hartford, Vt., was settled origi- 
nally from Windham and Leb- 
anon, Conn., and organized 1764. 
Inscriptions in the Center Ceme- 
tery include Philip Dimick, died 
J 833, aged 84, Mrs. Sibbil Dim- 
ick died 183 1, aged 82. In 

662 



W. Hartford (Cong'l) Ceme- 
tery: Jacob Dimick died 1873, 
aged 83; Susan Dimick died 
1873, aged 82. In W. Hartford, 
another cemetery: Henry Dim- 
ick died 1836, aged 25. Chancy 
Dimick died 1878, aged 74; Mrs. 
Sarah Dimick died 1838, aged 55. 
Joel Dimick died 1862, aged 83. 
Oren Dimick died 1856, aged 57. 
Martin Dimick died 1862, aged 
34. Jacob B. Dimock died 1848, 
aged 23. At Quechee Cemetery: 
Paul Dimick died 1828, aged 34; 
Anna Dimick died 1854, aged 
75 ; Percy Dimick died 1883, 
aged 77. Calvin and Samuel B. 
Dimick were prominent in the 
history of the town. About 
1800, Solomon Dimick of Ben- 
nington, Vt., took up land in 
Enosburgh, Vt. Originally from 
Connecticut, probably of Ash- 
ford, since Elias, brother of Sol- 
omon of Ashford, certainly set- 
tled in Bennington later; and 
though there was a Solomon 
born 1761, only son of Benj. of 
Mansfield, there were brothers of 
the Ashford Solomon, named 
Abel and Daniel, as those in Vt. ; 
the latter does not appear after 
1773 and probably returned to 
Conn. 

Item 2. John Dimick, 5 (Tim- 
othy, 4 John, 3 Deacon Shubael, 2 
Thomas the emigrant 1 ) married 
Hannah, dau. of Matthew Smith 
of Mansfield. They had in 
Mansfield, I. John, Nov. 18, 
1753. Soon after they settled 
near Square Pond (Crystal 
Lake) and had 2. Timothy, April 
2, 1755. He settled in Stafford. 



ORIGINAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN GENEALOGICAL DATA663 



3. Simeon, born Oct. 19, 1756, 
settled in Stafford, married Pris- 
cilla Ellis, Dec. 30, 1784. 4 
Hannah, born July 5, 1758. 5 
Silvanus, born March 23, 1760 
In 1822 he settled in Springfield 
Mass. 6. Amasa, born Nov. 17 
1 761 ; settled in Ellington. 7 
William, born June 27, 1763 

8. Miriam, born Sept. 18, 1765 

9. Abner, born August 8 
1767; settled in Stafford. 10 
Ephraim, born Oct. 8, 1769; set- 
tled in Stafford; married Mary- 
Sexton Jan. 24, 1793. 11. A 
son (Joseph?) born Nov. 2,1771. 
J. W. and L. E. Dimock are now 
in Stafford, and other Dimocks 
near Crystal Lake. 

Item 3. A descendant of Shu- 
bael and Tabitha (Lothrop) Dim- 
ick states that according to the 
private records of the family, 
they had but one son, Samuel, and 
that Otis in his Barnstable Fami- 
lies, and Freeman in his History 
of Cape Cod, V. 2, p. 277, are 
wrong in ascribing other sons, 
David and Shubael. Yet in the 
records of the French and In- 
dian War, Capt. Jonathan Rudd's 
Co. of Windham, is "Shubel 
Dimeck ye 3d, 14 days service; 
Jeduthan Dimmock, 14 days ser- 
vice" in "y e 1st co. of militia de- 
tached out of ye 5 Rigement of 
Sd Colony on ye 9 and 10th Days 
of August A.D. 1757 to march 
for ye Releaf of fort William 
Henry;" and again in Col. Co- 
nant's "Return of 1st co. of 5th 
Regt. put under Capt. Jona. 
Rudd (Capt. Storrs' men) ; Shu- 
bael Dimmock ye 3d; Jeduthan 
Dimmock." This "3d" is satis- 



factorily and legitimately ex- 
plained if Shubael and Tabitha 
had a son Shubael, and, as re- 
gards present data, in no other 
way. Thos. Dimick in Capt. 
Coits' co. for the same "Releaf" 
15 days service, Aug., 1757. 
Benj. Dimick in 6th Co. Capt. A. 
Hitchcock, April 14 to Dec. 1, 
1756, and in 4th Co. (Capt. Pay- 
son) Apr. 24 to Oct. 24, 1755. 
And in "New York Regt., Sam- 
uel Dimock of Saybrook ap- 
pointed Capt. May 1755 for 75 
days to Aug. 1. On 5 Dec. he 
gives roll of co. in service Nov. 
1 to Dec. 2, 1755. (See Conn. 
Hist. Soc. Collections, V. 9.) 



In my article "The Dymokes," 
British generation I. for Rhy 
read Rhys. Generation XV (the 
2 sons of Randle Dymoke) ; 
"Humphrey (who had one son, 
Randle and 4 dau) : and Ed- 
ward," who was the father of 
Thomas the emigrant. 

In American generations (p. 
929), Generation IV (1) No. 5. 
Desire, married Job Gorham 
1719 and died 1733. In the last 
complete paragraph in the first 
column, the sentence ends with 
"4 dau."; and "From Timothy 
and Desire" should begin a new 
sentence. Insert "in" after 
"served" in the last line; and 
omit "there" from the last para- 
graph in the article. In the first 
paragraph on p. 932 for "Dewey" 
read Dewitt C. and for "Augus- 
tus" Corbin read Silas P. Cor- 
bin. Moses L. Dimock died 
Sept. 3, 1906. 



The Nettletons in America — Mrs. Julia A. Crocker, of 12 University Place, New 
Haven, Connecticut, has completed her researches into the genealogy of the Nettleton 
Family, discovering much important material in the records in Milford, Branford and 
New Haven. The manuscript is now being prepared for publication, and it is expected 
that it will appear in these pages during 1908. Through a peculiar misunderstanding, a 
portion of the Nettleton notes appeared in the last number of this periodical and were 
credited to Mr. Donald Lines Jacobus, who is the genealogist of the Thomas Family in 
this issue, not the Nettletons. The genealogist of the Nettleton Family is Mrs. Crocker, 
and her valuable compilation has required many years of indefatigable research. 



THE LINSLEYS IN AMERICA 

THE RESULTS OF RECENT INVESTIGATIONS 
IN WHICH THE FIRST FOUR JOHN LINSLEYS 
ARE HERE AUTHENTICALLY RECORDED 

BY 
FRANCES HARRISON CORBIN 

New Haven, Connecticut 

1. John Linsley of Guilford d. . Inventory taken July 13, 1698; m. (1) Ellen 

; d. Apr. 6, 1654, Guilford; m. (2) July 10, 1636, Sarah (Ware) Pond, widow of 

Samuel Pond of Windsor, whom she m. Nov. 8, 1642; m. (3) prob. Mary (Bartholo- 
mew) Goodrich, widow of Bartholomew Goodrich. 

Children : 

2. i. John, b. abt. 1650, m. Hannah. 

ii. Mary, b. Feb. 22, 1652, Guilford, m. Stephen Barnes, 
iii. Hannah, b. Apr. 1, 1654. 

iv. Benjamin, bapt. July 10, 1656, d. Mch. 29, 1660. 2 w 

v. Elizabeth, bapt. June 18, 1658, d. July 11, 1659. 
vi. Sarah, m. George Page. 

2. John Linsley, son of John, b. abt. 1650, d. . Inventory taken May 9, 1684; m. 

Hannah (Griffin), widow of Isaac Pond; d. Feb. 16, 1736-7. 

Children : 

3. i. John, b. , 1671, m. Mary Harrison, and d. 1743. 

ii. Jonathan, b. abt. 1676, m. Dorcas Phippen, and d. 1725. 

iii. Abigail. 

iv. Joanna, prob. d. early. 

3. John Linsley, s. of John and Hannah (Griffin), b. 1671, d. Oct 7, 1748 in 77 y. ; m. 
June 6, 1699, Mary Harrison, dau. of Thomas, b. Feb. 10, 1668, d. Jan. 29, 1738-9 in 
70 y. 

Children : 
i. Mary, b. June 8, 1700, m. Robert Foote, s. of Joseph and Abigail (Johnson) 

Foote, Jan. 25, 1720-1, and died Apr. 19, 1785, in 85 y. He died June 14, 

1761. 

4. ii. John, b. Feb. 20, 1703-4, m. Mary, or Mercy, Frisbie Jan. 13, 1725-6, and d. July 

28, 1787, in 85 y. 
iii. Elizabeth, Jan. 20, 1705, d. Sep. 16, 1712. 

iv. Joseph, b. Nov. 28, 1707, m. Lydia Wilford, and d. Jan. 2, 1786, in 78 y. 
v. Ebenezer, b. Nov. 7, 171 1, m. Sarah Wilford Dec. 16, 1734, b. 1717, d. Sep. 2, 
1801, se. 84; he d. May 2, 1787, in 75 y. 
4. John Linsley, 4 son of John and Mary (Harrison), b. Feb. 20, 1703-4, d. July 28, 
1787, in 85th y., m. Jan. 13, 1725-6, Mary or Mercy Frisbie, dau. of Ebenezer and Mary 
(Harrington) Frisbie, b. Sept., 1705. 

Children : 

i. John, b. May 20, 1727, m. Elizabeth Barker, June 8, 1754. 

ii. Isaac, bapt. Aug. 5, 1739. 

iii. Edward, b. July 15, 1744. 



ND OF volume: XI 



05, 



Precious Stones, Art wares 
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